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Endothelial antibodies

Rebecca M Wadey, Katherine D Connolly, Donna Mathew, Gareth Walters, D Aled Rees, Philip E James
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. In obesity, the adipocyte microenvironment is characterised by both hypoxia and inflammation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from adipocytes in this setting might be involved in mediating cardiovascular disease, specifically by promoting leukocyte attachment to vascular endothelial cells...
January 24, 2019: Atherosclerosis
Lasse L Langholm, Tina Manon-Jensen, Morten A Karsdal, Flemming Bendtsen, Diana J Leeming, Søren Møller
OBJECTIVES: Portal hypertension in cirrhosis is associated with endothelial dysfunction, impaired wound healing, and decreased platelet count. Increased von Willebrand factor (VWF) formation has been suggested as a compensatory mechanism, but the role of VWF processing has not been directly assessed. The aim was to measure the processing of activated VWF (VWF-A) in addition to VWF release (VWF-N) to investigate the association of primary hemostasis with disease activity and portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis...
February 12, 2019: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Xizhong Cui, Wanying Xu, Pranita Neupane, Andie Weiser-Schlesinger, Ray Weng, Benjamin Pockros, Yan Li, Mahtab Moayeri, Stephen H Leppla, Yvonne Fitz, Peter Q Eichacker
INTRODUCTION: Although lethal (LT) and edema toxin (ET) contribute to lethality during Bacillus anthracis infection, whether they increase vascular permeability and the extravascular fluid accumulation characterizing this infection is unclear. We employed an isolated perfused Sprague-Dawley rat lung model to investigate LT and ETs effects on pulmonary vascular permeability. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lungs (n≥6 per experimental group) were isolated, ventilated, suspended from a force transducer and perfused...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Yoshikazu Furusawa, Shinji Yamada, Shunsuke Itai, Takuro Nakamura, Miyuki Yanaka, Masato Sano, Hiroyuki Harada, Masato Fukui, Mika K Kaneko, Yukinari Kato
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human, mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, cat, and bovine podoplanin (PDPN), a lymphatic endothelial cell marker, have been established in our previous studies. However, mAbs against horse PDPN (horPDPN), which are useful for immunohistochemical analysis, remain to be developed. In the present study, mice were immunized with horPDPN-overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells (CHO/horPDPN), and hybridomas producing mAbs against horPDPN were screened using flow cytometry. One of the mAbs, PMab-219 (IgG2a , kappa), specifically detected CHO/horPDPN cells via flow cytometry and recognized horPDPN protein using Western blotting...
July 2019: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Yinan Yuan, Valeria Arcucci, Sidney M Levy, Marc G Achen
The debilitating condition known as secondary lymphedema frequently occurs after lymphadenectomy and/or radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer. These therapies can damage lymphatic vessels leading to edema, fibrosis, inflammation and dysregulated adipogenesis, which result in profound swelling of an affected limb. Importantly, lymphedema patients often exhibit impaired immune function which predisposes them to a variety of infections. It is known that lymphadenectomy can compromise the acquisition of adaptive immune responses and antibody production; however the cellular mechanisms involved are poorly understood...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
James Streetley, Ana-Violeta Fonseca, Jack Turner, Nikolai I Kiskin, Laura Knipe, Peter B Rosenthal, Tom Carter
Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) are secretory granules that contain von Willebrand factor and P-selectin, molecules that regulate hemostasis and inflammation respectively. The presence of CD63/LAMP3 in the limiting membrane of WPBs has led to their classification as lysosome-related organelles. Many lysosome-related organelles contain intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) enriched in CD63 that are secreted into the extracellular environment during cell activation to mediate intercellular communication. To date there are no reports that WPBs contain or release ILVs...
February 13, 2019: Blood
David Ad Munro, Yishay Wineberg, Julia Tarnick, Chris S Vink, Zhuan Li, Clare Pridans, Elaine Dzierzak, Tomer Kalisky, Peter Hohenstein, Jamie A Davies
The origins and functions of kidney macrophages in the adult have been explored, but their roles during development remain largely unknown. Here we characterise macrophage arrival, localisation, heterogeneity, and functions during kidney organogenesis. Using genetic approaches to ablate macrophages, we identify a role for macrophages in nephron progenitor cell clearance as mouse kidney development begins. Throughout renal organogenesis, most kidney macrophages are perivascular and express F4/80 and CD206. These macrophages are enriched for mRNAs linked to developmental processes, such as blood vessel morphogenesis...
