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Cortisol Immunity

Ayumu Takeno, Masahiro Yamamoto, Miwa Morita, Sayuri Tanaka, Ippei Kanazawa, Mika Yamauchi, Sakae Kaneko, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors including nivolumab, an anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibody, are recently developed cancer immunotherapy agents. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are known to cause autoimmune-related side effects including endocrine dysfunctions. However, there are few reports on late-onset isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency caused by nivolumab. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 72-year-old female. When she was 64 years old, she was diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the left thigh accompanied by left inguinal lymph node metastases, and she received several courses of chemotherapy for malignant melanoma followed by the resection of these lesions...
February 19, 2019: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Gabriel Courties, Vanessa Frodermann, Lisa Honold, Yi Zheng, Fanny Emmanuelle Herisson, Maximilian J Schloss, Yuan Sun, Jessy Presumey, Nicolas Severe, Camilla Engblom, Maarten Hulsmans, Sebastian Cremer, David Rohde, Mikael J Pittet, David Scadden, Filip K Swirski, Dong-Eog Kim, Michael A Moskowitz, Matthias Nahrendorf
RATIONALE: After stroke, patients frequently experience altered systemic immunity resulting in peripheral immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to infections, which is at least partly attributed to lymphopenia. The mechanisms that profoundly change the systemic leukocyte repertoire after stroke are incompletely understood. Emerging evidence indicates that stroke alters hematopoietic output of the bone marrow. OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanisms that lead to defects of B lymphopoiesis after ischemic stroke...
February 20, 2019: Circulation Research
Donna Bach, Gary Groesbeck, Peta Stapleton, Rebecca Sims, Katharina Blickheuser, Dawson Church
Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is an evidence-based self-help therapeutic method and over 100 studies demonstrate its efficacy. However, information about the physiological effects of EFT is limited. The current study sought to elucidate EFTs mechanisms of action across the central nervous system (CNS) by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) and heart coherence (HC); the circulatory system using resting heart rate (RHR) and blood pressure (BP); the endocrine system using cortisol, and the immune system using salivary immunoglobulin A (SigA)...
January 2019: Journal of evidence-based integrative medicine
Xiaohong Liu, Ali R Khansari, Lluis Tort
The pituitary is a central organ of the neuro-endocrine system in fish that plays critical roles in various physiological processes, including stress response and behavior. Although it is known that pituitary hormones can have a direct or indirect influence stimulating or suppressing the immune responses, whether there is a local immune response in the pituitary or what is the effect of the immune stimulus on the pituitary function in fish is unknown. With the aim to understand the interaction between the immune responses and the endocrine axes at the pituitary level, particularly the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal (HPI) axis, pituitaries of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were cultured in vitro, incubated with bacterin, or bacterin plus CRH, cortisol, human recombinant IL1β, or spleen medium for 3h, and then genes involved in pro-inflammation (il1β, il8, tnfα1, ifnγ), anti-inflammation (tgfβ1b, il10), immune modulation (mhcIIa, c3, mif) and stress response (crhbp, pomca, pomcb, gr1) were tested...
February 12, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
D Grimaldi, N A Papalambros, K J Reid, S M Abbott, R G Malkani, M Gendy, M Iwanaszko, R I Braun, D J Sanchez, K A Paller, P C Zee
Slow-wave sleep (SWS) is important for overall health since it affects many physiological processes including cardio-metabolic function. Sleep and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity are closely coupled at anatomical and physiological levels. Sleep-related changes in autonomic function are likely the main pathway through which SWS affects many systems within the body. There are characteristic changes in ANS activity across sleep stages. Notably, in Non-Rapid Eye-Movement sleep, the progression into SWS is characterized by increased parasympathetic activity, an important measure of cardiovascular health...
February 6, 2019: Sleep
Brian C Peterson, Nagaraj G Chatakondi, Brian C Small
Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, and reproduction. The objective of this study was to investigate the ontogeny of the cortisol and GR stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) at several early life stages. To accomplish this, resting and stress-induced levels of tissue cortisol and the two catfish GRs (GR-1 and GR-2) expression were measured...
