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separation science

Hany S El-Mesery, Hanping Mao, Abd El-Fatah Abomohra
The quality and safety of food is an increasing concern for worldwide business. Non-destructive methods (NDM), as a means of assessment and instrumentation have created an esteemed value in sciences, especially in food industries. Currently, NDM are useful because they allow the simultaneous measurement of chemical and physical data from food without destruction of the substance. Additionally, NDM can obtain both quantitative and qualitative data at the same time without separate analyses. Recently, many studies on non-destructive detection measurements of agro-food products and final quality assessment of foods were reported...
February 18, 2019: Sensors
Jordan E Stevens, Douglas Steinley, Yoanna E McDowell, Cassandra L Boness, Timothy J Trull, Christopher S Martin, Kenneth J Sher
Psychiatric diagnostic systems, such as The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), use expert consensus to determine diagnostic criteria sets and rules (DCSRs), rather than exploiting empirical techniques to arrive at optimal solutions (OS). Our project utilizes complete enumeration (i.e., generating all possible subsets of item combinations A and B with all possible thresholds, T) to evaluate all possible DCSRs given a set of relevant diagnostic data. This method yields the entire population distribution of diagnostic classifications (i...
February 5, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Hui Yu, Qi-Zhi Zhong, Tian-Geng Liu, Wen-Ze Qiu, Bai-Heng Wu, Zhi-Kang Xu, Ling-Shu Wan
Deposition of dopamine and tannic acid has received great attention in the fields of surface and interface science and technology. The deposition behaviors of various metal-phenolic systems have been investigated, and it is generally accepted that at least one catechol group is essential to the formation of the coatings. Herein, we report a novel and effective surface coating system based on the coordination complexes of FeIII ions with a natural product juglone that contains only one phenolic hydroxyl. We investigated the deposition behaviors of this novel system on various substrates...
February 18, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Fernando Maya, Brett Paull
This review summarizes recent development made in the incorporation of functional materials into organic polymer monoliths, together with new monolithic forms and formats, which enhance their application as supports and stationary phase materials for sample preparation and chromatographic separations. While polymer monoliths are well known supports for the separation of large molecules, recent development have been made to improve their features for the separation of small molecules. The selectivity and performance of organic polymer monoliths has been improved by the incorporation of different materials, such as metal-organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks, or other types of nanostructured materials (carbon nanohorns, nanodiamonds, polyoxometalates, layered double hydroxides, or attapulgite)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Separation Science
Karen M Oude Hengel, Pieter Coenen, Suzan J W Robroek, Cecile R L Boot, Allard J van der Beek, Frank J Van Lenthe, Alex Burdorf
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and unhealthy behaviour are more prevalent among workers with a low compared with a high socioeconomic position (SEP), and thus contribute to socioeconomic health inequalities. The occupational setting is considered an important setting to address unhealthy behaviours due to the possibility to efficiently reach a large group of adults through worksite health promotion. This paper describes the rationale and design for an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis and a socioeconomic equity-specific reanalysis aiming to: (1) investigate socioeconomic differences in the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting healthy behaviour and preventing obesity, (2) examine socioeconomic differences in reach and compliance and (3) to investigate underlying factors affecting possible socioeconomic differences...
February 13, 2019: BMJ Open
Kathleen M Rose, Emily L Howell, Leona Y-F Su, Michael A Xenos, Dominique Brossard, Dietram A Scheufele
The impact of knowledge on public attitudes toward scientific issues remains unclear, due in part to ill-defined differences in how research designs conceptualize knowledge. Using genetically modified foods as a framework, we explore the impacts of perceived familiarity and factual knowledge, and the moderating roles of media attention and a food-specific attitudinal variable (food consciousness), in shaping these relationships. Based on the differential effects on "negative attitudes" toward genetically modified foods, we provide further evidence that the measures of knowledge are separate concepts and argue against a one-dimensional view of scientific knowledge...
