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N-Acetyl Cysteine Antioxidant Review

Sandeep B Subramanya, Balaji Venkataraman, Mohamed Fizur Nagoor Meeran, Sameer N Goyal, Chandragouda R Patil, Shreesh Ojha
Acetaminophen (APAP), which is also known as paracetamol or N -acetyl- p -aminophenol is a safe and potent drug for fever, pain and inflammation when used at its normal therapeutic doses. It is available as over-the-counter drug and used by all the age groups. The overdose results in acute liver failure that often requires liver transplantation. Current clinical therapy for APAP-induced liver toxicity is the administration of N -acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a sulphydryl compound an approved drug which acts by replenishing cellular glutathione (GSH) stores in the liver...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Atul Kabra, Rohit Sharma, Ruchika Kabra, Uttam Singh Baghel
Parkinson's disease (PD) is standout amongst the most common neurodegenerative malady with unpredictable dynamic pathology. At present, accessible traditional choices for PD have certain impediments of their own, and subsequently persistent consistence and fulfillment are low. Current contemporary treatment options just give symptomatic alleviation constrained control to anticipate malady progression, bringing about poor patient consistence and fulfilment. Numerous rising pharmacotherapies for PD are in various phases of medical improvement...
2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Kirsten C Morley, Andrew Baillie, Wim Van Den Brink, Kate E Chitty, Kathleen Brady, Sudie E Back, Devanshi Seth, Greg Sutherland, Lorenzo Leggio, Paul S Haber
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the leading cause of alcohol-related death and one of the most common forms of liver disease. Abstinence from alcohol is crucial to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. However, there are few pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorder suitable for those with significant liver disease. Areas Covered: This paper presents a rationale for investigating the use of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) to promote abstinence or reduce heavy alcohol consumption for patients with an alcohol use disorder, particularly in the presence of liver disease...
August 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Giancarlo Aldini, Alessandra Altomare, Giovanna Baron, Giulio Vistoli, Marina Carini, Luisa Borsani, Francesco Sergio
The main molecular mechanisms explaining the well-established antioxidant and reducing activity of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the N-acetyl derivative of the natural amino acid l-cysteine, are summarised and critically reviewed. The antioxidant effect is due to the ability of NAC to act as a reduced glutathione (GSH) precursor; GSH is a well-known direct antioxidant and a substrate of several antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, in some conditions where a significant depletion of endogenous Cys and GSH occurs, NAC can act as a direct antioxidant for some oxidant species such as NO2 and HOX...
July 2018: Free Radical Research
Chiara Di Tucci, Mara Di Feliciantonio, Flaminia Vena, Carmela Capone, Michele Carlo Schiavi, Daniela Pietrangeli, Ludovico Muzii, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
Alpha-Lipoic acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant synthetized by plants and animals, identified as a catalytic agent for oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate. In this review, we analyzed the action of ALA in gynecology and obstetrics focusing in particular on neuropathic pain and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed and Cochrane Library for retrieving articles in English language on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ALA in gynecological and obstetrical conditions...
September 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Ahmad Majzoub, Ashok Agarwal
Objective: To explore the current evidence concerning the effect of oral antioxidant supplementation on various male fertility outcomes, as antioxidants are widely available compounds that are commonly used for the treatment of male infertility. Materials and methods: PubMed, Medline and Cochrane electronic databases were searched according to a modified Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines looking for studies investigating the effect of antioxidant therapy on infertile men...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Phiwayinkosi V Dludla, Stephanie C Dias, Nnini Obonye, Rabia Johnson, Johan Louw, Bongani B Nkambule
INTRODUCTION: Heart failure is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes. No treatment currently exists to specifically protect these patients at risk of developing cardiovascular complications. Accelerated oxidative stress-induced tissue damage due to persistent hyperglycemia is one of the major factors implicated in deteriorated cardiac function within a diabetic state. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), through its enhanced capacity to endogenously synthesize glutathione, a potent antioxidant, has displayed abundant health-promoting properties and has a favorable safety profile...
August 2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Dimitrios Tsikas, Kathrin S Schwedhelm, Andrzej Surdacki, Daniela Giustarini, Ranieri Rossi, Lea Kukoc-Modun, George Kedia, Stefan Ückert
S -Nitrosothiols or thionitrites with the general formula RSNO are formally composed of the nitrosyl cation (NO+ ) and a thiolate (RS- ), the base of the corresponding acids RSH. The smallest S -nitrosothiol is HSNO and derives from hydrogen sulfide (HSH, H2 S). The most common physiological S -nitrosothiols are derived from the amino acid L-cysteine (CysSH). Thus, the simplest S -nitrosothiol is S -nitroso-L-cysteine (CysSNO). CysSNO is a spontaneous potent donor of nitric oxide (NO) which activates soluble guanylyl cyclase to form cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)...
February 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Joseph Firth, Simon Rosenbaum, Philip B Ward, Jackie Curtis, Scott B Teasdale, Alison R Yung, Jerome Sarris
AIM: The effects of nutrient-based treatments, including adjunctive vitamin or antioxidant supplementation, have been explored extensively in long-term schizophrenia. However, no systematic evaluation of trials in "first-episode psychosis" (FEP) has been conducted, despite the potential benefits of using these treatments during the early stages of illness. Therefore, we aimed to review all studies examining efficacy, tolerability and the biological mechanisms of action, of nutrient supplementation in FEP...
October 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Phiwayinkosi V Dludla, Bongani B Nkambule, Stephanie C Dias, Rabia Johnson
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative damage is a well-established factor implicated in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in diabetic individuals. Some of the well-known characteristics of DCM include increased myocardial left ventricular wall thickness and remodelling that result in reduced cardiac efficiency. To prevent this, an increasing number of pharmacological compounds such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) are explored for their antioxidant properties. A few studies have shown that NAC can ameliorate hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative damage within the heart...