February 13, 2019: ELife
Angela M Crist, Xingyan Zhou, Jone Garai, Amanda R Lee, Janina Thoele, Christoph Ullmer, Christian Klein, Jovanny Zabaleta, Stryder M Meadows
BACKGROUND: Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder caused by heterozygous, loss-of-function mutations in four TGFβ pathway members, including the central transcriptional mediator of the TGFβ pathway, Smad4. Loss of Smad4 causes the formation of inappropriate, fragile connections between arteries and veins called arteriovenous malformations (AVM), which can hemorrhage leading to stroke, aneurysm or death. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms underlying AVM pathogenesis remain poorly understood and the TGFβ downstream effectors responsible for HHT-associated AVM formation are currently unknown...
February 12, 2019: Circulation
Andrea S Rothmeier, Henri H Versteeg, Wolfram Ruf
BACKGROUND: Cell injury signal-induced activation and release of tissue factor (TF) on extracellular vesicles (EV) from immune and vessel wall cells propagate local and systemic coagulation initiation. TF trafficking and release on EV occurs in concert with the release of cell adhesion receptors, including integrin β1 heterodimers which control trafficking of the TF-FVIIa complex. Activation of the TF signaling partner, protease activated receptor (PAR) 2, also triggers TF release on integrin β1+ EV from endothelial cells, but the physiological signals for PAR2-dependent EV generation at the vascular interface remain unknown...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Hironobu Nishina, Chisa Katou-Ichikawa, Mizuki Kuramochi, Takeshi Izawa, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Jyoji Yamate
A3, generated as a monoclonal antibody against rat malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH)-derived cloned cells, recognizes somatic stem cells (bone-marrow/hair follicle stem cells). We investigated the distribution of cells immunoreactive to A3 in the developing rat intestine (particularly, the colon), focusing on the ontogenic kinetics of A3-positive cells. In the rat intestine, A3 labeled spindle-shaped stromal cells localized in the submucosa and labeled endothelial cells of capillaries in the lamina propria forming villi in the early development stage...
January 2019: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Rooban B Nahomi, Sandip K Nandi, Ram H Nagaraj
αB-Crystallin is a member of the small heat shock protein family. It is a molecular chaperone and an anti-apoptotic protein. Previous studies have shown that the peptide (73 DRFSVNLDVKHFSPEELKVKV93 , hereafter referred to as peptain-1) from the core domain of αB-crystallin exhibits both chaperone and anti-apoptotic properties similar to the parent protein. We developed a mouse monoclonal antibody against peptain-1 with the aim of blocking the functions of αB-crystallin. The antibody reacted with peptain-1, it did not react with the chaperone peptide of αA-crystallin...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Immunological Methods
Kavita Bisht, Marion E Brunck, Taichi Matsumoto, Crystal McGirr, Bianca Nowlan, Whitney Fleming, Thomas Keech, Graham Magor, Andrew C Perkins, Julie Davies, Gail Walkinshaw, Lee Flippin, Ingrid G Winkler, Jean-Pierre Levesque
In normoxia, hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) are rapidly degraded within the cytoplasm as a consequence of their prolyl hydroxylation by oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes. We have previously shown that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) require HIF-1 for effective mobilization in response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100/plerixafor. Conversely, HIF PHD inhibitors that stabilize HIF-1 protein in vivo enhance HSPC mobilization in response to G-CSF or AMD3100 in a cell-intrinsic manner...
February 12, 2019: Blood Advances
Adam L Vanarsdall, Andrea L Chin, Jing Liu, Theodore S Jardetzky, James O Mudd, Susan L Orloff, Daniel Streblow, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Aparecida Y Yamamoto, Geraldo Duarte, William J Britt, David C Johnson
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes substantial disease in transplant patients and harms the development of the nervous system in babies infected in utero. Thus, there is a major focus on developing safe and effective HCMV vaccines. Evidence has been presented that a major target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is the HCMV pentamer glycoprotein gH/gL/UL128-131. In some studies, most of the NAbs in animal or human sera were found to recognize the pentamer, which mediates HCMV entry into endothelial and epithelial cells...
February 7, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Carsten Balser, Anne Wolf, Marc Herb, Thomas Langmann
BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment in the elderly. The neovascular (wet) form of AMD can be treated with intravitreal injections of different anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. Placental growth factor (PGF) is another member of the VEGF family of cytokines with pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory effects. Here, we aimed to compare single and combined inhibition of VEGF-A and PGF in the laser-induced mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with a focus on the effects on retinal mononuclear phagocytes...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Jose M Ayuso, Regan Truttschel, Max M Gong, Mouhita Humayun, Maria Virumbrales-Munoz, Ross Vitek, Mildred Felder, Stephen D Gillies, Paul Sondel, Kari B Wisinski, Manish Patankar, David J Beebe, Melissa C Skala
Immunotherapies against solid tumors face additional challenges compared with hematological cancers. In solid tumors, immune cells and antibodies need to extravasate from vasculature, find the tumor, and migrate through a dense mass of cells. These multiple steps pose significant obstacles for solid tumor immunotherapy and their study has remained difficult using classic in vitro models based on Petri dishes. In this work, a microfluidic model has been developed to study natural killer cell response. The model includes a 3D breast cancer spheroid in a 3D extracellular matrix, and two flanking lumens lined with endothelial cells, replicating key structures and components during the immune response...
