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Appetite Regulation

Jorge Moreno-Fernandez, Javier Díaz-Castro, María J M Alférez, Inmaculada López-Aliaga
Although dietary iron is a determinant of iron status in animals, body fat mass has been reported to have an inverse association with iron status in human studies. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between Fe homeostasis, body composition, energy expenditure and neuroendocrine regulators for severe Fe-deficiency anaemia. Forty male Wistar albino rats recently weaned were divided at random into two groups: the control group was fed the basal diet, AIN-93G diet (normal-Fe) and the anaemic group received a low-Fe diet for 40 days...
March 15, 2019: Nutrients
Ryan E R Reid, David Thivel, Marie-Eve Mathieu
Currently, exercise prescription relies heavily on parameters included in the FITT principle: frequency, intensity, time (duration), and type of exercise. In this paper, the benefits of including timing (FITT+T), referring to when exercise is performed in relation to meal-time, is discussed. Current research indicates that timing is outcome specific. Total energy and lipid intakes, and post-prandial hypertriglyceridemia can be reduced when exercise is performed pre-meal, while glycemic control is improved with post-meal exercise...
March 15, 2019: Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism
Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Lakshminarasimhan Sundarrajan, Jithine Jayakumar Rajeswari, Cristina Velasco, Suraj Unniappan
Endocrine factors regulate food intake and growth, two interlinked physiological processes critical for the proper development of organisms. Somatic growth is mainly regulated by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) that act on target tissues, including muscle, and bones. Peptidyl hormones produced from the brain and peripheral tissues regulate feeding to meet metabolic demands. The GH-IGF system and hormones regulating appetite are regulated by both internal (indicating the metabolic status of the organism) and external (environmental) signals...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Mariarita Caroleo, Elvira Anna Carbone, Amedeo Primerano, Daniela Foti, Antonio Brunetti, Cristina Segura-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder in which clinical symptoms can widely differ among patients. Neurovegetative symptoms, i.e. decreased or increased appetite, changes in body weight and sleep disturbances, described as 'melancholic' or 'atypical' features of a depressive episode, are the most variable symptoms among patients with MDD. We hypothesized biomarkers differences underlying this neurovegetative variability in major depression...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Bingqian Zhu, Changgui Shi, Chang G Park, Xiangxiang Zhao, Sirimon Reutrakul
This review aimed to provide a comprehensive examination of the effect of sleep restriction on metabolism-related parameters by synthesizing the emerging, best evidence. A systematic search was conducted in six electronic databases from inception to January 2018. We identified 41 randomized controlled trials using sleep restriction intervention. The outcomes included: subjective hunger, appetite-regulating hormones, changes in brain activity, energy intake and expenditure, weight change, insulin sensitivity or resistance...
February 10, 2019: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Paul Francke, Lena J Tiedemann, Mareike M Menz, Judith Beck, Christian Büchel, Stefanie Brassen
Dopaminergic brain structures like the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are thought to encode the incentive salience of palatable foods motivating appetitive behaviour. Animal studies have identified neural networks mediating the regulation of hedonic feeding that comprise connections of the NAc with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Here, we investigated how structural connectivity of these pathways relates to individual variability in decisions on sweet food consumption in humans...
March 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Kimberley Mallan, Narissa Miller
Child eating behaviors contribute to individual variability in weight status and are influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Feeding practices have been identified as a potentially modifiable factor that can influence children's dietary intake and eating behaviors. However, the majority of research in the field has been cross-sectional whereas more recently a bidirectional relationship between parent feeding and child eating has been proposed. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of patterns of findings related to feeding practices that may support or undermine children's eating behaviors...
