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Patch augmentation

Tianjiao Zeng, Hayden K-H So, Edmund Y Lam
We develop an image despeckling method that combines nonlocal self-similarity filters with machine learning, which makes use of convolutional neural network (CNN) denoisers. It consists of three major steps: block matching, CNN despeckling, and group shrinkage. Through the use of block matching, we can take advantage of the similarity across image patches as a regularizer to augment the performance of data-driven denoising using a pre-trained network. The outputs from the CNN denoiser and the group coordinates from block matching are further used to form 3D groups of similar patches, which are then filtered through a wavelet-domain shrinkage...
March 1, 2019: Applied Optics
Özgür Yıldırım, Shiraslan Bakhshaliyev, Hakan Kilercik, İsmail Balaban, Umut Zübarioğlu, Oğuz Konukoğlu, Kenan Sever, Arda Özyüksel
BACKGROUND: Patch augmentation of the aortic arch as well as construction of an unobstructed pulmonary blood supply are two important surgical targets in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In this report, we aimed to present our preliminary results with a combination of two relatively new approaches in Norwood-Sano procedure. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed in 10 newborns with the diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Our surgical approach incorporated the interposition of a 6...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Barbora Svobodova, Michaela Lichtenegger, Dieter Platzer, Cristiana M L Di Giuro, Gema Guedes de la Cruz, Toma Glasnov, Wolfgang Schreibmayer, Klaus Groschner
Mutation of a single residue within the recently identified lipid (diacylglycerol) recognition window of TRPC3 (G652A) was found to abolish channel activation via endogenous lipid mediators while retaining sensitivity to the non-lipid activator GSK1702934A (abb. GSK). The mechanism of this change in chemical sensing by TRPC3 was analysed by whole-cell and single channel electrophysiology as well as Ca2+ imaging. Currents initiated by GSK or the structural (benzimidazole) analog BI-2 were significantly larger in cells expressing the G652A mutant as compared to wild type (WT) channels...
February 16, 2019: Cell Calcium
Xingjuan Chen, Yaqian Duan, Ashley M Riley, Megan A Welch, Fletcher A White, Maria B Grant, Alexander G Obukhov
Individuals with end-stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy present with decreased pain sensation. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is implicated in pain signaling and resides on sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We investigated the expression and functional activity of TRPV1 in DRG neurons of the Ins2+/Akita mouse at 9 months of diabetes using immunohistochemistry, live single cell calcium imaging, and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. 2',7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescence assay was used to determine the level of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in DRGs...
February 21, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chuang Wang, Neelam Tyagi, Andreas Rimner, Yu-Chi Hu, Harini Veeraraghavan, Guang Li, Margie Hunt, Gig Mageras, Pengpeng Zhang
PURPOSE: To design a deep learning algorithm that automatically delineates lung tumors seen on weekly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired during radiotherapy and facilitates the analysis of geometric tumor changes. METHODS: This longitudinal imaging study comprised 9 lung cancer patients who had 6-7 weekly T2-weighted MRI scans during radiotherapy. Tumors on all scans were manually contoured as the ground truth. Meanwhile, a patient-specific adaptive convolutional neural network (A-net) was developed to simulate the workflow of adaptive radiotherapy and to utilize past weekly MRI and tumor contours to segment tumors on the current weekly MRI...
February 2019: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Shun-Hsien Chang, Guan-James Wu, Chien-Hui Wu, Chung-Hsiung Huang, Guo-Jane Tsai
The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral administration in BALB/c mice with chitosan hydrolytic products including chitosan hydrolysate, LMWC and a chitooligosaccharide mixture (oligomixture), modulates mitogen-induced and antigen-specific immune responses. A water-soluble chitosan hydrolysate was obtained via cellulase degradation of chitosan, and a LMWC and the oligomixture were separated from this hydrolysate. In non-immunized mice, both the chitosan hydrolysate and oligomixture significantly increased the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Weiping Li, Miaomiao Dong, Pengmei Guo, Yu Liu, Yixin Jing, Rui Chen, Mingsheng Zhang
AIMS: Luteolin has been shown to be beneficial to cardiovascular tissues and organs. We aimed to study its vasospasmolytic effects against various vasoconstrictors in the isolated rat coronary arteries (RCAs) and its electrophysiological effects on K+ currents via voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels and inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in freshly isolated rat coronary arterial smooth muscle cells (RCASMCs). MAIN METHODS: The vascular tone of the endothelium-denuded RCAs was recorded by a wire myograph...
