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Viral zoonoses

Zhe Zheng, Yi Lu, Kirsty R Short, Jiahai Lu
BACKGROUND: With an increased incidence of viral zoonoses, there is an impetus to strengthen collaborations between public health, agricultural and environmental departments. This interdisciplinary cooperation, also known as the 'One Health' approach, has received significant support from various stakeholders. However, current efforts and policies still fall short of those needed for an effective One Health approach towards disease control and prevention. The avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus outbreak in China serves as an ideal case study to emphasise this point...
February 11, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Rebecca Shipley, Edward Wright, David Selden, Guanghui Wu, James Aegerter, Anthony R Fooks, Ashley C Banyard
: Bats in the EU have been associated with several zoonotic viral pathogens of significance to both human and animal health. Virus discovery continues to expand the existing understating of virus classification, and the increased interest in bats globally as reservoirs or carriers of zoonotic agents has fuelled the continued detection and characterisation of new lyssaviruses and other viral zoonoses. Although the transmission of lyssaviruses from bat species to humans or terrestrial species appears rare, interest in these viruses remains, through their ability to cause the invariably fatal encephalitis-rabies...
February 7, 2019: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Stefanie Kar Yan Hung, Fu Liong Hiew, Shanthi Viswanathan
Multiple co-infections can predispose a patient to autoimmune encephalitis. Out of thirty cases of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis seen at a single tertiary referral center, only two cases of co-infection with NMDAR encephalitis were identified. One of these cases was highly interesting due to the presence of more than one co-infections along with the presence of cortical dysfunction, seizures, and orofacial dyskinesias at the onset in a male in the absence of tumors, which was refractory to initial treatment...
January 2019: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Davide Colombi, Jordi Serra-Cobo, Raphaëlle Métras, Andrea Apolloni, Chiara Poletto, Marc López-Roig, Hervé Bourhy, Vittoria Colizza
Bats are natural reservoirs of the largest proportion of viral zoonoses among mammals, thus understanding the conditions for pathogen persistence in bats is essential to reduce human risk. Focusing on the European Bat Lyssavirus subtype 1 (EBLV-1), causing rabies disease, we develop a data-driven spatially explicit metapopulation model to investigate EBLV-1 persistence in Myotis myotis and Miniopterus schreibersii bat species in Catalonia. We find that persistence relies on host spatial structure through the migratory nature of M...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
Daniel Sauter, Frank Kirchhoff
HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, has a complex evolutionary history involving several cross-species transmissions and recombination events as well as changes in the repertoire and function of its accessory genes. Understanding these events and the adaptations to new host species provides key insights into innate defense mechanisms, viral dependencies on cellular factors, and prerequisites for the emergence of the AIDS pandemic. In addition, understanding the factors and adaptations required for the spread of HIV in the human population helps to better assess the risk of future lentiviral zoonoses and provides clues to how improved control of viral replication can be achieved...
January 9, 2019: Cell Host & Microbe
Robert Sumaye, Famke Jansen, Dirk Berkvens, Bernard De Baets, Eveline Geubels, Etienne Thiry, Meryam Krit
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is one of the major viral zoonoses in Africa, affecting humans and several domestic animal species. The epidemics in eastern Africa occur in a 5-15 year cycle coinciding with abnormally high rainfall generally associated to the warm phase of the El Niño event. However, recently, evidence has been gathered of inter-epidemic transmission. An open-source, easily applicable, accessible and modifiable model was built to simulate the transmission dynamics of RVF. The model was calibrated using data collected in the Kilombero Valley in Tanzania with people and cattle as host species and Ædes mcintoshi, Æ...
2019: PloS One
Mary G Reynolds, Jeffry B Doty, Andrea M McCollum, Victoria A Olson, Yoshinori Nakazawa
Monkeypox is a re-emerging viral zoonosis that occurs naturally in heavily-forested regions of West and Central Africa. Inter-human transmission of monkeypox virus, although limited, drives outbreaks, particularly in household and healthcare settings. But the available evidence suggests that without repeated zoonotic introductions, human infections would eventually cease to occur. Therefore, interrupting virus transmission from animals to humans is key to combatting this disease. Such efforts, however, are hindered by an incomplete understanding of the maintenance and transmission dynamics of the virus in its natural reservoir host(s)...