May 12, 2017: Systematic Reviews
Vida Mokhtari, Parvaneh Afsharian, Maryam Shahhoseini, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Ashraf Moini
N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), as a nutritional supplement, is a greatly applied antioxidant in vivo and in vitro . NAC is a precursor of L-cysteine that results in glutathione elevation biosynthesis. It acts directly as a scavenger of free radicals, especially oxygen radicals. NAC is a powerful antioxidant. It is also recommended as a potential treatment option for different disorders resulted from generation of free oxygen radicals. Additionally, it is a protected and endured mucolytic drug that mellows tenacious mucous discharges...
April 2017: Cell Journal
Sedigheh Ahmadi, Reihane Bashiri, Akram Ghadiri-Anari, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh
Many studies have focused on male infertility. There is limited evidence about the influence of nutrition on quality of semen. Approximately, 30-80% of infertility cases are caused by oxidative stress and decreased level of seminal total antioxidant capacity. This study was aimed to review the effects of oral antioxidant supplements on improving major semen parameters such as sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DNA damage, and fertility rate. Data were extracted from PubMed and Google scholar database by using the terms "antioxidant", "multivitamin", "carnitine", "CoQ10", "vitamin C", "vitamin E", "zinc", "folic acid", "N-acetyl cysteine" and "selenium" combined with "male infertility", "semen", and "sperm" to generate a set of relevant citations...
December 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Pedro V S Magalhães, Olivia Dean, Ana C Andreazza, Michael Berk, Flávio Kapczinski
BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence that progressive changes in brain structure and function take place as schizophrenia unfolds. Among many possible candidates, oxidative stress may be one of the mediators of neuroprogression, grey matter loss and subsequent cognitive and functional impairment. Antioxidants are exogenous or endogenous molecules that mitigate any form of oxidative stress or its consequences. They may act from directly scavenging free radicals to increasing anti-oxidative defences...
February 5, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sadeq Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Seyed Jalil Mirhosseini, Zahra Ghodratipour, Zahra Sarafan-Chaharsoughi, Ali Mohammad Dehghan, Elham Rahimizadeh, Azadeh Shahidzadeh, Mohammad Reza Lotfaliani, Farbod Sedaghat-Hamedani, Elham Kayvanpour, Anton Sabashnikov, Aron-Frederik Popov
BACKGROUND AND AIM: This systematic review with meta-analysis sought to determine the strength of evidence for effects of antioxidants (AO) such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), vitamin C, vitamin E, and alpha-lipoic acid on the incidence of contrast-in-duced nephropathy (CIN), requirement for haemodialysis, level of serum creatinine, and mortality after coronary angiography. METHODS AND RESULTS: After Medline, Embase, Elsevier, Sciences online database, and Google Scholar literature searches, studies with randomised controlled design were selected for the meta-analysis...
2016: Kardiologia Polska
Kívia Queiroz de Andrade, Fabiana Andréa Moura, John Marques dos Santos, Orlando Roberto Pimentel de Araújo, Juliana Célia de Farias Santos, Marília Oliveira Fonseca Goulart
Liver disease is highly prevalent in the world. Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation are the most important pathogenetic events in liver diseases, regardless the different etiology and natural course. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (the active form) (NAC) is being studied in diseases characterized by increased OS or decreased glutathione (GSH) level. NAC acts mainly on the supply of cysteine for GSH synthesis. The objective of this review is to examine experimental and clinical studies that evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles of NAC in attenuating markers of inflammation and OS in hepatic damage...
December 18, 2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alessandra Bielli, Maria Giovanna Scioli, Donatella Mazzaglia, Elena Doldo, Augusto Orlandi
Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation...
December 15, 2015: Life Sciences
Takujiro Homma, Junichi Fujii
Glutathione (GSH), an abundant tripeptidyl molecule, plays pivotal roles in protecting cells against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and in detoxifying xenobiotics and drug metabolism. GSH is now entering a new era of therapeutic applications. Decreased GSH levels are associated with the common features of aging as well as of a wide range of pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders. Notably, GSH depletion and/or alterations in its metabolism appear to be crucial in the onset of Parkinson's disease...
2015: Current Drug Metabolism
Tung Ming Leung, Yongke Lu
This article reviews recent studies on CYP2E1-mediated alcoholic liver injury, the induction of CYP2A5 by alcohol and the mechanism for this upregulation, especially the permissive role of CYP2E1 in the induction of CYP2A5 by alcohol and the CYP2E1-ROS-Nrf2 pathway, and protective effects of CYP2A5 against ethanol-induced oxidative liver injury. Ethanol can induce CYP2E1, an active generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and CYP2E1 is a contributing factor for alcoholinduced oxidative liver injury. CYP2A5, another isoform of cytochrome P450, can also be induced by ethanol...
2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Leila Amini, Najmeh Tehranian, Mansoureh Movahedin, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Saeedeh Ziaee
BACKGROUND: Recently there is a focus on the antioxidants as adjuvant treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most endocrinopathy in reproductive age women. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is answer to the question whether antioxidants are effective for managing of hormonal and metabolic problems in women with PCOS based on first degree evidences from Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of clinical trials was done in Persian and international databases including PubMed, Scientific Information Database, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, and Magiran up to 2013...
January 2015: Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine
Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D Allan Butterfield
Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by progressive loss of memory, language, reasoning and other cognitive functions, including dementia, is characterized pathologically by the presence of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and synapse loss. Increased oxidative/nitrosative stress, decreased antioxidants, mitochondrial damage and other factors play major roles in the development and progression of AD. Strategies to reduce pro-oxidant species to ameliorate AD pathology have been proposed with mixed results...
January 2015: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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