2019: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Sine Paasch Schiellerup, Kirsa Skov-Jeppesen, Johanne Agerlin Windeløv, Maria Saur Svane, Jens Juul Holst, Bolette Hartmann, Mette Marie Rosenkilde
Bone homeostasis displays a circadian rhythm with increased resorption during the night time as compared to day time, a difference that seems-at least partly-to be caused by food intake during the day. Thus, ingestion of a meal results in a decrease in bone resorption, but people suffering from short bowel syndrome lack this response. Gut hormones, released in response to a meal, contribute to this link between the gut and bone metabolism. The responsible hormones appear to include glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), known as incretin hormones due to their role in regulating glucose homeostasis by enhancing insulin release in response to food intake...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Paul Lattimore
PURPOSE: Emotional eating is important to study and address because it predicts poor outcome in weight loss interventions. Interventions have only touched the surface in terms of addressing emotional eating. Mindfulness approaches can address emotional eating by modification of emotion regulation and appetitive traits. The current study involved development of an emotional eating-specific mindfulness intervention and assessment of its effect on appetitive traits associated with emotional eating...
March 11, 2019: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Li-Hua Wang, Wei Huang, Dan Wei, De-Guang Ding, Yi-Ran Liu, Jia-Jie Wang, Zhong-Yu Zhou
Simple obesity is a worldwide epidemic associated with rapidly growing morbidity and mortality which imposes an enormous burden on individual and public health. As a part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), acupuncture has shown the positive efficacy in the management of simple obesity. In this article, we comprehensively review the clinical and animal studies that demonstrated the potential mechanisms of acupuncture treatment for simple obesity. Clinical studies suggested that acupuncture regulates endocrine system, promotes digestion, attenuates oxidative stress, and modulates relevant molecules of metabolism in patients of simple obesity...
2019: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
B K Cheon, A Y Sim, L Lee, C G Forde
Although implicit theories have been studied in the context of personal traits, there has been limited investigation of their role in physiological domains such as appetite. Subjective feelings and affective states can function as goals and desired end states that individuals regulate their behaviors to attain. Likewise, different conceptualizations people maintain for the subjective experience of satiety (i.e., terminating hunger or attaining fullness) may also predict individual variations in eating behavior...
March 6, 2019: Appetite
Edgar M Vásquez-Garibay, Alfredo Larrosa-Haro, Elizabeth Guzmán-Mercado, Nelly Muñoz-Esparza, Samuel García-Arellano, Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Enrique Romero-Velarde
Satiety and appetite-stimulating hormones play a role in the regulation of food intake. Breastfed infants may have a different profile of serum appetite-regulating hormones than formula-fed infants. We propose to demonstrate that the serum concentration of appetite regulatory hormones differs according to the type of feeding and that there is a correlation between the serum concentrations of these hormones in mothers and in infants at 4 months of age. In a cross-sectional analysis, 167 mother-newborn dyads at the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara were enrolled: 74 full breastfeeding (FBF), 56 partial breastfeeding (PBF), and 37 receiving human milk substitutes (HMS)...
February 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Mihai Covasa, Richard W Stephens, Roxana Toderean, Claudiu Cobuz
There are more than 2 billion overweight and obese individuals worldwide, surpassing for the first time, the number of people affected by undernutrition. Obesity and its comorbidities inflict a heavy burden on the global economies and have become a serious threat to individuals' wellbeing with no immediate cure available. The causes of obesity are manifold, involving several factors including physiological, metabolic, neural, psychosocial, economic, genetics and the environment, among others. Recent advances in genome sequencing and metagenomic profiling have added another dimension to this complexity by implicating the gut microbiota as an important player in energy regulation and the development of obesity...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Bente Klarlund Pedersen
Neurological and mental illnesses account for a considerable proportion of the global burden of disease. Exercise has many beneficial effects on brain health, contributing to decreased risks of dementia, depression and stress, and it has a role in restoring and maintaining cognitive function and metabolic control. The fact that exercise is sensed by the brain suggests that muscle-induced peripheral factors enable direct crosstalk between muscle and brain function. Muscle secretes myokines that contribute to the regulation of hippocampal function...
