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Neuropsychological Examination

Sarah F Benki-Nugent, Ira Martopullo, Tony Laboso, Nancy Tamasha, Dalton C Wamalwa, Kenneth Tapia, Agnes Langat, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Christina M Marra, Paul Bangirana, Michael J Boivin, Grace C John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Monocyte activation may contribute to neuronal injury in aviremic HIV-infected adults; data are lacking in children. We examined the relation between monocyte activation markers and early and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in early-treated HIV-infected children. SETTING: Prospective study of infant and child neurodevelopmental outcomes nested within a randomized clinical trial (NCT00428116) and extended cohort study in Kenya. METHODS: HIV-infected infants (N=67) initiated ART at age <5 months...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Xuan Zhang, Zhiyi Song, Jingyi Ye, Ying Fu, Jinying Wang, Lei Su, Xiaodong Zhu, Meiyun Zhang, Yan Cheng, Wei Wu, Rong Xue
OBJECTIVES: To compare the sleep characteristics and cognition between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients and non-RBD (nRBD) healthy control subjects and to determine the correlation between sleep and cognition in RBD patients. METHODS: Polysomnography (PSG) was performed to confirm and exclude RBD. Fifteen iRBD patients, 12 PD with RBD patients, and 23 matched nRBD healthy control subjects were enrolled. Subjective sleep and neuropsychological evaluations were performed...
February 14, 2019: Brain and Behavior
Xiaoling Lin, Dali Lu, Zhixin Huang, Wen Chen, Xia Luo, Yinghua Zhu
BACKGROUND: Patients may present cognitive deficits during all stages of bipolar disorder (BD). Few studies have examined self-reported cognitive difficulties and its relation to neurocognitive dysfunction during symptomatic periods of BD. This study aimed to compare subjective cognitive functioning and explore associations between subjective and objective cognitive functioning across different BD clinical states, and investigate the predicting and moderating roles of mood symptoms. METHODS: Subjective cognitive functioning (measured by Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment, COBRA) and several domains of cognitive functioning (assessed by a neuropsychological battery), including executive functions, attention and processing speed, and visual memory, were examined in 48 hypomanic or manic patients, 42 depressed bipolar patients, 50 euthymic bipolar patients and 60 healthy comparisons...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Kristen Deschamps, Keith Owen Yeates, Taryn B Fay-McClymont, Marinka Twilt, Robyn Westmacott, Anastasia Dropol, Brian L Brooks, Adam Kirton, Peter Gowdie, Shehla Sheikh, Susanne M Benseler
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical cognitive phenotypes and severity of cognitive burden according to disease subtype in children with primary central nervous system vasculitis (cPACNS). METHOD: This retrospective multicenter inflammatory brain disease database study examined the neuropsychological outcomes of 80 children (44 male; mean age = 7.89 years, SD = 4.17) consecutively diagnosed with primary CNS vasculitis between 1992 and 2016. Twenty-one children had small-vessel disease (AN_cPACNS), and 59 had large-vessel disease (including 49 nonprogressive [APNP_cPACNS] and 10 progressive [APP_cPACNS])...
February 14, 2019: Neuropsychology
Nicolas Christ, Viola Mocke, Felix Fluri
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate whether cerebral microbleeds (CMB) are associated with vascular cognitive decline (VCD) already in the early course after ischemic stroke, and-if so-whether distinct cognitive domains are affected more preferentially by CMB. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, cognitive performance was examined in 33 stroke patients showing ≥ 1 CMB on MRI. Matched for age, gender, clinical and radiological characteristics, 33 stroke survivors without CMB served as a control group...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Neurology
Melissa Hansen, Nicole K De Amicis, Nicole D Anderson, Malcolm A Binns, Amanda J Clark, Deirdre R Dawson
OBJECTIVE: The Multiple Errands Test (MET) was designed to measure the effect of executive dysfunction on everyday life activities, but little is known about the cognitive requirements for successful performance. This study's objective was to investigate cognitive functions associated with successful MET performance, specifically, the Baycrest-MET. METHOD: Correlation analysis examined relationships between Baycrest-MET performance and neuropsychological functioning in participants with acquired brain injury (ABI; N = 27)...