February 14, 2019: Public Understanding of Science
Irina S Prusova, Olga A Gulevich
Our study examined the effects of mortality salience (MS) on attitudes toward state control in different domains in Russia. Using the theory of Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition (CMSC) and the Terror Management Theory (TMT), we put forward two alternative hypotheses. Based on the CMSC, MS would enhance the approval of state control in different spheres, while, in line with TMT, the MS effect would be dependent on pre-existing views. The participants in the study were 450 Russian students who completed a questionnaire to measure attitudes toward state control in six spheres of life (the economy, the mass media, political parties, social organisations, science and education)...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Eric T Dobson, Michael H Bloch, Jeffrey R Strawn
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy in pediatric anxiety disorders using network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane Database, Web of Science, PsycNET, and were searched for double-blind, controlled pharmacotherapy trials in youth with anxiety disorders from 1966 to September 2017. DATA SELECTION: All double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of pediatric patients with generalized, social, and/or separation anxiety disorders were included...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Denis Gebauer, Stephan E Wolf
"Non-classical" notions consider formation pathways of crystalline materials where larger species than monomeric chemical constituents, i.e., ions or single molecules, play crucial roles, which are not covered by the classical theories dating back to the 1870s and 1920s. Providing an outline of "non-classical" nucleation, we demonstrate that pre-nucleation clusters (PNCs) can lie on alternative pathways to phase separation, where the very event of demixing is not primarily based on the sizes of the species forming, as in the classical view, but their dynamics...
February 12, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Qun-Li Lei, Massimo Pica Ciamarra, Ran Ni
Disordered hyperuniform structures are an exotic state of matter having vanishing long-wavelength density fluctuations similar to perfect crystals but without long-range order. Although its importance in materials science has been brought to the fore in past decades, the rational design of experimentally realizable disordered strongly hyperuniform microstructures remains challenging. Here we find a new type of nonequilibrium fluid with strong hyperuniformity in two-dimensional systems of chiral active particles, where particles perform independent circular motions of the radius R with the same handedness...
January 2019: Science Advances
Laércio Almeida De Melo, Ilnara De Souza Moura, Erika Oliveira De Almeida, Amilcar Chagas Freitas Junior, Tasiana Guedes De Souza Dias, Fabíola Pessoa Pereira Leite
Currently, the long-term success of esthetic rehabilitation with ceramics is required. Hence, professional knowledge about the most indicated dental material for each clinical situation as well as its usage protocol is essential. The aim of this systematic review of clinical and laboratorial studies was to compare the bond strength of prostheses using silane incorporated to universal adhesives or applied separately. The literature search in databases "Cochrane Library," "MEDLINE," "Web of Science," "Scopus," "LILACS," "Scielo," and "Google Scholar" was based on the keywords "Silane;" "Silanes;" "Silane coupling agent;" "Universal adhesive;" and "Universal adhesives...
January 2019: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
Kory Zimney, Adriaan Louw, Julie Johnson, Suzanne Peppers, Kevin Farrell
PURPOSE: Evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of two different pain neuroscience education (PNE) lectures provided to physician assistant (PA) students. Primary outcomes explored were knowledge of pain and shift in attitudes and beliefs about chronic pain after the lecture. METHODS: A PNE lecture was provided at two separate university PA programs. One program received a two-hour PNE lecture with a case-based example. The other program received a one-hour PNE lecture without the casebased example...
November 2018: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Michael Eynon, Jessica Foad, John Downey, Yasmin Bowmer, Hayley Mills
This paper aimed to systematically review the evidence base to uncover the key psychosocial factors that underpin adherence to an exercise referral scheme (ERS). Databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, PubMed, PsycARTICLES, Open Grey, and PsycEXTRA were systematically searched. A parallel results-based convergent synthesis was performed by identifying key themes from quantitative and qualitative studies separately. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, the review included 24 eligible studies...
February 11, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Seiji Nishiwaki, Kenji Narumi, Tsuguhiro Korenaga
Interferometers are widely used in science and industry to measure small displacements, changes in refractive index, and surface irregularities. In all interferometers, including phase-contrast microscopes and DICs (differential interference contrast microscopes), light from a single source is split into two beams that travel along different optical paths. They are then recombined to produce interference. The fundamental operation of beam separation makes device configuration more complex and adds to the bulk of the equipment...
