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N-Acetyl Cysteine Antioxidant

Ben M Alberts, Connor Bruce, Kolitha Basnayake, Pietro Ghezzi, Kevin A Davies, Lisa M Mullen
The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays important roles in immunity but is also implicated in autoimmune disease. The most well-established mechanism of IL-1β secretion is via activation of the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome which requires an initial priming signal followed by an activating signal. However, the precise mechanism by which the inflammasome is activated remains unclear. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this process is contradictory, with some studies suggesting that ROS are crucial while others describe opposite effects...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Chih Ming Kao, Wei-Jen Ou, Heng-Dao Lin, Ari Wahyuni Eva, Tzu-Ling Wang, Ssu Ching Chen
Diuron is an herbicide, which is used to control a wide variety of annual and perennial broadleaf, grassy weeds, and mosses. However, the toxicity of diuron in HepG2 cells and zebrafish embryos was unclear. In this study, HpeG2 cells and zebrafish embryos were exposed to different concentrations of diuron for 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Results reveal the diuron caused cytotoxicity and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the treated HepG2 cells. The effects of diuron on the expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2), an antioxidant enzyme, were investigated...
February 5, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Shuyue Li, Zhifang Xu, Jin Xia, Guohua Qin, Nan Sang
Epidemiological evidence suggests that the incidence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases are closely related to sulfur dioxide (SO2 ). In the present study, H9C2 cells were incubated with 100 μM NaHSO3 with or without pretreatment of an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). The changes of apoptosis rate, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP content, caspase-3 activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected. Rats were inhaled 7 mg/m3 SO2 and/or intraperitoneal injected with 50 mg/kg (bw) of NAC for 30 days...
February 2, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fernanda Costal-Oliveira, Stephanie Stransky, Clara Guerra-Duarte, Dayane L Naves de Souza, Dan E Vivas-Ruiz, Armando Yarlequé, Eladio Flores Sanchez, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui, Vania M M Braga
Snake venom L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs) are flavoproteins, which perform diverse biological activities in the victim such as edema, myotoxicity and cytotoxicity, contributing to the development of clinical symptoms of envenomation. LAAO cytotoxicity has been described, but the temporal cascade of events leading to cell death has not been explored so far. This study evaluates the involvement of LAAO in dermonecrosis in mice and its cytotoxic effects in normal human keratinocytes, the major cell type in the epidermis, a tissue that undergoes extensive necrosis at the snakebite site...
January 28, 2019: Scientific Reports
Ariful Islam, Yoshiteru Kagawa, Hirofumi Miyazaki, Subrata Kumar Shil, Banlanjo A Umaru, Yuki Yasumoto, Yui Yamamoto, Yuji Owada
Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) bind and internalize long-chain fatty acids, controlling lipid dynamics. Recent studies have proposed the involvement of FABPs, particularly FABP7, in lipid droplet (LD) formation in glioma, but the physiological significance of LDs is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to examine the role of FABP7 in primary mouse astrocytes, focusing on its protective effect against reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress. In FABP7 knockout (KO) astrocytes, ROS induction significantly decreased LD accumulation, elevated ROS toxicity, and impaired thioredoxin (TRX) but not peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX1) signalling compared to ROS induction in wild-type astrocytes...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Neurobiology
Qian Liu, Xuexi Tang, You Wang, Yingying Yang, Wei Zhang, Yunchen Zhao, Xinxin Zhang
As a newly emerging environmental contaminant, tributyl phosphate (TBP) is an additive flame retardant of high production volume that is frequently detected in biota and the environment. Despite evidence that TBP is a potential threat to marine organisms, ecotoxicology data for TBP in marine organisms at low trophic levels are scarce. In this study, the acute toxicological effect of TBP on the marine phytoplankton Phaeodactylum tricornutum was thoroughly investigated, and the possible mechanism was explored...
January 15, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Y Li, X Ruan, J Liebenthron, M Montag, Q Zhou, W Kong, J Du, F Jin, S Li, J Cheng, H Wang, A O Mueck
OBJECTIVE: Premature ovary insufficiency is frequent after chemotherapy/radiotherapy in cancer patients. Ovarian tissue (OT) cryopreservation and later retransplantation, the routine method in Europe, has recently been implemented at the first center in China. We investigated the protective effect of the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) during the decisive freezing-thawing steps. METHODS: Fifteen OT samples were obtained from each of 13 cancer patients prospectively and randomly assigned to a control group and four groups with different NAC concentrations (Group 1, 0 mM NAC; Group 2, 0...
