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Complement pathways

MacLean G Kohlmeier, Catherine E White, Jane E Fowler, Turlough M Finan, Ivan J Oresnik
The legume endosymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti can utilize a broad range of carbon compounds to support its growth. The linear, six-carbon polyol galactitol is abundant in vascular plants and is metabolized in S. meliloti by the contribution of two loci SMb21372-SMb21377 and SMc01495-SMc01503 which are found on pSymB and the chromosome, respectively. The data suggest that several transport systems, including the chromosomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter smoEFGK, contribute to the uptake of galactitol, while the adjacent gene smoS encodes a protein for oxidation of galactitol into tagatose...
March 16, 2019: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Francisco Madrid-Gambin, Melanie Föcking, Sophie Sabherwal, Meike Heurich, Jane A English, Aoife O'Gorman, Tommi Suvitaival, Linda Ahonen, Mary Cannon, Glyn Lewis, Ismo Mattila, Caitriona Scaife, Sean Madden, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Matej Orešič, Stanley Zammit, Gerard Cagney, David R Cotter, Lorraine Brennan
BACKGROUND: The identification of early biomarkers of psychotic experiences (PEs) is of interest because early diagnosis and treatment of those at risk of future disorder is associated with improved outcomes. The current study investigated early lipidomic and coagulation pathway protein signatures of later PEs in subjects from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort. METHODS: Plasma of 115 children (12 years of age) who were first identified as experiencing PEs at 18 years of age (48 cases and 67 controls) were assessed through integrated and targeted lipidomics and semitargeted proteomics approaches...
January 30, 2019: Biological Psychiatry
Frédéric De Meyer, Bram Danneels, Tessa Acar, Rado Rasolomampianina, Mamy Tiana Rajaonah, Vololoniaina Jeannoda, Aurelien Carlier
Various plant species establish intimate symbioses with bacteria within their aerial organs. The bacteria are contained within nodules or glands often present in distinctive patterns on the leaves in what is commonly referred to as leaf nodule symbiosis. We describe here a highly specific symbiosis between a wild yam species from Madagascar, Dioscorea sansibarensis and bacteria of the species Orrella dioscoreae. Using whole-genome sequencing of plastids and bacteria from wild-collected samples, we show phylogenetic patterns consistent with a dominant vertical mode of transmission of the symbionts...
March 15, 2019: ISME Journal
Franca Rossi, Riccardo Miggiano, Davide M Ferraris, Menico Rizzi
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a bioactive compound that is produced along the kynurenine pathway (KP) during tryptophan degradation. In a few decades, KYNA shifted from being regarded a poorly characterized by-product of the KP to being considered a main player in many aspects of mammalian physiology, including the control of glutamatergic and cholinergic synaptic transmission, and the coordination of immunomodulation. The renewed attention being paid to the study of KYNA homeostasis is justified by the discovery of selective and potent inhibitors of kynurenine aminotransferase II, which is considered the main enzyme responsible for KYNA synthesis in the mammalian brain...
2019: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Melissa R Pergande, Antony Cougnoux, Rathnayake A C Rathnayake, Forbes D Porter, Stephanie M Cologna
Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a rare, autosomal recessive, lipid storage disorder caused by mutations in NPC1 . As a result, there is accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and sphingolipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal system. Clinically, patients can present with splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. In the current study, we analyzed the differential proteome of the spleen in symptomatic Npc1 -/- mice to complement previous studies focused on the differential proteome of the liver, and then evaluated biomolecules that may serve as tissue biomarkers...
March 12, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Norman G Nicolson, Reju Korah, Tobias Carling
Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare tumors with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Although widely used as in vitro models to test novel therapeutic strategies, the adrenocortical carcinoma-derived cell lines NCI-H295R and SW-13 have been only partially described genetically. Our aim was to characterize the mutational landscape of these cells to improve their experimental utility and map them to clinical sub-types of adrenocortical carcinoma. Genomic DNA from NCI-H295R and SW-13 cells was subjected to whole-exome sequencing...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Shigeo Hara, Takahiro Tsuji, Yuichiro Fukasawa, Satoshi Hisano, Satoshi Morito, Toshiki Hyodo, Shunsuke Goto, Shinichi Nishi, Akihiro Yoshimoto, Tomoo Itoh
Thrombospondin type 1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A) is a recently identified target antigen of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN). The clinicopathological characteristics of THSD7A-associated MN are poorly characterised due to low prevalence among MN patients. Among 469 consecutive cases of pathologically confirmed MN diagnosed at four centres in Japan, 14 cases were confirmed positive for THSD7A by immunohistochemistry (3.0%). The prevalence of THSD7A-associated MN tended to be higher in northern Japan...