February 8, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Bharath Kumar Velmurugan, Chi-Ru Chan, Ching-Feng Weng
In this present study, Oreochromis mossambicus tilapia were transferred to cold water at 12°C for various time intervals (1, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hr) and its innate immune response was analyzed by studying cellular and humoral parameters. In vivo, alternative complement pathway activity in blood plasma was rapidly increased at 1 hr of cold water (12°C) exposure. Lysozyme activity and cortisol levels of plasma were increased at 4 and 1 hr, respectively. Surprisingly, only plasma cortisol levels remained unchanged through 24 hr of cold water transfer...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yozo Sato, Yosuke Tanaka, Mitsunori Hino, Masahiro Seike, Akihiko Gemma
One of the novel PD-1 antibodies/immune checkpoint inhibitors, nivolumab is reported to be associated with a wide range of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). We hereby report a case of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency developing in a patient with squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) during nivolumab therapy. Case: A 79-year-old man with SCC was started on nivolumab therapy as a fifth-line treatment after 4 lines of cytotoxic anticancer therapy. After 20 courses of nivolumab therapy, he had nausea, appetite loss, and difficulty walking...
2019: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
J W Aleri, B C Hine, M F Pyman, P D Mansell, W J Wales, B Mallard, M A Stevenson, A D Fisher
The objectives of this study were to assess antibody and cellular immune responses in first-lactation dairy heifers reared under a pasture-based production system and to investigate associations between immune competence and stress responsiveness, health, and productivity. A commercial vaccine was used to induce antibody and cellular immune responses and, based on measured responses, animals were classified as above average, average, and below average for each trait independently and in combination (overall immune competence)...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Lina Long, Haigeng Zhang, Qi Ni, Huang Liu, Fan Wu, Xiaodong Wang
The present study was to investigate the effects of stocking density on the welfare of juvenile Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for three months. Fish (average weight 760.86 g) were reared in triplicate under three densities: low density (4.80 kg m-2 ), medium density (8.99 kg m-2 ), and high density (12.68 kg m-2 ). The results showed that the 12.68 kg m-2 treatment significantly suppressed fish growth, gene expression of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and enhanced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, glucose, lactate levels, and the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA level (P < 0...
February 6, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Fábio S Zanuzzo, Rafael E Sabioni, Cleni M Marzocchi-Machado, Elisabeth C Urbinati
Understanding how stress and corticosteroid modulates the innate immune response is one of the keys to improving productivity and reducing losses in intensive aquaculture. Thus, we investigated the effects of dietary corticosteroids (7 days; long-term exposure) and transport (4 h; short-term stress) on stress and innate immune response in pacu. For this end, fish were fed with diets containing dexamethasone (100 mg kg-1 ) or hydrocortisone (200 mg kg-1 ), followed by transport, and then were intraperitoneally inoculated with heat-killed Aeromonas hydrophila or PBS (sham-inoculation)...
January 28, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Susan P Bagby, Damali Martin, Stephanie T Chung, Nishadi Rajapakse
The ongoing epidemic of chronic diseases involves a spectrum of clinical entities now understood to represent late manifestations of progressive metabolic dysfunction initiated in early life. These diseases disproportionately affect disadvantaged populations, exacerbating health disparities that persist despite public health efforts. Excessive exposure to stressful psychosocial and environmental forces is 1 factor known to contribute to population-level disparities in at-risk settings. Yet increasing evidence reveals that even a single adverse environmental exposure-especially during very early developmental years-can become literally biologically embedded, inducing long-lasting disease-promoting pathways that amplify responses (e...
January 2019: American Journal of Public Health
J Tekampe, H van Middendorp, F C G J Sweep, S H P P Roerink, A R M M Hermus, A W M Evers
Background: Conditioning of physiological responses can be achieved by repeatedly pairing a previously neutral conditioned stimulus with the administration of a pharmacologically salient unconditioned stimulus. This type of conditioning has been effective for specific immune and endocrine responses, but results with regard to conditioning of cortisol, a key stress-regulatory parameter, are currently unclear. This paper describes a pharmacological conditioning design, optimized for the examination of effects of cortisol conditioning under both basal conditions and in response to stress...