March 5, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Cassandra J Lowe, Amy C Reichelt, Peter A Hall
In the modern obesogenic environment, limiting calorie-dense food consumption is partially dependent on the capacity of individuals to override visceral reactions to hyperpalatable and rewarding food cues. In the current review, we employ a health neuroscience framework to outline: (i) how individual variations in prefrontal cortical structure and functionality, and by extension, executive functions, may predispose an individual to the overconsumption of appetitive calorie-dense foods via differences in dietary self-regulation; (ii) how obesity may result in changes to cortical structure and functionality; and (iii) how the relationship between the structure and function of the prefrontal cortex and obesity may be best described as reciprocal in nature...
February 1, 2019: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Kathryn A Crawford, Bryan W Clark, Wendy J Heiger-Bernays, Sibel I Karchner, Birgit G Claus Henn, Kevin N Griffith, Brian L Howes, David R Schlezinger, Mark E Hahn, Diane E Nacci, Jennifer J Schlezinger
Sentinel species such as the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) living in urban waterways can be used as toxicological models to understand impacts of environmental metabolism disrupting compound (MDC) exposure on both wildlife and humans. Exposure to MDCs is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome, including impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, appetite control, and basal metabolism. MDCs are ubiquitous in the environment, including in aquatic environments. New Bedford Harbor (NBH), Massachusetts is polluted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and, as we show for the first time, tin (Sn)...
February 18, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Devalingam Mahalingam, Judy S Wang, Erika P Hamilton, John Sarantopoulos, John Nemunaitis, Garry Weems, Laura L Carter, Xiao Hu, Marshall Schreeder, H Jeffrey Wilkins
PURPOSE: Transcription factor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor g (RORg) regulates type 17 effector T cell differentiation and function and is key to immune cell regulation. Synthetic RORg agonists modulate immune cell gene expression to increase effector T cell activity and decrease immune suppression. A Phase 1 study evaluated the safety and tolerability of LYC-55716, a first-in-class, oral, small-molecule RORg agonist in adults with relapsed/refractory metastatic cancer...
February 28, 2019: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Astrid Kolderup Hervik, Birger Svihus
Excessive energy intake is linked with obesity and subsequent diet-related health problems, and it is therefore a major nutritional challenge. Compared with the digestible carbohydrates starch and sugars, fiber has a low energy density and may have an attenuating effect on appetite. This narrative review attempts to clarify the net energy contributions of various fibers, and the effect of fiber on satiety and thus appetite regulation. Fibers, broadly defined as nonstarch polysaccharides, are a varied class of substances with vastly different physicochemical properties depending on their chemical arrangement...
2019: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Can Wang, Xiaoying Dong, Limu Wei, Junfeng Sun, Fali Zhao, Choushuan Meng, Dongdong Wu, Ting Wang, Lu Fu
The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (ghrelin) and anorexigenic (cholecystokinin) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. We sought to investigate the relationship between appetite-regulating hormones and the cachexia associated with chronic heart failure.We randomized male Sprague-Dawley rats into myocardial infarction (MI) or sham operation (SO) groups. The levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), cholecystokinin (CCK) and ghrelin in the plasma of all rats were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); the expression of BNP, CCK, and ghrelin in the myocardial tissue of all rats were detected by western blotting, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR); myocardial morphology was assessed by microscopy...
February 22, 2019: International Heart Journal
Tom Macpherson, Hiroyuki Mizoguchi, Akihiro Yamanaka, Takatoshi Hikida
The ventral pallidum (VP) is a critical component of the basal ganglia neurocircuitry regulating learning and decision making; however, its precise role in controlling associative learning of environmental stimuli conditioned to appetitive or aversive outcomes is still unclear. Here, we investigated the expression of preproenkephalin, a polypeptide hormone previously shown to be expressed in nucleus accumbens neurons controlling aversive learning, within GABAergic and glutamatergic VP neurons. Next, we explored the behavioral consequences of chemicogenetic inhibition or excitation of preproenkephalin-expressing VP neurons on associative learning of reward- or aversion-paired stimuli in autoshaping and inhibitory avoidance tasks, respectively...
February 21, 2019: Neurochemistry International
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