January 24, 2019: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Archis Bagati, Sudha Moparthy, Emily E Fink, Anna Bianchi-Smiraglia, Dong Hyun Yun, Masha Kolesnikova, Olga O Udartseva, David W Wolff, Matthew V Roll, Brittany C Lipchick, Zhannan Han, Nadezhda I Kozlova, Peter Jowdy, Albert E Berman, Neil F Box, Cesar Rodriguez, Wiam Bshara, Eugene S Kandel, Maria S Soengas, Gyorgy Paragh, Mikhail A Nikiforov
Although antioxidants promote melanoma metastasis, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in other stages of melanoma progression is controversial. Moreover, genes regulating ROS have not been functionally characterized throughout the entire tumor progression in mouse models of cancer. To address this question, we crossed mice-bearing knock-out of Klf9, an ubiquitous transcriptional regulator of oxidative stress, with two conditional melanocytic mouse models: BrafCA mice, where BrafV600E causes premalignant melanocytic hyperplasia, and BrafCA /Pten-/- mice, where BrafV600E and loss of Pten induce primary melanomas and metastases...
January 21, 2019: Oncogene
Yanmei Yang, Hong Lei, Bin Wang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by a progressive loss of articular cartilage. Mesenchymal stem cells transplanted to damaged tissues are promising for OA cartilage repair. However, these cells are poor survival after transplantation and acquire hypertrophic properties during chondrogenic induction. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) promotes chondrogenesis and suppresses chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. Additionally, PTHrP was reported to have anti-oxidant effects...
January 14, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ulf Rosenhall, Björn Skoog, Per Muhr
OBJECTIVE: To study if the antioxidant (AO) N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reduces the risk of hearing loss after acoustic accidents in humans. DESIGN: A retrospective, observational study. STUDY SAMPLE: Personnel of the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) exposed to military acoustic accidents during a 5 year period. Included in the study were 221 cases (mean age: 22.9 years). Most of the exposures, 84%, were weapon related. NAC (400 mg) was given directly after the accident in 146 cases; 75 had not received NAC...
January 17, 2019: International Journal of Audiology
Rasoul Kheradmandi, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Farideh Feizi, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia, Nahid Neamati
Background: Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used in farms in order to preserve crops and fruits. Previous studies have shown that CPF exposure might cause chronic toxicity in male genital system. The present study investigated the protective effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant against testicular toxicity of CPF in male mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 42 adult male mice were divided into seven groups, CPF low (0...
April 2019: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Eirini Koutsouraki, Steve Pells, Paul A De Sousa
Hypoxia benefits undifferentiated pluripotent stem cell renewal, and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dioxygenases have been implicated in pluripotent stem cell induction and renewal. We show in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) that an ambient oxygen-induced oxidative stress response elicited by culture in a hypoxic atmosphere (0.5% O2 ) correlates with the expression of 2OG dioxygenases, which oxidise DNA (TET1, 2, 3) and histone H3 (KDM4C), the former reflected by elevation in genomic 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC)...
December 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Ebrahim Ahmadi, Abolfazl Shirazi, Naser Shams-Esfandabadi, Hassan Nazari
Despite the numerous potential applications of oocyte cryopreservation, the poor success rate has limited its practical applications. In livestock, particularly in ovine, the oocytes have low developmental competence following vitrification-warming process. Considering the occurrence of osmotic and oxidative stresses during the vitrification/warming process, the application of antioxidants and osmolytes may improve the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed oocytes. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the addition of ascorbic acid (AA) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) as antioxidants and glycine as an organic osmolyte either to the vitrification-warming solutions (VWS) or to the IVM medium on the developmental competence of vitrified/warmed ovine GV-stage oocytes...