2019: Oncoimmunology
Wei-Ju Liao, Meng-Ying Wu, Chen-Chung Peng, Yi-Chung Tung, Ruey-Bing Yang
Aims: SCUBE1 (signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 1), expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) and platelets, exists in soluble or membrane forms. We previously showed that soluble SCUBE1 is a biomarker for platelet activation and also an active participant of thrombosis. However, whether the adhesive module of its EGF-like repeats is essential and the specific contribution of SCUBE1 synthesized in ECs or platelets to thrombosis in vivo remain unclear. Methods and Results: We generated new mutant (∆2) mice lacking the entire EGF-like repeats to evaluate the module's functional importance during thrombogenesis in vivo...
February 5, 2019: Cardiovascular Research
Hakan Gurdal, Matilda Merve Tuglu, Saber Yari Bostanabad, Başak Dalkiliç
Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody developed to inhibit the binding of growth factors and the subsequent activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Triple‑negative breast cancer (TNBC) is resistant to cetuximab treatment. The aim of the present study was to examine the partial agonistic properties of cetuximab, which not only blocks ligand binding, but also partially triggers EGFR activation, which may lead to cetuximab resistance in TNBC. The phosphorylation of growth factor receptors and their signalling pathways were evaluated by determining the phosphorylation of EGFR, insulin‑like growth factor receptor (IGF‑1R), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)‑2, Src kinase, phosphoinositide‑3‑kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and serine/threonine‑specific protein kinase (Akt) and the degradation of EGFR, and by assessing the morphology and proliferation of MDA‑MB‑231 and MDA‑MB‑468 cells...
January 28, 2019: International Journal of Oncology
Chris P Hughes, Neil M J O'Flynn, Maureen Gatherer, Michelle E McClements, Jennifer A Scott, Robert E MacLaren, Srinivas Goverdhan, Martin J Glennie, Andrew J Lotery
While anti-angiogenic therapies for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are effective for many patients, they require multiple injections and are expensive and prone to complications. Gene therapy could be an elegant solution for this problem by providing a long-term source of anti-angiogenic proteins after a single administration. Another potential issue with current therapeutic proteins containing a fragment crystallizable (Fc) domain (such as whole antibodies like bevacizumab) is the induction of an unwanted immune response...
June 14, 2019: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Laurene S Cheung, Juan Fu, Pankaj Kumar, Amit Kumar, Michael E Urbanowski, Elizabeth A Ihms, Sadiya Parveen, C Korin Bullen, Garrett J Patrick, Robert Harrison, John R Murphy, Drew M Pardoll, William R Bishai
Denileukin diftitox (DAB-IL-2, Ontak) is a diphtheria-toxin-based fusion protein that depletes CD25-positive cells including regulatory T cells and has been approved for the treatment of persistent or recurrent cutaneous T cell lymphoma. However, the clinical use of denileukin diftitox was limited by vascular leak toxicity and production issues related to drug aggregation and purity. We found that a single amino acid substitution (V6A) in a motif associated with vascular leak induction yields a fully active, second-generation biologic, s-DAB-IL-2(V6A), which elicits 50-fold less human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayer permeation and is 3...
February 4, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
QiXing Chen, Yang Yang, JinChao Hou, Qiang Shu, YiXuan Yin, WeiTao Fu, Feng Han, TingJun Hou, CongLi Zeng, Elizabeta Nemeth, Rose Linzmeier, Tomas Ganz, XiangMing Fang
Sepsis claims an estimated 30 million episodes and 6 million deaths per year, and treatment options are rather limited. Human neutrophil peptides 1-3 (HNP1-3) are the most abundant neutrophil granule proteins but their neutrophil content varies because of unusually extensive gene copy number polymorphism. A genetic association study found that increased copy number of the HNP-encoding gene DEFA1/DEFA3 is a risk factor for organ dysfunction during sepsis development. However, direct experimental evidence demonstrating that these risk alleles are pathogenic for sepsis is lacking because the genes are present only in some primates and humans...
February 4, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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