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Olive oil polyphenols

Erika Terzuoli, Ginevra Nannelli, Antonio Giachetti, Lucia Morbidelli, Marina Ziche, Sandra Donnini
PURPOSE: Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays an important role in pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and, particularly, its major plasma metabolite HT-3O sulfate (HT-3Os) are known olive oil antioxidant and anti-inflammatory polyphenols which exert benefits against vascular diseases by improving endothelial function. However, to date the HT-3Os role in EndMT is not well known. METHODS: To investigate the HT-3Os effects on EndMT in the inflamed endothelium, we used an in vitro model of endothelial dysfunction, challenging endothelial cells (EC), human umbilical EC (HUVEC) and human retinal EC (HREC) with Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), an inflammatory agent...
February 6, 2019: European Journal of Nutrition
M Figueiredo-González, P Reboredo-Rodríguez, C González-Barreiro, A Carrasco-Pancorbo, B Cancho-Grande, J Simal-Gándara
'Brava' and 'Mansa de Figueiredo' extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) are two varieties identified from north-western Spain. A systematic phenolic characterization of the studied oils was undertaken by LC-ESI-IT-MS. In addition, the role of dietary polyphenols from these EVOOs has been evaluated against the inhibition of key enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). Oleuropein and ligstroside derivatives comprised 83% and 67% of the total phenolic compounds in 'Brava' and 'Mansa de Figueiredo' EVOOs, respectively...
February 2019: Food Research International
Theodora Nikou, Vasiliki Liaki, Panagiotis Stathopoulos, Aimilia D Sklirou, Eleni N Tsakiri, Thomas Jakschitz, Günther Bonn, Ioannis P Trougakos, Maria Halabalaki, Leandros A Skaltsounis
Olive oil is widely accepted as a superior edible oil. Great attention has been given lately to olive oil polyphenols which are linked to significant health beneficial effects. Towards a survey of Greek olive oil focusing on polyphenols, representative extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from the main producing areas of the country and the same harvesting period have been collected and analyzed. Significant differences and interesting correlations have been identified connecting certain polyphenols namely hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, oleacein and oleocanthal with specific parameters e...
January 21, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hossein Mohammad-Beigi, Farhang Aliakbari, Cagla Sahin, Charlotte Lomax, Ahmed Tawfike, Nicholas P Schafer, Alireza Amiri-Nowdijeh, Hoda Eskandari, Ian Max Møller, Mehdi Hosseini-Mazinani, Gunna Christiansen, Jane L Ward, Dina Morshedi, Daniel E Otzen
Aggregation of α-synuclein (αSN) is implicated in neuronal degeneration in Parkinson's disease and has prompted searches for natural compounds inhibiting αSN aggregation and reducing its tendency to form toxic oligomers. Oil from the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) represents the main source of fat in the Mediterranean diet and contains variable levels of phenolic compounds, many structurally related to the compound oleuropein. Here, using αSN aggregation, fibrillation, size-exclusion chromatography-multi-angle light scattering (SEC-MALS)-based assays, and toxicity assays, we systematically screened the fruit extracts of 15 different olive varieties to identify compounds that can inhibit αSN aggregation and oligomer toxicity and also have antioxidant activity...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Denisa Baci, Matteo Gallazzi, Caterina Cascini, Matilde Tramacere, Daniela De Stefano, Antonino Bruno, Douglas M Noonan, Adriana Albini
Dietary phytochemicals are particularly attractive for chemoprevention and are able to modulate several signal transduction pathways linked with cancer. Olive oil, a major component of the Mediterranean diet, is an abundant source of phenolic compounds. Olive oil production is associated with the generation of a waste material, termed 'olive mill wastewater' (OMWW) that have been reported to contain water-soluble polyphenols. Prostate cancer (PCa) is considered as an ideal cancer type for chemopreventive approaches, due to its wide incidence but relatively long latency period and progression time...
January 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Elisabetta Bigagli, Simona Toti, Maura Lodovici, Lisa Giovannelli, Lorenzo Cinci, Mario D'Ambrosio, Cristina Luceri
BACKGROUND: Human studies have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds reduce inflammatory markers associated with chronic diseases. OBJECTIVES: To explore the anti-inflammatory effects of extra-virgin olive oil polyphenols in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: HLA-B27 transgenic rats were fed an AIN-76 diet containing 10% corn oil (CO) or extra-virgin olive oil with high (EVOO) or low phenolic content (ROO) for 3 months...