February 13, 2019: Life Sciences
Yasha Sheynin, Mira Chamoun, Alex S Baldwin, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Robert F Hess, Elvire Vaucher
A few hours of monocular deprivation with a diffuser eye patch temporarily strengthens the contribution of the deprived eye to binocular vision. This shift in favor of the deprived eye is characterized as a form of adult visual plasticity. Studies in animal and human models suggest that neuromodulators can enhance adult brain plasticity in general. Specifically, acetylcholine has been shown to improve certain aspects of visual function and plasticity in adulthood. We investigated whether a single administration of donepezil (a cholinesterase inhibitor) could further augment the temporary shift in perceptual eye dominance that occurs after 2 h of monocular patching...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Naoko Ikeda, Hiroki Yamaguchi, Masami Takagaki, Shinichi Mitsuyama, Mio Ebato, Kaoru Tanno, Hiromasa Nakamura, Tasuku Kadowaki, Yosuke Ueno, Hiroshi Kataoka, Takaki Uchida, Tomoyuki Aoki
BACKGROUND: The ideal surgical technique for ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) is controversial. We introduced an extended posterior mitral leaflet (PML) augmentation technique for functional MR with severe tethering, which detached the PML from the annulus almost completely and augmented it with a large 3×6-cm oval pericardial patch. Methods and Results: A total of 17 mitral repairs using the new technique were performed for ischemic MR with no 30-day mortality and 2 hospital deaths...
February 9, 2019: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Tommaso Ingrassia, Benedetto Lombardo, Vincenzo Nigrelli, Vito Ricotta, Lorenzo Nalbone, Antonio D'Arienzo, Michele D'Arienzo, Giuseppe Porcellini
PURPOSE: Massive rotator cuff tears are common in the aging population. The incidence of failed rotator cuff repairs is still quite high, especially in the treatment of full-thickness tears or revision repairs. In this context, natural and synthetic meshes can be used as augmentation scaffolds or as devices to close the gap between a retracted tendon and the bone. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the ultimate tensile strength of different tendon-patch joints in order to consider their use in the treatment of massive cuff tears...
February 2, 2019: Injury
Qing Zhang, Ji-Hua Ma, Hong Li, Xiao-Hong Wei, Jie Zheng, Gang Li, Cheng-Yu Wang, Ying Wu, Qi-Hua He, Lin Wu
BACKGROUND: Increased CO2 levels in general circulation and/or in the myocardium are common under pathological conditions. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that an increase in CO2 levels, but not just the subsequent extra- or intra-cellular acidosis, would augment late sodium current (INa,L ), and contribute to arrhythmogenesis in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve. METHODS: Monophasic action potential durations at 90% completion of repolarization (MAPD90 ) from isolated rabbit hearts, INa,L and extra- (pHo ) and intra-cellular pH (pHi ) values from cardiomyocytes using the whole-cell patch-clamp techniques and BCECF-AM, respectively, were measured...
January 30, 2019: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Riccardo D'Ambrosi, Vincenza Ragone, Guido Comaschi, Federico Giuseppe Usuelli, Nicola Ursino
The goal of repairing rotator cuff injuries is an anatomical procedure without tension repair. Considering the high percentage of re-rupture after large and massive lesions repair, numerous surgical solutions have been proposed. The purpose of this systematic review was to present retears and complication rates following arthroscopic treatment of rotator cuff pathology with scaffolds. A systematic review of the existing literature was performed to identify all studies dealing with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using scaffolds...
January 23, 2019: Cell and Tissue Banking
Silvia Santillo, Alessandro Martini, Arianna Polverino, Nicola B Mercuri, Ezia Guatteo, Giuseppe Sorrentino
TB is a cell line derived from the cerebrospinal fluid sample of a patient with primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis. Our previous immunological and ultrastructural analysis revealed that TB cells differentiate towards a neuronal phenotype when grown in vitro up to 7 days in presence of 10 µM all-trans retinoic acid (RA). Recently, we reported that TB cells are sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of β-amyloid peptides, activating the cytosolic phospholipase A2. To date, it is not known if RA, in addition to inducing morphological changes, also causes functional modification in TB cells, by regulating voltage-gated ionic currents...