2019: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Nobuki Furubayashi, Takahito Negishi, Tomoharu Uozumi, Dai Takamatsu, Koichi Shiraishi, Daisuke Hirose, Motonobu Nakamura
Nivolumab is a monoclonal immunoglobulin G antibody blocking programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) that promotes the restoration of the natural T-cell-mediated immune response against cancer cells; however, it also causes a number of autoimmune-related adverse events (irAEs) that often involve the endocrine system. The present report describes a 71-year-old man with clear cell renal cell carcinoma metastasis in the lung. Following the 14th course of nivolumab therapy, the patient complained of general malaise, loss of appetite and mild consciousness disturbance...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Steven M Weldon, Nicholas F Brown
The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is an important regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte balance. However, excess aldosterone can be deleterious as a driver of inflammation, vascular remodeling and tissue fibrosis associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) antagonists are current clinical therapies used to antagonize deleterious effects of aldosterone in patients. MRAs compete with aldosterone for binding at its cognate receptor thereby limiting its effect while RAS antagonists reduce aldosterone levels indirectly by blocking the stimulatory effect of angiotensin...
2019: Vitamins and Hormones
Brittni P Littlejohn, Nicole C Burdick Sanchez, Jeffery A Carroll, Deborah M Price, Rhonda C Vann, Thomas H Welsh, Ronald D Randel
The objective of this study was to assess the influence of prenatal stress (PNS) on innate immune responses to an endotoxin challenge in weaned bull calves. Altered innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as characterized by changes in a range of variables was hypothesized in PNS bull calves. Brahman cows (n = 96; 48 stressed by transportation at five stages of gestation and 48 Controls) produced 85 calves, from which 16 uncastrated male (bull) calves from each PNS and Control treatment were selected for an LPS challenge period...
January 24, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Felix Held, Carl Ekstrand, Marija Cvijovic, Johan Gabrielsson, Mats Jirstrand
Cortisol is a steroid hormone relevant to immune function in horses and other species and shows a circadian rhythm. The glucocorticoid dexamethasone suppresses cortisol in horses. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is a disease in which the cortisol suppression mechanism through dexamethasone is challenged. Overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) protocols are used to test the functioning of this mechanism and to establish a diagnosis for PPID. However, existing DST protocols have been recognized to perform poorly in previous experimental studies, often indicating presence of PPID in healthy horses...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Bastien Sadoul, Benjamin Geffroy
Stress in teleosts is an increasingly studied topic because of its interaction with growth, reproduction, immune system and ultimately fitness of the animal. Whether it is for evaluating welfare in aquaculture, adaptive capacities in fish ecology, or to investigate effects of human-induced rapid environmental change, new experimental methods to describe stress physiology in captive or wild fish have flourished. Cortisol has proven to be a reliable indicator of stress and is considered the major stress hormone...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Fish Biology
Jelena Meštrović-Štefekov, Gaby Novak-Bilić, Matea Kuna, Nives Pap, Liborija Lugović-Mihić
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a frequent dermatosis with a growing incidence and multifactorial and complex pathogenic mechanisms that are still being investigated. Although the connection between AD and psychological stress has been known for a long time, there is a lack of reliable and objective indicators for the characterization of this association. Psychological stress triggers complex immune pathways. Therefore, acute stress quickly triggers a high release of cortisol and adrenalin or noradrenalin which then stimulates the immune system, primarily T-helper type 1 (Th1 cells) to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, resulting in a cellular immune response and inflammation...
December 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Andrei Pereira Pernambuco, Lucina de Souza Cota Carvalho, Luana Pereira Leite Schetino, Janaíne Cunha Polese, Renato de Souza Viana, Débora d' Ávila Reis
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain associated to other symptoms, such as: fatigue, anxiety, depression and sleep disorders. Health education programs (HEP) have emerged as good non-pharmacological strategies to treat it. However, it is still not clear if the benefits are only subjective, or it has also objective impacts on immune and or neuroendocrine systems. METHODS: Fifty-eight fibromyalgia women were randomly allocated in experimental group (n = 27) or control group (n = 31)...
August 3, 2018: Advances in rheumatology
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