January 9, 2019: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Daniel J Becker, Gábor Á Czirják, Agnieszka Rynda-Apple, Raina K Plowright
Variation in immune defense influences infectious disease dynamics within and among species. Understanding how variation in immunity drives pathogen transmission among species is especially important for animals that are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens. Bats, in particular, have a propensity to host serious viral zoonoses without developing clinical disease themselves. The immunological adaptations that allow bats to host viruses without disease may be related to their adaptations for flight (e.g., in metabolism and mediation of oxidative stress)...
January 2019: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa
Wild boar populations around the world have increased dramatically over past decades. Climate change, generating milder winters with less snow, may affect their spread into northern regions. Wild boars can serve as reservoirs for a number of bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which are transmissible to humans and domestic animals through direct interaction with wild boars, through contaminated food or indirectly through contaminated environment. Disease transmission between wild boars, domestic animals, and humans is an increasing threat to human and animal health, especially in areas with high wild boar densities...
November 27, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Cíntia Bittar, Rafael R G Machado, Manuela T Comelis, Larissa M Bueno, Eliana Morielle-Versute, Matheus R Beguelini, Renato P de Souza, Maurício L Nogueira, Paula Rahal
Viruses are important agents of emerging zoonoses and are a substantial public health issue. Among emerging viruses, an important group are arboviruses, which are characterized by being maintained in nature in cycles involving hematophagous arthropod vectors and a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Recently, bats have received increasing attention as an important source for the emergence of zoonoses and as possible viral reservoirs. Among the arboviruses, there are many representatives of the genera Flavivirus and Alphavirus, which are responsible for important epidemics such as Dengue virus, Zika virus and Chikungunya virus...
2018: PloS One
Joseph W Walker, Barbara A Han, Isabel M Ott, John M Drake
Effective public health research and preparedness requires an accurate understanding of which virus species possess or are at risk of developing human transmissibility. Unfortunately, our ability to identify these viruses is limited by gaps in disease surveillance and an incomplete understanding of the process of viral adaptation. By fitting boosted regression trees to data on 224 human viruses and their associated traits, we developed a model that predicts the human transmission ability of zoonotic viruses with over 84% accuracy...
2018: PloS One
Judith N Mandl, Caitlin Schneider, David S Schneider, Michelle L Baker
A majority of viruses that have caused recent epidemics with high lethality rates in people, are zoonoses originating from wildlife. Among them are filoviruses (e.g., Marburg, Ebola), coronaviruses (e.g., SARS, MERS), henipaviruses (e.g., Hendra, Nipah) which share the common features that they are all RNA viruses, and that a dysregulated immune response is an important contributor to the tissue damage and hence pathogenicity that results from infection in humans. Intriguingly, these viruses also all originate from bat reservoirs...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Aroon Supramaniam, Hayman Lui, Bernadette M Bellette, Penny A Rudd, Lara J Herrero
Up to 75 % of emerging human diseases are zoonoses, spread from animals to humans. Although bacteria, fungi and parasites can be causative agents, the majority of zoonotic infections are caused by viral pathogens. During the past 20 years many factors have converged to cause a dramatic resurgence or emergence of zoonotic diseases. Some of these factors include demographics, social changes, urban sprawl, changes in agricultural practices and global climate changes. In the period between 2014-2017 zoonotic viruses including ebola virus (EBOV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus (DENV) and zika virus (ZIKV), caused prominent outbreaks resulting in significant public health and economic burdens, especially in developing areas where these diseases are most prevalent...
