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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762385/the-language-of-generalization
#1
Michael Henry Tessler, Noah D Goodman
Language provides simple ways of communicating generalizable knowledge to each other (e.g., "Birds fly," "John hikes," and "Fire makes smoke"). Though found in every language and emerging early in development, the language of generalization is philosophically puzzling and has resisted precise formalization. Here, we propose the first formal account of generalizations conveyed with language that makes quantitative predictions about human understanding. The basic idea is that the language of generalization expresses that an event or a property occurs relatively often, where what counts as relatively often depends upon one's prior expectations...
February 14, 2019: Psychological Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762090/joint-effects-of-stress-and-chronic-cannabis-use-on-prospective-memory
#2
Carrie Cuttler, Alexander Spradlin, Amy T Nusbaum, Paul Whitney, John M Hinson, Ryan J McLaughlin
RATIONALE: Prospective memory pervades our daily lives and failures can have detrimental consequences. This ability to execute delayed intentions may be impacted by stress, yet few studies have examined these effects. Moreover, as many cannabis users report using cannabis to cope with stress, it is important to understand how stress impacts memory in cannabis users. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effects of acute and chronic stress on prospective memory to examine whether stress differentially impacts prospective memory in cannabis users vs...
February 14, 2019: Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759113/hopping-in-hypogravity-a-rationale-for-a-plyometric-exercise-countermeasure-in-planetary-exploration-missions
#3
Tobias Weber, David A Green, Julia Attias, Wolfram Sies, Alexandre Frechette, Bjoern Braunstein, Jörn Rittweger
Moon and Mars are considered to be future targets for human space explorations. The gravity level on the Moon and Mars amount to 16% and 38%, respectively, of Earth's gravity. Mechanical loading during the anticipated habitual activities in these hypogravity environments will most likely not be sufficient to maintain physiological integrity of astronauts unless additional exercise countermeasures are performed. Current microgravity exercise countermeasures appear to attenuate but not prevent 'space deconditioning'...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759104/prenatal-maternal-docosahexaenoic-acid-intake-and-infant-information-processing-at-4-5mo-and-9mo-a-longitudinal-study
#4
Alison Rees, Sylvain Sirois, Alison Wearden
Previous research suggesting an association between maternal prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and infant cognition has yet to assess whether there is a critical trimester for the observed effects. We used a comprehensive Food Frequency Questionnaire to estimate DHA levels during both the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, in a sample of 125 pregnant women. Infants were assessed at 4.5 months and 9 months post-partum using specific tests of visual acuity, habituation, and visual attention. Based on maternal DHA levels during pregnancy, mothers were subdivided into high, medium, and low groups, and their infants compared for task performance using one-way ANOVAs with maternal DHA groups...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758165/aerobic-capacity-and-exercise-performance-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
Patrick Austin, Lynn Gerber, James M Paik, Jillian K Price, Carey Escheik, Zobair M Younossi
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Exercise has proven effective in treating NAFLD, and many clinical initiatives seek to increase uptake of exercise in this population. This study aimed to elucidate the physiological responses of individuals with NAFLD to graded exercise testing. METHODS: 17 participants with presumed NAFLD and 15 without were assessed through symptom-limited, Modified Bruce treadmill testing...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30757957/the-environmental-temperature-of-the-residential-care-home-role-in-thermal-comfort-and-mental-health
#6
Michelle Cleary, Toby Raeburn, Sancia West, Charmaine Childs
BACKGROUND: In the midst of changing environmental conditions and increasing populations aged over 65 years, how best to provide nursing care that promotes mental health and wellbeing within residential aged care facilities is an important concern. AIM/OBJECTIVE: To explore the perceptions of temperature control, thermal comfort and nursing care in a small group of older Australians. DESIGN: Descriptive, qualitative study using thematic analysis...
February 13, 2019: Contemporary Nurse
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30757942/the-effect-of-visual-feedback-on-people-suffering-from-chronic-back-and-neck-pain-a-systematic-review
#7
Martin Heinrich, Simon Steiner, Christoph Michael Bauer
OBJECTIVES: Visual feedback as an intervention for people suffering from chronic back or chronic neck pain is a novel approach based on the person's perception of the painful body part. Visual feedback is an innovative therapeutic approach whose effects have not yet been systematically reviewed specifically for people with chronic back or chronic neck pain. Therefore, a systematic review was performed on the literature to evaluate the effects of visual feedback on pain intensity in people with chronic back or neck pain...