January 10, 2019: Lifestyle genomics
Sahar Bayat, Sima Mansoori Derakhshan, Neda Mansoori Derakhshan, Mahmoud Shekari Khaniani, Mohammad Reza Alivand
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in the world with the highest rate of morbidity and mortality. Due to the several side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, recent studies have focused on the use of herbal medicines. Epidemiological reports have shown the inverse relationship between breast cancer risk and intake of olive. Oleuropein (OLE) is a polyphenolic compound in virgin olive oil with antineoplastic properties and it is well tolerated by humans. Recent reports have shown that OLE has effects on the control of cancer by modulating epigenetics, such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Weirong Wang, Chenxu Shang, Wei Zhang, Zhen Jin, Feng Yao, Yanhao He, Bo Wang, Yanan Li, Jiye Zhang, Rong Lin
BACKGROUND: Vascular complications are major causes of disability and death in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nitric oxide (NO) supplement may help prevent vascular complications and is an attractive treatment option for DM. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a major polyphenol in olive oil. It is mainly used as a dietary supplement because of its antioxidant effect. PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the effects of hydroxytyrosol nitric oxide (HT-NO) on oxidative stress and NO level as well as related mechanisms...
January 2019: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Gabriele Serreli, Monica Deiana
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols beneficial effects have widely been debated throughout the last three decades, with greater attention to hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, which are by far the most studied. The main concern about the evaluation of EVOO phenols activities in vitro and in vivo is that the absorption and metabolism of these compounds once ingested lead to the production of different metabolites in the human body. EVOO phenols in the ingested forms are less concentrated in human tissues than their glucuronide, sulfate and methyl metabolites; on the other hand, metabolites may undergo deconjugation before entering the cells and thus act as free forms or may be reformed inside the cells so acting as conjugated forms...
November 22, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Maurizio Volpe, Dominik Wüst, Fabio Merzari, Michela Lucian, Gianni Andreottola, Andrea Kruse, Luca Fiori
An olive waste stream mixture, coming from a three phase-continuous centrifugation olive oil mill industry, with a typical wet basis mass composition of olive pulp 39 wt%, kernels 5 wt% and olive mill waste water 56 wt%, was subjected to hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) at 180, 220 and 250 °C for a 3-hour residence time in a 2-litre stainless steel electrically heated batch reactor. The raw feedstock and corresponding hydrochars were characterised in terms of proximate and ultimate analyses, higher heating values and energy properties...
October 2018: Waste Management
Javiera Navarro Soto, Silvia Satorres Martínez, Diego Martínez Gila, Juan Gómez Ortega, Javier Gámez García
The presence of minor compounds in virgin olive oils has been proven to play multiple positive roles in health protection, encouraging its production. The key factors that influence the oil quality are ripening stages and the state of health of the fruit. For this reason, at the oil mill's reception yard, fruits are visually inspected and separated according to their external appearance. In this way, the process parameters can be better adjusted to improve the quantity and/or quality of olive oil. This paper presents a proposal to automatically determine the oil quality before being produced from a previous inspection of the incoming fruits...
November 8, 2018: Sensors
Ruth Hornedo-Ortega, Ana B Cerezo, Rocío M de Pablos, Stéphanie Krisa, Tristan Richard, M Carmen García-Parrilla, Ana M Troncoso
Neuroinflammation is a pathological feature of quite a number of Central Nervous System diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease among others. The hallmark of brain neuroinflammation is the activation of microglia, which are the immune resident cells in the brain and represents the first line of defense when injury or disease occur. Microglial activated cells can adopt different phenotypes to carry out its diverse functions. Thus, the shift into pro-inflammatory/neurotoxic or anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective phenotypes, depending of the brain environment, has totally changed the understanding of microglia in neurodegenerative disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
María Ángeles Rosillo, Catalina Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, María Luisa Castejón, Tatiana Montoya, Marta Cejudo-Guillén, Marina Sánchez-Hidalgo
The polyphenolic extract (PE) from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has been shown to possess important anti-inflammatory and joint protective properties in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of PE on IL-1β-activated human synovial fibroblasts SW982 cell line. PE from EVOO treatment inhibited IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteases (P<0·001), TNF-α and IL-6 production (P<0·001). Similarly, IL-1β-induced cyclo-oxygenase-2 and microsomal PGE synthase-1 up-regulations were down-regulated by PE (P<0·001)...