January 13, 2019: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Arash Peivandi Yazdi, Majid Razavi, Shahrzad Sheikh, Nadia Boroumand, Maryam Salehi, Seyed Isaac Hashemy
PURPOSE: Conflicting results exist regarding the efficacy of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in sepsis treatment. A pivotal factor affecting the therapeutic potency of NAC in sepsis is timing and dosing of its infusion. We aimed to assess the effect of NAC on redox status of patients with sepsis and to compare its efficacy in intermittent and continuous infusion with the objective of developing the infusion regimen and optimizing the timing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized clinical trial was designed to compare the antioxidative effect of NAC in intermittent infusion group (IV: 25 mg/kg bolus and then 25 mg/kg/8 hours 3 times) and continuous infusion group (IV: 25 mg/kg bolus and then 75 mg/kg over 24 hours) in 60 critically ill patients with sepsis (20 patients in each group)...
January 13, 2019: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Gonca Alak, Aslı Çilingir Yeltekin, Fatma Betül Özgeriş, Veysel Parlak, Arzu Uçar, M Sait Keleş, Muhammed Atamanalp
The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of N-acetylcystein (NAC) against oxidative stress induced by Cypermethrin pesticide in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The experiment was designed as 5 groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A was organized as control group and had no treatment. The other groups were treated with Cypermethrin for 14 days. At the end of this period, Groups B (1.0 mM NAC) and D (0.5 mM NAC) was performed with NAC for 96 h. Group C was not administered NAC, the recovery process was evaluated with this group...
January 4, 2019: Chemosphere
Fei Yang, Jian Tang, Kerong Dai, Yan Huang
Although total hip arthroplasty is considered to be an effective surgical procedure for treating hip joint diseases, it is hindered by implant wear debris, which induces aseptic loosening. Various cell types are involved in this pathogenesis; however, the interactions between wear debris and osteoblasts, which serve a crucial role in bone formation, have not been clearly illustrated. In the present study, minor metallic wear particles were collected from the interfacial membrane around loosened implants of patients, and the biological effects of these particles on rat primary osteoblasts were then explored...
January 4, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
Su-Kyung Shin, Hyun-Woo Cho, Seung-Eun Song, Jae-Hoon Bae, Seung-Soon Im, Inha Hwang, Hunjoo Ha, Dae-Kyu Song
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) produced endogenously can cause mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic complications in various cell types by inducing oxidative stress. In the liver, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress affects the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although a link between both stresses and fatty liver diseases has been suggested, few studies have investigated the involvement of catalase in fatty liver pathogenesis. We examined whether catalase is associated with NAFLD, using catalase knockout (CKO) mice and the catalase-deficient human hepatoma cell line HepG2...
January 7, 2019: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Fikriye Yasemin Ozatik, Yasemin Teksen, Emine Kadioglu, Orhan Ozatik, Zeynep Bayat
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is an endogenously produced gas-structure mediator. It is proposed to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-P-aminophenol; APAP) is an antipyretic and analgesic medication known as paracetamol. When taken at therapeutic doses there are few side-effects, but at high doses APAP can cause clear liver and kidney damage in humans and experimental animals. In this study, the effects of the H2 S donor of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on acute renal toxicity induced by APAP in rats were researched in comparison with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)...
January 2, 2019: International Urology and Nephrology
Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain
OBJECTIVE: Trichotillomania is a relatively common illness whose neurobiology is poorly understood. One treatment for adult trichotillomania, n-acetyl cysteine (NAC), has antioxidative properties, as well as effects on central glutamatergic transmission. Preclinical models suggest that excessive oxidative stress may be involved in its pathophysiology. METHODS: Adults with trichotillomania provided a blood sample for analysis of compounds that may be influenced by oxidative stress [glutathione, angiotensin II, ferritin, iron, glucose, insulin and insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1), and hepcidin]...
December 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Annalicia Vaughan, Svetlana Stevanovic, Mohammad Jafari, Mostafizur Rahman, Rayleen V Bowman, Kwun M Fong, Zoran Ristovski, Ian A Yang
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) will be the third leading cause of death world-wide by 2020. Prolonged exposure to particulate matter is associated with COPD progression and mortality. Diesel emissions are a major contributor to particulate matter pollution. In this study we test a therapeutic antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), for its ability to protect bronchial epithelial cells (pHBECs) from patients with COPD from adverse effects of diesel emission exposure...
December 18, 2018: Environmental Research
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