March 14, 2019: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Stefan Bidula, Darren W Sexton, Silke Schelenz
Ficolins are innate pattern recognition receptors (PRR) and play integral roles within the innate immune response to numerous pathogens throughout the circulation, as well as within organs. Pathogens are primarily removed by direct opsonisation following the recognition of cell surface carbohydrates and other immunostimulatory molecules or via the activation of the lectin complement pathway, which results in the deposition of C3b and the recruitment of phagocytes. In recent years, there have been a number of studies implicating ficolins in the recognition and removal of numerous bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic pathogens...
2019: Journal of Immunology Research
Paul Francke, Lena J Tiedemann, Mareike M Menz, Judith Beck, Christian Büchel, Stefanie Brassen
Dopaminergic brain structures like the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are thought to encode the incentive salience of palatable foods motivating appetitive behaviour. Animal studies have identified neural networks mediating the regulation of hedonic feeding that comprise connections of the NAc with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Here, we investigated how structural connectivity of these pathways relates to individual variability in decisions on sweet food consumption in humans...
March 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Siti Madiani Abdul Ghani, Jo Aan Goon, Nor Helwa Ezzah Nor Azman, Siti Nor Asyikin Zakaria, Zalina Hamid, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the differential gene expression resulting from tocotrienol-rich fraction and α-tocopherol supplementation in healthy older adults. METHODS: A total of 71 eligible subjects aged 50 to 55 years from Gombak and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were divided into three groups and supplemented with placebo (n=23), α-tocopherol (n=24) or tocotrienol-rich fraction (n=24). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months of supplementation for microarray analysis...
March 7, 2019: Clinics
Iris L A Bodewes, Peter J van der Spek, Leticia G Leon, Annemarie J M Wijkhuijs, Cornelia G van Helden-Meeuwsen, Liselotte Tas, Marco W J Schreurs, Paul L A van Daele, Peter D Katsikis, Marjan A Versnel
Background: Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease, where patients often suffer from fatigue. Biological pathways underlying fatigue are unknown. In this study aptamer-based SOMAscan technology is used to identify potential biomarkers and treatment targets for fatigue in pSS. Methods: SOMAscan® Assay 1.3k was performed on serum samples of healthy controls (HCs) and pSS patients characterized for interferon upregulation and fatigue. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between pSS patients and HC or fatigued and non-fatigued pSS patients were validated and discriminatory capacity of markers was tested using independent technology...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Amy H Lee, Casey P Shannon, Nelly Amenyogbe, Tue B Bennike, Joann Diray-Arce, Olubukola T Idoko, Erin E Gill, Rym Ben-Othman, William S Pomat, Simon D van Haren, Kim-Anh Lê Cao, Momoudou Cox, Alansana Darboe, Reza Falsafi, Davide Ferrari, Daniel J Harbeson, Daniel He, Cai Bing, Samuel J Hinshaw, Jorjoh Ndure, Jainaba Njie-Jobe, Matthew A Pettengill, Peter C Richmond, Rebecca Ford, Gerard Saleu, Geraldine Masiria, John Paul Matlam, Wendy Kirarock, Elishia Roberts, Mehrnoush Malek, Guzmán Sanchez-Schmitz, Amrit Singh, Asimenia Angelidou, Kinga K Smolen, Ryan R Brinkman, Al Ozonoff, Robert E W Hancock, Anita H J van den Biggelaar, Hanno Steen, Scott J Tebbutt, Beate Kampmann, Ofer Levy, Tobias R Kollmann
Systems biology can unravel complex biology but has not been extensively applied to human newborns, a group highly vulnerable to a wide range of diseases. We optimized methods to extract transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, cytokine/chemokine, and single cell immune phenotyping data from <1 ml of blood, a volume readily obtained from newborns. Indexing to baseline and applying innovative integrative computational methods reveals dramatic changes along a remarkably stable developmental trajectory over the first week of life...