January 17, 2019: Brain Research
Theresa Lowinus, Florian H Heidel, Tanima Bose, Subbaiah Chary Nimmagadda, Tina Schnöder, Clemens Cammann, Ingo Schmitz, Ulrike Seifert, Thomas Fischer, Burkhart Schraven, Ursula Bommhardt
BACKGROUND: Treatment of acute leukemia is challenging and long-lasting remissions are difficult to induce. Innovative therapy approaches aim to complement standard chemotherapy to improve drug efficacy and decrease toxicity. Promising new therapeutic targets in cancer therapy include voltage-gated Kv 1.3 potassium channels, but their role in acute leukemia is unclear. We reported that Kv 1.3 channels of lymphocytes are blocked by memantine, which is known as an antagonist of neuronal N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptors and clinically applied in therapy of advanced Alzheimer disease...
January 16, 2019: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Keisuke Nakanishi, Shiori Kawasaki, Atsushi Amano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2019: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Rainer Schreiber, Björn Buchholz, Andre Kraus, Gunnar Schley, Julia Scholz, Jiraporn Ousingsawat, Karl Kunzelmann
BACKGROUND: Transepithelial chloride- secretion, through the chloride channels cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and TMEM16A (anoctamin 1), drives cyst enlargement in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Polycystic kidneys are hypoxic, and oxidative stress activates TMEM16A. However, mechanisms for channel activation in PKD remain obscure. METHODS: Using tissue samples from patients with autosomal dominant PKD, embryonic kidney cultures, and an MDCK in vitro cyst model, we assessed peroxidation of plasma membrane phospholipids in human and mouse polycystic kidneys...
February 2019: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Congling Wu, Shengwen Guo, Yanjia Hong, Benheng Xiao, Yupeng Wu, Qin Zhang
Background: Recently, studies have demonstrated that machine learning techniques, particularly cutting-edge deep learning technology, have achieved significant progression on the classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal phase, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Moreover, accurate prediction of the progress and the conversion risk from MCI to probable AD has been of great importance in clinical application. Methods: In this study, the baseline MR images and follow-up information during 3 years of 150 normal controls (NC), 150 patients with stable MCI (sMCI) and 157 converted MCI (cMCI) were collected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)...
November 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Kaushiki Roy, Debapriya Banik, Debotosh Bhattacharjee, Mita Nasipuri
In this work, we proposed a patch-based classifier (PBC) using Convolutional neural network (CNN) for automatic classification of histopathological breast images. Presence of limited images necessitated extraction of patches and augmentation to boost the number of training samples. Thus patches of suitable sizes carrying crucial diagnostic information were extracted from the original images. The proposed classification system works in two different modes: one patch in one decision (OPOD) and all patches in one decision (APOD)...
December 1, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Ying Wang, Shukui Zhou, Ranxing Yang, Qingsong Zou, Kaile Zhang, Qinghua Tian, Weixin Zhao, Lijuan Zong, Qiang Fu
Cell-seeded scaffolds are a common route of cell transplantation for bladder repair and reconstruction. However, when cell suspensions are harvested, proteolytic enzymes often cause extracellular matrix damage and loss of intercellular junctions. To overcome this problem, we developed a bioengineered three-dimensional bladder patch comprising porous scaffolds and multilayered adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) sheets, and evaluated its feasibility for bladder regeneration in a rat model. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were labeled with ultrasmall super-paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles...
December 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Timothy J Eyes, James I Austerberry, Rebecca J Dearman, Linus O Johannissen, Ian Kimber, Noel Smith, Angela Thistlethwaite, Jeremy P Derrick
Aggregation of therapeutic proteins is a key factor in the generation of unwanted immunogenicity, and can result in reduced serum half-life, neutralization of function and adverse health effects. There is currently little information regarding how aggregates interact with B-cell receptors or cognate antibodies at the protein sequence level, or whether non-native, aggregate-induced epitopes predominate in these interactions. Using an antibody fragment (single chain antibody variable fragment; scFv) that forms aggregates readily at low temperature, anti-scFv IgG antibody responses were generated by intraperitoneal injection of BALB/c strain mice with monomer or aggregate preparations...
December 11, 2018: Molecular Immunology
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