February 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Reiner Rugulies, Emiko Ando, Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Michela Bonafede, Maria Cabello, Cristina Di Tecco, Nico Dragano, Quentin Durand-Moreau, Hisashi Eguchi, Junling Gao, Anne H Garde, Sergio Iavicoli, Ivan D Ivanov, Nancy Leppink, Ida E H Madsen, Frank Pega, Annette M Prüss-Üstün, Bruna M Rondinone, Kathrine Sørensen, Kanami Tsuno, Yuka Ujita, Amy Zadow
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from depression attributable to exposure to long working hours, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology...
February 5, 2019: Environment International
Thomas Tenkate, Balazs Adam, Rami H Al-Rifai, B Ralph Chou, Fabriziomaria Gobba, Ivan D Ivanov, Nancy Leppink, Tom Loney, Frank Pega, Cheryl E Peters, Annette M Prüss-Üstün, Marilia Silva Paulo, Yuka Ujita, Marc Wittlich, Alberto Modenese
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. Here, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of disability-adjusted life years of cataracts from occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology...
February 5, 2019: Environment International
Ahmet Akif Kızılkurtlu, Tuğçe Polat, Gül Banu Aydın, Ali Akpek
Lung-on-a-chip is a micro device that combines the techniques of bioengineering, microbiology, polymer science and microfluidics disciplines in order to mimic physicochemical features and microenvironments, multicellular constructions, cell-cell interfaces of a human lung. Specifically, most novel lung on a chip designs consist of two micro-channeled outer parts, flexible and porous Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane to create separation of air-blood chamber and subsidiary vacuum channels which enable stretching of the PDMS membrane to mimic movement mechanisms of the lung...
February 8, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
L Luo, X Yang, X Liu, Z Liu, C Vaswani, D Cheng, M Mootz, X Zhao, Y Yao, C-Z Wang, K-M Ho, I E Perakis, M Dobrowolska, J K Furdyna, J Wang
Topology-protected surface transport of ultimate thinness in three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) is breaking new ground in quantum science and technology. Yet a challenge remains on how to disentangle and selectively control surface helical spin transport from the bulk contribution. Here we use the mid-infrared and terahertz (THz) photoexcitation of exclusive intraband transitions to enable ultrafast manipulation of surface THz conductivity in Bi2 Se3 . The unique, transient electronic state is characterized by frequency-dependent carrier relaxations that directly distinguish the faster surface channel than the bulk with no complication from interband excitations or need for reduced bulk doping...
February 5, 2019: Nature Communications
Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Mitra Hariri
Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant compound which is naturally found in plant sources. New evidence revealed that ALA can reduce inflammation. Our objective in this meta-analysis was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials to indicate ALA effects on serum inflammatory mediators concentration such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), c-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). In order to find relevant articles we performed a systematic research up to June 2018 using EMBASE, ISI web of science, Scopus, PubMed, and Google scholar...
February 2, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Emily L Kynaston, K J Winchell, Patrick Y Yee, Joseph G Manion, Arthur D Hendsbee, Yuning Li, Sven Huettner, Sarah H Tolbert, Dwight S Seferos
Understanding self-assembly behavior and resulting morphologies in block co-polymer films is an essential aspect of chemistry and materials science. Although the self-assembly of amorphous coil-coil block co-polymers is relatively well understood, that of semicrystalline block co-polymers where each block has distinct crystallization properties remains unclear. Here, we report a detailed study to elucidate the rich self-assembly behavior of conjugated thiophene-selenophene (P3AT- b-P3AS) block co-polymers. Using a combination of microscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray techniques, we show that three different film morphologies, denoted as lamellae, co-crystallized fibers, and patchy fibers, arise from the self-assembly of these block co-polymers over a relatively narrow range of overall degrees of polymerization (30 < N < 90)...
February 5, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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