February 13, 2019: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756321/self-reported-snoring-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-events-results-from-the-jackson-heart-study
#8
David M Rosen, Vaishnavi Kundel, Michael Rueschman, Robert Kaplan, Na Guo, James G Wilson, Yuan-I Min, Susan Redline, Neomi Shah
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that snoring is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Limited data exists pertaining to this association among African Americans. We therefore examined the association between self-reported habitual snoring and incident CVD in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), a population-based cohort study of African Americans. METHODS: Self-reported data on snoring and risk factors for CVD were collected at baseline (2000-2004)...
February 13, 2019: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755182/comparing-habitual-and-i-scription-refractions
#9
Nicole M Putnam, Balamurali Vasudevan, Andre Juarez, Cam Tu Le, Kristine Sam, Pablo de Gracia, Allissun Hoppert
BACKGROUND: Many patients voice concerns regarding poor night vision, even when they see 20/20 or better in the exam room. During mesopic and scotopic conditions the pupil size increases, increasing the effects on visual performance of uncorrected (residual) refractive errors. The i.Scription refraction method claims to optimize traditional refractions for mesopic and scotopic conditions, by using the information that the Zeiss i.Profilerplus gathers of ocular aberrations (low and high order)...
February 12, 2019: BMC Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30754028/cortical-recruitment-and-functional-dynamics-in-postural-control-adaptation-and-habituation-during-vibratory-proprioceptive-stimulation
#10
Kyle Joseph Edmunds, Hannes Petersen, Mahmoud Hassan, Sahar Yassine, Antonella Olivieri, Fabio Barollo, Rún Friðriksdóttir, Patricia Edmunds, Magnús Gíslason, Antonio Fratini, Paolo Gargiulo
Maintaining upright posture is a complex task governed by the integration of afferent sensorimotor and visual information with compensatory neuromuscular reactions. The objective of the present work was to characterize the visual dependency and functional dynamics of cortical activation during postural control. 
 Approach. Proprioceptic vibratory stimulation of calf muscles at 85 Hz was performed to evoke postural perturbation in open-eye (OE) and closed-eye (CE) experimental trials, with pseudorandom binary stimulation phases divided into four segments of 16 stimuli...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753732/gender-based-experiences-of-verbal-bullying-in-adolescents-application-of-giorgi-s-method
#11
Mi-Kyoung Cho, Hee Chong Baek, Gisoo Shin
Verbal bullying among adolescents, which has become increasingly prevalent in recent years, often involves swearing or sexually ridiculing one's family members or peers. Because many factors underlying the initiation of verbal bullying remain unknown, Giorgi's phenomenological method was used to examine the essence and meaning of verbal bullying among adolescents, which is an urgent issue in the field of nursing in South Korea. In this descriptive phenomenological study, researchers examined the behavior of 16 adolescents...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753188/conserved-regulation-of-neurodevelopmental-processes-and-behavior-by-foxp-in-drosophila
#12
Anna Castells-Nobau, Ilse Eidhof, Michaela Fenckova, Dova B Brenman-Suttner, Jolanda M Scheffer-de Gooyert, Sheren Christine, Rosa L Schellevis, Kiran van der Laan, Christine Quentin, Lisa van Ninhuijs, Falko Hofmann, Radoslaw Ejsmont, Simon E Fisher, Jamie M Kramer, Stephan J Sigrist, Anne F Simon, Annette Schenck
FOXP proteins form a subfamily of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors involved in the development and functioning of several tissues, including the central nervous system. In humans, mutations in FOXP1 and FOXP2 have been implicated in cognitive deficits including intellectual disability and speech disorders. Drosophila exhibits a single ortholog, called FoxP, but due to a lack of characterized mutants, our understanding of the gene remains poor. Here we show that the dimerization property required for mammalian FOXP function is conserved in Drosophila...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747573/personal-and-social-environmental-correlates-of-square-dancing-habits-in-chinese-middle-aged-and-older-adults-living-in-communities
#13
Jing Liao, Sanmei Chen, Sha Chen, Yung-Jen Yang
This study aimed to examine personal and social environmental correlates of physical activity habit of middle-aged and older adults, using Chinese square dancing as a natural exploratory example. Participants were 385 adults aged≥45 years (93% female), who habitually danced on squares or parks of three old districts of Guangzhou. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify personal, social, psychological and behavioral correlates of multi-year dance. Old age, high education, sufficient leisure time and stable social environmental factors were associated with persistent dancing, whereby education (relative risk ratio (RRR)=1...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747563/the-effects-of-statins-on-physical-activity-or-physical-fitness-among-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#14
Adelle Gadowski, Alice J Owen, Andrea Curtis, Natalie Nanayakkara, Stephane Heritier, Marie Misso, Sophia Zoungas
This review examines the effects of statins on physical activity and/or fitness, as statins can have adverse muscle effects. A search of MEDLINE, Embase and EBMR databases to July 2018 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing statin with placebo or control, measuring physical activity and/or fitness in adults. Sixteen RCTs (total participants N=2,944) were included, 6 RCTs contributed data for meta-analysis. Random effects meta-analysis examined differences in physical fitness; maximal exercise time (seconds) in exercise testing and maximal heart rate (beats per minute ((bpm)) between statins and control...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747074/sodium-intake-circulating-microvesicles-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-type-2-diabetes
#15
Dorothy Liu, Sara Baqar, Lisa L Lincz, Elif I Ekinci
There is ongoing debate surrounding the complex relationship between dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The existing literature consists largely of observational studies that have demonstrated positive, negative, U-/J-shaped or unclear associations between sodium intake and cardiovascular outcomes. Our group and others have previously demonstrated an inverse relationship between dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic nervous system are postulated to contribute to these paradoxical findings through endothelial dysfunction, a precursor to the development of cardiovascular disease...
