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Wellness and Resilience

Rachel A Hoopsick, D Lynn Homish, R Lorraine Collins, Thomas H Nochajski, Jennifer P Read, Gregory G Homish
A general assumption that deployment is the primary catalyst for psychological and social difficulties may contribute to underrecognition and undertreatment of problems among never-deployed service members (i.e., having no history of ever being deployed). We aimed to determine if ever-deployed (i.e., having a history of at least one deployment) and never-deployed United States Army Reserve and National Guard (USAR/NG) soldiers differed in mental health, substance use, and resiliency factors, and to determine the relative influence of deployment status and each of these factors on poor psychosocial outcomes...
February 14, 2019: Psychological Services
Jelmer J Nijp, Arnaud J A M Temme, George A K van Voorn, Lammert Kooistra, Geerten M Hengeveld, Merel B Soons, Adriaan J Teuling, Jakob Wallinga
Prediction of ecosystem responses to global environmental change is a pressing scientific challenge of major societal relevance. Many ecosystems display nonlinear responses to environmental change, and may even undergo practically irreversible 'regime shifts' that initiate ecosystem collapse. Recently, early warning signals based on spatiotemporal metrics have been proposed for the identification of impending regime shifts. The rapidly increasing availability of remotely-sensed data provides excellent opportunities to apply such model-based spatial early warning signals in the real world, to assess ecosystem resilience and identify impending regime shifts induced by global change...
February 14, 2019: Global Change Biology
Ashley Baker, Emma Brenneman, Heejun Chang, Lauren McPhillips, Marissa Matsler
This study explores the spatial distribution of green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) relative to sociodemographic and landscape characteristics in Portland, OR, and Baltimore, MD, USA at census block group (CBG) and census tract scales. GSI density is clustered in Portland, while it is randomly distributed over space in Baltimore. Variables that exhibit relationships with GSI density are varied over space, as well as between cities. In Baltimore, GSI density is significantly associated with presence of green space (+), impervious surface coverage (+), and population density (-) at the CBG scale; though these relationships vary over space...
January 31, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Anna L Chien, Jerry Tsai, Sherry Leung, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Amanda M Nelson, Sewon Kang, Luis A Garza
Importance: Given the widespread use of systemic antibiotics for treatment of moderate to severe acne, it is important to understand the associations of such antibiotic use with changes not only in Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) but also in the complete bacterial community of the skin. Objective: To examine the composition, diversity, and resilience of skin microbiota associated with systemic antibiotic perturbation in individuals with acne...
February 13, 2019: JAMA Dermatology
Jodi D Barnett, Tara C Schmidt, Bridie Trainor, Lisa Wexler
Suicide is a significant health disparity among Alaska Native youth, which is linked to cultural disruptions brought about by colonialism and historical trauma. Many Indigenous suicide prevention efforts center on revitalizing and connecting youth to their culture to promote mental health and resilience. A common cultural approach to improve psychosocial outcomes is youth culture camps, but there has been little evaluation research to test this association. Here, we conduct a pilot evaluation of a 5-day culture camp developed in two remote regions of Alaska...
February 12, 2019: Health Promotion Practice
Srikant S Chakravarthi, Amin B Kassam, Melanie B Fukui, Alejandro Monroy-Sosa, Nichelle Rothong, Joseph Cunningham, Jonathan E Jennings, Neil Guenther, Jeremy Connelly, Tobias Kaemmerer, Kenneth C Nash, Mark Lindsay, Janie Rissell, Juanita M Celix, Richard A Rovin
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic and microneurosurgical approaches to third ventricular lesions are commonly performed under general anesthesia. OBJECTIVE: To report our initial experience with awake transsulcal parafascicular corridor surgery (TPCS) of the third ventricle and its safety, feasibility, and limitations. METHODS: A total of 12 cases are reviewed: 6 colloid cysts, 2 central neurocytomas, 1 papillary craniopharyngioma, 1 basal ganglia glioblastoma, 1 thalamic glioblastoma, and 1 ependymal cyst...