August 2018: Journal of General Virology
Emelissa J Mendoza, Bryce Warner, Gary Kobinger, Nicholas H Ogden, David Safronetz
Rodents serve as the natural reservoir and vector for a variety of pathogens, some of which are responsible for severe and life-threatening disease in humans. Despite the significant impact in humans many of these viruses, including Old and New World hantaviruses as well as Arenaviruses, most have no specific vaccine or therapeutic to treat or prevent human infection. The recent success of wildlife vaccines to mitigate rabies in animal populations offers interesting insight into the use of similar strategies for other zoonotic agents of human disease...
June 21, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Valentina Tagliapietra, Roberto Rosà, Chiara Rossi, Fausta Rosso, Heidi Christine Hauffe, Michele Tommasini, Walter Versini, Attilio Fabio Cristallo, Annapaola Rizzoli
Rodent-borne hanta- and arenaviruses are an emerging public health threat in Europe; however, their circulation in human populations is usually underestimated since most infections are asymptomatic. Compared to other European countries, Italy is considered 'low risk' for these viruses, yet in the Province of Trento, two pathogenic hantaviruses (Puumala and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) and one arenavirus (Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus) are known to circulate in rodent reservoirs. In this paper, we performed a follow-up serological screening in humans to detect variation in the prevalence of these three viruses compared to previous analyses carried out in 2002...
September 2018: EcoHealth
Savina Reid, Haley Thompson, Kiran T Thakur
Neurological complications of infectious diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that neurologists be up-to-date on current developments including typical and atypical presentations of neurological infections in travelers, diagnostic and treatment recommendations, and emerging pathogen resistance patterns to avoid fatal outcomes and long-term sequelae. This article will address concepts of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and will provide updates on the neurological manifestations of select emerging and reemerging infections, including Ebola virus, bacterial meningitis, enterovirus 71, Zika virus, cerebral malaria, and Japanese encephalitis...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Abdullah İnci, Mehmet Doğanay, Aykut Özdarendeli, Önder Düzlü, Alparslan Yıldırım
Zoonotic infections are globally important diseases and lead to huge economic losses in both low- and middle-income and high-income countries. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes, illegal movement of animals and humans, regional civil wars, and poverty are predisposing factors for the emergence of zoonotic infections and their distribution worldwide; they are also a big threat for the future. In addition, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance are immense serious threats and dangers to prevent and control zoonotic infections...
March 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Musa Sekamatte, Vikram Krishnasamy, Lilian Bulage, Christine Kihembo, Noelina Nantima, Fred Monje, Deo Ndumu, Juliet Sentumbwe, Betty Mbolanyi, Robert Aruho, Winyi Kaboyo, David Mutonga, Colin Basler, Sarah Paige, Casey Barton Behravesh
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden globally. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern to the Ugandan government. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool, a semi-quantitative tool developed by the U...
2018: PloS One
Andrzej Miskiewicz, Paweł Kowalczyk, Sanaa Mahdi Oraibi, Krystyna Cybulska, Anna Misiewicz
This article describes methods of treatment for avian zoonoses, modern antibiotic therapy and drug resistance of selected pathogens, which pose a threat to the population's health. A tabular form has been used to present the current data from the European Union from 2011 to 2017 regarding human morbidity and mortality and the costs incurred by national health systems for the treatment of zoonoses occurring in humans and animals. Moreover, the paper includes descriptions of selected diseases, which indirectly affect birds...
September 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
M J Maze, Q Bassat, N A Feasey, I Mandomando, P Musicha, J A Crump
BACKGROUND: Fever is among the most common symptoms of people living in Africa, and clinicians are challenged by the similar clinical features of a wide spectrum of potential aetiologies. AIM: To summarize recent studies of fever aetiology in sub-Saharan Africa focusing on causes other than malaria. SOURCES: A narrative literature review by searching the MEDLINE database, and recent conference abstracts. CONTENT: Studies of multiple potential causes of fever are scarce, and for many participants the infecting organism remains unidentified, or multiple co-infecting microorganisms are identified, and establishing causation is challenging...
August 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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