February 12, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746139/association-of-self-reported-physical-function-with-survival-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Amy L Clarke, Francesco Zaccardi, Douglas W Gould, Katherine L Hull, Alice C Smith, James O Burton, Thomas Yates
Background: Reduced physical function is associated with an increased risk of mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). Assessments of physical performance can help to identify those at risk for adverse events. However, objective measures are not always feasible and self-reported measures may provide a suitable surrogate. Methods: We performed a cohort study examining associations between self-reported physical function and walking behaviour with survival in patients with CKD not requiring RRT...
February 2019: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746043/patients-preferences-and-the-efficacy-of-a-hybrid-model-of-a-minimal-contact-nasal-mask-in-patients-with-sleep-apnea-treated-with-cpap
#17
Magali Blanco, Veronica Jaritos, Glenda Ernst, Alejandro Salvado, Facundo Nogueira, Eduardo Borsini
Objectives: To evaluate patient's satisfaction, efficacy and adherence to CPAP with a hybrid nasal mask (DW) we tested patients with OSA in unattended setting under real-life conditions. Material and Methods: Prospective, comparative study using DW mask 7 days against habitual mask in patients adapted to CPAP therapy. Results: We analyzed 52 patients: 35 men (67%) with IAH mean; 24.3±12.3 events/hour. At baseline mean compliance of 5.42±1...
July 2018: Sleep Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742870/physical-activity-trajectories-and-subsequent-fall-risk-aric-study
#18
Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Michael E Griswold, Wanmei Wang, Sadie H Conway, B Gwen Windham, Priya Palta, Anna Kucharska-Newton, Lisa A Pompeii
To examine the impact of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) trajectories during midlife and older adulthood with subsequent fall risk in later life. Cross-temporal analyses were conducted in 15,792 participants (27% black, 55% women) aged 45 to 64 years enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. MVPA was collected at Exams 1 (1987-89), 3 (1993-95) and 5 (2011-13) using the ARIC/Baecke questionnaire. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify the MVPA trajectory groups...
February 8, 2019: Preventive Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742843/self-report-and-neurophysiological-indicators-of-emotion-processing-and-regulation-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#19
Kerry L Kinney, Katie L Burkhouse, Heide Klumpp
Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) report less habitual reappraisal and more frequent suppression compared to healthy controls (HC). However, it is unclear whether a neurophysiological index of emotional reactivity, the late positive potential (LPP), is aberrant in SAD or whether self-reported reappraisal or suppression relates to the LPP during on-line emotion reactivity and reappraisal. Participants with SAD (n = 51) and HC (n = 31) completed an Emotion Regulation Task. Emotion reactivity and regulation were measured via LPP when viewing negative images ('Look Negative') and when using a cognitive strategy to reduce negative affect ('Reappraise Negative')...
February 8, 2019: Biological Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740235/physiotherapy-improves-symptoms-of-exercise-induced-laryngeal-obstruction-in-young-elite-athletes-a-case-series
#20
Liv-Jorunn Kolnes, Maria Vollsæter, Ola Drange Røksund, Trine Stensrud
Objective: A constricted, upper chest breathing pattern and postural dealignments habitually accompany exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), but there are few effective treatments for athletes presenting with EILO. This case series was conducted to examine whether physiotherapy based on principles from the Norwegian psychomotor physiotherapy (NPMP) combined with elements of cognitive behavioural therapy can reduce laryngeal distress in athletes with EILO. Methods: Respiratory distress in four subjects was examined by interview prior to a physiotherapeutic body examination...
2019: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
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