February 12, 2019: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Marek Brzezinski, Jasleen Kukreja, John D Mitchell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Teaching in the stressful, high-acuity environment of the ICU is challenging. The intensivist-educator must use teaching strategies that are both effective and time-efficient, as well as evidence-based approaches to the ICU curriculum. This review provides an overview of pertinent educational theories and their implications on educational practices, a selection of effective teaching techniques, and a review on feedback. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence supports the role of conceptual frameworks in providing the educator with a key perspective to obtain a deeper understanding of the factors contributing to an effective and goal-directed education in the ICU...
February 8, 2019: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Graham M L Eglit, Barton W Palmer, Dilip V Jeste
BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has traditionally focused on studying psychopathology and treating mental illnesses to relieve symptoms and prevent relapse. Positive psychiatry seeks to expand the scope of psychiatry to broader aspects of mental health and well-being among individuals with or without mental illnesses. Positive psychosocial factors such as well-being, resilience, optimism, wisdom, and social support are central to positive psychiatry. AIM: To summarize the emerging science of positive psychiatry, emphasizing the use of measures of positive characteristics and outcomes relevant to mental health...
August 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Pamela J Welz, Nuraan Khan, Alaric Prins
This study was conducted to determine and compare the effect of chemically-synthesised and biogenic silver nanoparticles on the benthic bacterial community structure in mesocosms containing sediment from three rivers in geographical sites with different population densities (low, medium, high), and therefore likely to be associated with respective low, moderate and high degrees of anthropogenic input. The nanoparticles were applied at the upper limit expected to accumulate in impacted environments (4 μg kgsed -1 )...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Narinder Kapur
Paradoxical enhancement and paradoxical recovery of function after brain injury harmonize well with the concept of "ultrabilitation" and its focus on novel forms of flourishing in rehabilitation settings. I consider three sets of paradoxes which may impact on brain injury rehabilitation. Firstly, I consider post-traumatic growth after brain injury and its key determinants. Secondly, I review the role of illusions in rehabilitation and the paradox that some clinical conditions may be improved by invoking perceptual distortions...
February 11, 2019: Disability and Rehabilitation
Vanessa Blanco, Fernando L Vázquez, María Adelina Guisande, María Teresa Sánchez, Patricia Otero
OBJECTIVES: Despite the importance of resilience in well-being and adaptation to the role of caregiver in non-professional caregivers, research on resilience in this population has been scarce and contradictory, and has methodological limitations. The objective of this study was to identify subgroups of caregivers with high levels of resilience based on a series of predictors including sociodemographic variables and variables related to care and personal and social development. METHOD: 294 non-professional caregivers (89...
February 10, 2019: Aging & Mental Health
Laurel M Hicks, Carolyn J Dayton
BACKGROUND: Nearly a third of adults report childhood trauma in their youth and approximately 700,000 cases of child maltreatment were reported in 2016. Both history of childhood trauma and current trauma symptoms in adults are linked to child maltreatment, although many trauma-exposed individuals are warm and nurturing parents. Identifying resiliency factors in adults with risk factors for harsh parenting may illuminate new pathways to sensitive parenting. Mindfulness is reported to improve trauma and mental health symptoms but the relationship between mindfulness, trauma, and child abuse potential is not yet understood...
February 6, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Patricia L Winter, Pamela E Padgett, Lee-Anne S Milburn, Weimin Li
Urban parks are valued for their benefits to ecological and human systems, likely to increase in importance as climate change effects continue to unfold. However, the ability of parks to provide those myriad benefits hinges on equitable provision of and access to green spaces and their environmental quality. A social-ecological approach was adopted in a study of urban park use by recreationists in the City of Los Angeles, contrasting two affluent and two disadvantaged communities situated in coastal and inland zones...