March 12, 2019: Nature Communications
Iqbal Ahmad, Sunan Li, Rongrong Li, Qingqing Chai, Lixin Zhang, Bin Wang, Changqing Yu, Yong-Hui Zheng
Serine incorporator 5 (SERINC5) is a recently identified restriction factor that blocks virus entry but is antagonized by three unrelated retroviral accessory proteins. The S2 protein from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has been reported to reduce SERINC5 expression at steady-state levels likely via the endocytic pathway; however, the precise mechanism is still unclear. Here, we investigated how EIAV S2 protein down-regulates SERINC5 compared with down-regulation induced by Nef from HIV-1 and glycoMA proteins from murine leukemia virus (MLV)...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Gundela Meyer, Emilio González-Arnay, Ute Moll, Alice Nemajerova, Fadel Tissir, Miriam González-Gómez
Cajal-Retzius neurons (CRN) are the main source of Reelin in the marginal zone of the developing neocortex and hippocampus (HC). They also express the transcription factor p73 and are complemented by later-appearing GABAergic Reelin+ interneurons. The human dorsal HC forms at gestational week 10 (GW10), when it develops a rudimentary Ammonic plate and incipient dentate migration, although the dorsal hippocampal fissure (HF) remains shallow and contains few CRN. The dorsal HC transforms into the indusium griseum (IG), concurrently with the rostro-caudal appearance of the corpus callosum, by GW14-17...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Eszter Trojnar, Mihály Józsi, Zsóka Szabó, Marienn Réti, Péter Farkas, Kata Kelen, George S Reusz, Attila J Szabó, Nóra Garam, Bálint Mikes, György Sinkovits, Blanka Mező, Dorottya Csuka, Zoltán Prohászka
Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been shown to regulate complement activation in vitro , but their role has not been investigated in complement consumption in vivo . Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) are often accompanied by complement overactivation and consumption, therefore we analyzed the relation of the systemic pentraxin levels to the complement profile, laboratory parameters and clinical outcome of TMA patients. We determined the PTX3 and CRP levels, complement factor and activation product concentrations in blood samples of 171 subjects with the diagnosis of typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS) ( N = 34), atypical HUS (aHUS) ( N = 44), secondary TMA ( N = 63), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) ( N = 30) and 69 age-matched healthy individuals...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Weichao Ren, Na Liu, Yalan Yang, Qianqian Yang, Changjun Chen, Qingli Gao
High-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway belongs to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades that regulate responses of organism to diverse extracellular stimuli. The membrane spanning proteins Sho1 and Sln1 serve as biosensors of HOG pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . In this study, we investigated the biological functions of BcSHO1 and BcSLN1 in the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea . Target gene deletion demonstrated that both BcSHO1 and BcSLN1 are important for mycelial growth, conidiation and sclerotial formation...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eline Boelee, Gertjan Geerling, Bas van der Zaan, Anouk Blauw, A Dick Vethaak
The water-related exposome is a significant determinant of human health. The disease burden through water results from water-associated communicable and non-communicable diseases and is influenced by water pollution with chemicals, solid waste (mainly plastics), pathogens, insects and other water vectors. This paper analyses a range of water practitioner-driven health issues, including infectious diseases and chemical intoxication, using the conceptual framework of Drivers, Pressures, State, Impacts, and Responses (DPSIR), complemented with a selective literature review...
March 8, 2019: Acta Tropica
R Balbuena-Merle, J E Hendrickson
Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is more common in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) than in any other studied patient population. The high prevalence of RBC alloimmunization is multi-factorial, likely involving the chronic hemolysis and inflammatory status of SCD itself, the transfusion burden of patients, and the RH genetic diversity of patients and blood donors, among other reasons. Antibody evanescence, or the decrease of RBC alloantibodies below levels detectable by blood bank testing, occurs frequently with fewer than 30% of alloantibodies estimated to be detected by current screening practices...
February 22, 2019: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
Jing Shen, Jun Chen, Peter Ruhdal Jensen, Christian Solem
BACKGROUND: Delactosed whey permeate (DWP) is a side stream of whey processing, which often is discarded as waste, despite of its high residual content of lactose, typically 10-20%. Microbial fermentation is one of the most promising approaches for valorizing nutrient rich industrial waste streams, including those generated by the dairies. Here we present a novel microbial platform specifically designed to generate useful compounds from dairy waste. As a starting point we use Corynebacterium glutamicum, an important workhorse used for production of amino acids and other important compounds, which we have rewired and complemented with genes needed for lactose utilization...
March 11, 2019: Microbial Cell Factories
Xinyu Li, Qiang Meng, Lei Zhang
Porcine islets might represent an ideal solution to the severe shortage of living donor islets available for transplantation and thus have great potential for the treatment of diabetes. Although tremendous progress has been achieved through recent experiments, the immune response remains a major obstacle. This review first describes the 3 major pathways of rejection: hyperacute rejection mediated by preformed natural antibodies and complement, instant blood-mediated inflammatory reactions, and acute cell-mediated rejection...
March 2019: Pancreas
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