November 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Sophie J M Rijnen, Ikram Meskal, Marjan Bakker, Wouter De Baene, Geert-Jan M Rutten, Karin Gehring, Margriet M Sitskoorn
Background: Meningioma patients are known to face cognitive deficits before and after surgery. We examined individual changes in cognitive performance over time and identified preoperative predictors of cognitive functioning 12 months after surgery in a large sample of meningioma patients. Methods: Patients underwent neuropsychological assessment (NPA) using CNS Vital Signs 1 day before (T0), and 3 (T3) and 12 (T12) months after surgery. Patients' sociodemographically-corrected scores on 7 cognitive domains were compared to performance of a normative sample using one-sample z tests and Chi-square tests of independence...
February 7, 2019: Neuro-oncology
Satish Suhas, Naren P Rao
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating mental illness characterized by an early onset and chronic course. Evidence from several lines of research suggests significant neuropsychological deficits in patients with OCD; executive dysfunction and nonverbal memory deficits have been reported consistently in OCD. These deficits persist despite controlling potential confounders such as comorbidity, severity of illness, and medications. Neuropsychological impairments are independent of illness severity, thus suggesting that the neuropsychological deficits are trait markers of the disease...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Yen-Ling Chiu, Hsiu-Hui Tsai, Yen-Jun Lai, Hsin-Yi Tseng, Yen-Wen Wu, Yu-Sen Peng, Cheng-Ming Chiu, Yi-Fang Chuang
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease exhibits a prominent premature aging phenotype in many different organ systems, including the brain. Nevertheless, a comprehensive characterization of brain aging in non-demented patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is lacking and it remains unclear if the collective changes of cognitive functions and brain structures in ESRD is compatible with aging. METHODS: We compared 56 non-demented, independently living dialysis patients (mean age 59...
February 7, 2019: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Natalia Nowaczyk, Alicja Kalinowska-Łyszczarz, Włodzimierz Paprzycki, Sławomir Michalak, Radosław Kaźmierski, Mikołaj A Pawlak
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess degenerative lesion localisation in the course of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and to identify the association between localisation and the frequency of T1-hypointense lesions (black holes) with cognitive dysfunction. We also searched for neuroradiological predictors of cognitive dysfunction in patients. The clinical rationale for the study was previous research, and our own findings suggest that lesion localisation plays an important role in cognitive performance and neurological disability of MS patients...
February 11, 2019: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
N Cayuela, M Simo
Cognitive toxicity induced by cranial radiation is one of the most important limitations of radiation therapy and has a significant impact on brain tumor survivors' quality of life. This review comprehends an up to date of recent studies including complete neuropsychological battery and/or advanced neuroimaging techniques. These studies identified critical anatomical and/or functional brain areas related to radiation-induced brain injury, thus improving clinical and radiological diagnosis. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive toxicity are complex and involve different cell lines and molecules...
February 16, 2019: Revista de Neurologia
Aziz S Alali, Nancy Temkin, Monica S Vavilala, Abhijit V Lele, Jason Barber, Sureyya Dikmen, Randall M Chesnut
OBJECTIVEThe aim of this study was to examine the relationship between early arterial oxygenation thresholds and long-term outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).METHODSIn a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial, adults with severe TBI were classified based on exposure to different levels of arterial oxygenation as measured using the average of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) values obtained within 24 hours of admission. Potentially important PaO2 thresholds were defined a priori. The primary outcome was Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) score at 6 months...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
Anders Behrens, Eva Elgh, Göran Leijon, Bo Kristensen, Anders Eklund, Jan Malm
OBJECTIVEThe Computerized General Neuropsychological INPH Test (CoGNIT) provides the clinician and the researcher with standardized and accessible cognitive assessments in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). CoGNIT includes tests of memory, executive functions, attention, manual dexterity, and psychomotor speed. Investigations of the validity and reliability of CoGNIT have been published previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate CoGNIT's sensitivity to cognitive change after shunt surgery in patients with INPH...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
Kathryn Ann Tolle, Annalise M Rahman-Filipiak, Andrew C Hale, Katherine A Kitchen Andren, Robert J Spencer
The Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) is used primarily as a measure of motor functioning, but some research indicates that performance on this test my also reflect cognitive factors, particularly attention and executive functioning. The aim of this study was to examine rule violations as a possible quantifiable measure of executive functioning, particularly inhibitory control. In a sample of 82 veterans undergoing neuropsychological evaluation at a Virginia (VA) outpatient clinic, we recorded instances of two types of rule violations: using the incorrect hand during insertion and placing pegs out of sequence...