October 26, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Xiaojing Li, Yingbin Shen, Gangcheng Wu, Xiguang Qi, Hui Zhang, Li Wang, Haifeng Qian
Owing to the poor ability of cells to decompose triglycerides, most studies of edible oil have depended on animal or clinical trials. However, such trials are expensive and time-consuming, and the results are limited to considerable individual differences. This is the first study to comprehensively investigate the effect of different oils on the lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HepG2 cells by hydrolyzing oil to fatty acids with integrated fat content. In addition, the key components of fatty acid composition, phytosterol, polyphenols, and tocopherol/tocotrienol in different oils, contributing to a decrease in content of lipid accumulation, cholesterol, ROS, and malondialdehyde (MDA), were analyzed using multivariate analysis...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Giorgio Ivan Russo, Tatiana Solinas, Daniele Urzì, Salvatore Privitera, Daniele Campisi, Andrea Cocci, Marco Carini, Massimo Madonia, Sebastiano Cimino, Giuseppe Morgia
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the sixth leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. Countries following a Mediterranean-type dietary pattern, has been reported to have lower PCa incidence and mortality compared with other European regions. A population-based case-control study has been conducted from January 2015 to December 2016 in a single institution of the municipality of Catania, southern Italy. A total of 118 PCa and 238 population-based controls were collected...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
Sara Castro-Barquero, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventós, Mónica Doménech, Ramon Estruch
Obesity is a multifactorial and complex disease defined by excess of adipose mass and constitutes a serious health problem. Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ secreting a wide range of inflammatory adipocytokines, which leads to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and metabolic disorders. The traditional Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high phenolic-rich foods intake, including extra-virgin olive oil, nuts, red wine, vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole-grain cereals. Evidence for polyphenols' effect on obesity and weight control in humans is inconsistent and the health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and their bioavailability...
October 17, 2018: Nutrients
Mauro Finicelli, Tiziana Squillaro, Francesca Di Cristo, Anna Di Salle, Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone, Umberto Galderisi, Gianfranco Peluso
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the co-occurrence of metabolic risk factors that includes insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and visceral obesity. The clinical significance of MetS consists of identifying a subgroup of patients sharing a common physiopathological state predisposing to chronic diseases. Clinical and scientific studies pinpoint lifestyle modification as an effective strategy aiming to reduce several features accountable for the risk of MetS onset...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Marco Mattonai, Andrea Vinci, Ilaria Degano, Erika Ribechini, Massimiliano Franceschi, Francesca Modugno
Olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) are important by-products of olive oil production. The wide availability and the forbidding economic costs of OMWs disposal have generated interest in their possible exploitation as a sustainable source of polyphenols. The development and optimisation of improved analytical methods for the detailed characterisation of polyphenol molecular profiles after production and during storage conditions are thus required. A new analytical method based on reverse-phase HPLC separation of polyphenols in OMWs on an embedded-polar group (EPG) stationary phase is proposed as an alternative to conventional C18 columns...
October 10, 2018: Natural Product Research
Francieli C G B S Alves, Aline Coqueiro, Paulo H Março, Patrícia Valderrama
Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) from Mediterranean were analyzed by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). The use of ICA resolution provided information over dienes (primary oxidation compound), polyphenolic compounds, tocopherol, carotenoids and chlorophylls when EVOO was evaluated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Based on these data, ICA could be used to determine the contribution of chemical compounds to the composition of EVOO produced in different regions from Mediterranean...
February 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Jesús Calahorra, Esther Martínez-Lara, Cristina De Dios, Eva Siles
Although cancer is multifactorial, a strong correlation between this pathology and increased oxidative stress has long been stablished. Hypoxia, inherent to solid tumors, increases reactive oxygen species and should be taken into account when analyzing the response of tumor cells to antioxidants. The Mediterranean diet has been related to a lower incidence of cancer, and particularly of breast cancer. Given that hydroxytyrosol (HT) is largely responsible for the antioxidant properties of olive oil, we have performed a comprehensive and comparative study of its effect on the oxidative stress response of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in hypoxia and normoxia...
2018: PloS One
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