February 8, 2019: Environmental Management
Katrin Mayer, Norman Junge, Imke Goldschmidt, Christoph Leiskau, Thomas Becker, Frank Lehner, Nicolas Richter, Rolf van Dick, Ulrich Baumann, Eva-Doreen Pfister
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The long-term psychosocial outcome of young adults after paediatric liver transplantation (LT) was investigated with the focus on day-to-day living. We aimed to capture patients' subjective perceptions of well-being and autonomy based on key physical outcome parameters. METHODS: All patients following paediatric LT at Hannover Medical School born before 2002 with a post-transplant follow-up of at least four years were included in this study...
February 5, 2019: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Anne D Müller, Ida C T Gjøde, Mette S Eigil, Helle Busck, Merete Bonne, Merete Nordentoft, Anne A E Thorup
BACKGROUND: Children born to parents with a severe mental illness, like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major recurrent depression, have an increased risk of developing a mental illness themselves during life. These children are also more likely to have developmental delays, cognitive disabilities, or social problems, and they may have a higher risk than the background population of experiencing adverse life events. This is due to both genetic and environmental factors, but despite the well-documented increased risk for children with a familial high risk, no family-based early intervention has been developed for them...
February 8, 2019: Trials
Adnan Ali, Hamaad Rafique, Talha Arshad, Mohammed A Alqarni, Sajjad Hussain Chauhdary, Ali Kashif Bashir
The prevalence of smart devices in our day-to-day activities increases the potential threat to our secret information. To counter these threats like unauthorized access and misuse of phones, only authorized users should be able to access the device. Authentication mechanism provide a secure way to safeguard the physical resources as well the information that is processed. Text-based passwords are the most common technique used for the authentication of devices, however, they are vulnerable to a certain type of attacks such as brute force, smudge and shoulder surfing attacks...
February 7, 2019: Sensors
Saikat Gantait, Suvendu Mondal
Cultivated groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) is considered as one of the primary oilseed crops and a major fodder for cattle industry in most of the developing countries, owing to its rich source of protein. It is due to its geocarpic nature of growth that the overall yield performance of groundnut is hindered by several biotic and abiotic stress factors. Multidimensional attempts were undertaken to combat these factors by developing superior groundnut varieties, modified with integral mechanism of tolerance/resistance; however this approach proved to be futile, owing to inferior pod and kernel quality...
December 2018: Journal, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology
Benjamin F Springgate, Armen C Arevian, Ashley Wennerstrom, Arthur J Johnson, David P Eisenman, Olivia K Sugarman, Catherine G Haywood, Edward J Trapido, Cathy D Sherbourne, Ashley Everett, Michael McCreary, Diana Meyers, Sheryl Kataoka, Lingqi Tang, Jennifer Sato, Kenneth B Wells
This manuscript presents the protocol and participatory planning process for implementing the Community Resilience Learning Collaborative and Research Network (C-LEARN) study. C-LEARN is designed to determine how to build a service program and individual client capacity to improve mental health-related quality of life among individuals at risk for depression, with exposure to social risk factors or concerns about environmental hazards in areas of Southern Louisiana at risk for events such as hurricanes and storms...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Anja Greinacher, Cassandra Derezza-Greeven, Wolfgang Herzog, Christoph Nikendei
Background : Finding precise definitions of secondary traumatic stress, vicarious traumatization, and compassion fatigue is not easy. While some researchers define these terms differentially, others use them interchangeably. In the present review, we refer to all three phenomena as secondary traumatization. Objectives : This systematic review aims to provide an overview of prevalence rates of secondary traumatization in first responders and to shed light on corresponding resilience and risk factors. Methods : After identifying 219 studies within the searched databases and 2192 references via hand searching, 31 studies were included in this review...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Beatrice Kennedy, Ruoqing Chen, Fang Fang, Unnur Valdimarsdottir, Scott Montgomery, Henrik Larsson, Katja Fall
BACKGROUND: While compromised stress resilience constitutes a recognised risk factor for somatic and psychiatric disease development in general, the knowledge about how individual variation in vulnerability to stress may specifically influence the long-term risks of disadvantageous health behaviours is limited. METHODS: In this Swedish cohort study, we aimed to investigate the association between stress resilience in late adolescence and adult use of addictive substances...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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