February 8, 2019: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Xiao Li Yin, Qiu Fang Jia, Guang Ya Zhang, Jian Ping Zhang, Tomoaki Shirao, Cai Xia Jiang, Xu Yuan Yin, Yan Song Liu, Peng Chen, Xiao Chu Gu, Zheng Kang Qian, Guang Zhong Yin, Hai Sen Xia, Li Hui
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia (SCH). In addition to the toxic effect of Bilirubin (BIL), it has antioxidant properties that were associated with the psychopathology and cognitive impairment of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation of serum total BIL (TBIL) concentration with cognitive impairment in SCH patients. We recruited 34 SCH patients and 119 healthy controls (HCs) in this case-control design. Cognition was assessed using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Xiaolin Tian, Xiaokun Guo, Xiaoshuang Xia, Haibo Yu, Xin Li, Aili Jiang
BACKGROUNDS: Cognitive functions (CF) decline has been reported in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, the influence of dialysis modalities on CF has not been investigated systematically. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane library and unpublished database to identify the studies comparing the cognitive functions or risk of dementia between hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD)...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alessandra Gamucci, Sara Uccella, Lucia Sciarretta, Maria D'Apruzzo, Maria Grazia Calevo, Maria Margherita Mancardi, Edvige Veneselli, Elisa De Grandis
OBJECTIVES: Whether PANS (pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome) and PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection) represent true clinical entities is debated and data for a characteristic phenotype are still controversial. In this study, we aim to characterize clinical, neuropsychological, and biochemical aspects in a sample of PANS and PANDAS patients. METHODS: Patients fulfilling a clinical diagnosis of PANS or PANDAS from 2014 to 2017 were enrolled...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Jolien Schaeverbeke, Benjamin Gille, Katarzyna Adamczuk, Hugo Vanderstichele, Emeric Chassaing, Rose Bruffaerts, Veerle Neyens, Erik Stoops, Jos Tournoy, Rik Vandenberghe, Koen Poesen
The main pathophysiological alterations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include loss of neuronal and synaptic integrity, amyloidogenic processing and neuroinflammation. Similar alterations can, however, also be observed in cognitively intact older subjects and may prelude the clinical manifestation of AD. The objectives of this prospective cross-sectional study in a cohort of 38 cognitively intact older adults were twofold: (i) to investigate the latent relationship among cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers reflecting the main pathophysiological processes of AD, and (ii) to assess the correlation between these biomarkers and gray matter volume as well as amyloid load...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Neurochemistry
January Durant, Kevin Duff, Justin B Miller
INTRODUCTION: Standardized regression based (SRB) methods can be used to determine whether meaningful changes in performance on cognitive assessments occur over time. Both raw and standardized scores have been used in SRB models but it is unclear which score metric is most appropriate for predicting follow-up performance. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in SRB prediction formulas using raw versus standard scores on two memory tests commonly used in assessment of older adults...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Lauren M D Faulkner, Kathryn A Tolle, Carrington R Wendell, Shari R Waldstein, Leslie I Katzel, Robert J Spencer
The Stroop Color and Word Test is a test of processing speed, response inhibition, and executive functioning (EF). This project examined whether extending the Stroop Color-Word trial beyond the standard time limit could more accurately assess performance on EF measures. Cognitively healthy older individuals (n = 198) enrolled in a study of cardiovascular health completed the Stroop as part of a neuropsychological battery. Two scores were computed for the Color-Word trial: the number of items completed within the first 45 seconds (traditional Color-Word score) and the speed of page completion beyond the first 45 seconds (Stroop-Extended score)...
February 5, 2019: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
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