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Parkinson‘s disease

Benzi M Kluger, Maya Katz, Nicholas Galifianakis, Steven Z Pantilat, Jean S Kutner, Stefan Sillau, Mark Gritz, Jacqueline Jones, Diane Fairclough, Malenna Sumrall, Kirk Hall, Janis Miyasaki
Patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders (PDRD) and their families have considerable unmet needs including non-motor symptom management, caregiver support, spiritual wellbeing, advance care planning, and end-of-life care. There is increasing interest in applying palliative care (PC) models to better meet these needs. While PC has been shown to improve care and quality of life (QOL) for people with cancer and heart failure, few studies have evaluated the role of PC for people with PDRD. Well-designed clinical trials are needed to optimize the PC approach for PDRD and to influence policy and implementation efforts...
February 16, 2019: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Yu-Hsuan Chuang, Kimberly C Paul, Janet S Sinsheimer, Jeff M Bronstein, Yvette M Bordelon, Beate Ritz
BACKGROUND: Negative associations between smoking and Parkinson's disease (PD) are well documented. While common biases may not explain this association, some studies have suggested reverse causality and ease of quitting might be an early sign of PD, possibly related to a reduced nicotinic response. We investigated nicotinic receptor (nAChR) genetics to add to our understanding of possible biologic mechanisms underlying the smoking-PD relationship. METHODS: We relied on 612 patients and 691 controls enrolled in the PEG (Parkinson's Environment and Gene) study for whom we obtained information on smoking and quitting ease through interviews...
February 1, 2019: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Roberta A Domenici, Ana Carolina P Campos, Soraya T Maciel, Miriã B Berzuino, Marina S Hernandes, Erich T Fonoff, Rosana L Pagano
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressive dysfunction of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons, generating motor and nonmotor signs and symptoms. Pain is reported as the most bothersome nonmotor symptom in PD; however, pain remains overlooked and poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the nociceptive behavior and the descending analgesia circuitry in a rat model of PD. Three independent experiments were performed to investigate: i) thermal nociceptive behavior; ii) mechanical nociceptive behavior and dopaminergic repositioning; and iii) modulation of the pain control circuitry...
February 14, 2019: Experimental Neurology
Marketa Marvanova, Paul Jacob Henkel
OBJECTIVES: To summarize select continuing pharmacy education (CPE) topics and hours related to geriatric care completed by community, hospital/clinic, and long-term care (LTC)/consultant pharmacists in the previous 12 months, whether pharmacy workplace influenced topic selection or completion, and to describe CPE sources used by community versus hospital/clinic pharmacists. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey (2017). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Licensed pharmacists in North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, and Nebraska with primary practice settings in community pharmacies, hospitals, or clinics or those practicing as consultant pharmacists...
February 13, 2019: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Caitlin E Dudley, Alexandra J Morell, Michael E Duffey, Sangita P Patel
PURPOSE: An adverse effect of amantadine, a drug used for Parkinson's disease, is corneal edema. While corneal endothelial cell loss is noted with amantadine toxicity, the reversibility of corneal edema suggests that amantadine affects active mechanisms regulating corneal hydration. Although mainly known as a NMDA receptor antagonist, amantadine is also a K+ -channel blocker. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms of amantadine's toxic effects on corneal endothelium...
February 13, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Alex E Powers, Dushyant S Patel
α-Synuclein (αS) is an abundant neuronal protein which has been implicated, among others, in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In fact, αS is the major constituent of Lewy bodies, the primarily proteinaceous inclusions found in the nervous tissue of PD and DLB patients. While its physiological role is unclear, it is believed to be involved in the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. However, in a disease state, αS will "misfold" and aggregate, leading to neuronal dysfunction and death...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eric S Luth, Irina G Stavrovskaya
Accumulation of misfolded αSyn and mitochondrial dysfunction are central features of Parkinson's disease. Growing evidence points to a relationship between these two phenomena as oligomeric α-synuclein (αSyn) can interact with mitochondria and impair their function. Standardization of methods to prepare αSyn oligomers and isolate functional mitochondria will facilitate efforts to expand upon early findings. Here we present detailed protocols for preparing soluble αSyn oligomers; for isolating functional mitochondria from mouse tissue; and for simultaneously measuring several aspects of mitochondrial physiology...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Inês Caldeira Brás, Blagovesta Popova, Gerhard H Braus, Tiago F Outeiro
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) has been a remarkable experimental model for the discovery of fundamental biological processes. The high degree of conservation of cellular and molecular processes between the budding yeast and higher eukaryotes has made it a valuable system for the investigation of the molecular mechanisms behind various types of devastating human pathologies. Genetic screens in yeast provided important insight into the toxic mechanisms associated with the accumulation of misfolded proteins...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Katherine Osborne-Crowley, Sophie C Andrews, Izelle Labuschagne, Akshay Nair, Rachael Scahill, David Craufurd, Sarah J Tabrizi, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has demonstrated an association between emotion recognition and apathy in several neurological conditions involving fronto-striatal pathology, including Parkinson's disease and brain injury. In line with these findings, we aimed to determine whether apathetic participants with early Huntington's disease (HD) were more impaired on an emotion recognition task compared to non-apathetic participants and healthy controls. METHODS: We included 43 participants from the TRACK-HD study who reported apathy on the Problem Behaviours Assessment - short version (PBA-S), 67 participants who reported no apathy, and 107 controls matched for age, sex, and level of education...
February 15, 2019: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
J Key, A K Mueller, S Gispert, L Matschke, I Wittig, O Corti, C Münch, N Decher, G Auburger
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder in the old population. Among its monogenic variants, a frequent cause is a mutation in the Parkin gene (Prkn). Deficient function of Parkin triggers ubiquitous mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in the brain, but it remains unclear how selective neural circuits become vulnerable and finally undergo atrophy. We attempted to go beyond previous work mostly done in peripheral tumor cells, which identified protein targets of Parkin activity, an ubiquitin E3 ligase...
February 11, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Sokhna M S Yakhine-Diop, Guadalupe Martínez-Chacón, Elisabet Uribe-Carretero, Mireia Niso-Santano, Rosa A González-Polo, José M Fuentes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Courtland R Samuels, Javed L Khanni, Kory Barkley, Mishah Azhar, Patricio S Espinosa
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), commonly referred to as Fahr's disease, is a rare neurological disorder characterized by the abnormal, symmetrical, and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia and other brain regions. Patients typically present in their forties and fifties with various neurologic and/or psychiatric symptoms, including movement disorders, Parkinsonism, psychosis, and depression. The pathophysiology of this disease is not completely understood; however, several gene mutations have been identified in the pathogenesis of Fahr's disease...
December 1, 2018: Curēus
Juliane Fagotti, Adriano D S Targa, Lais S Rodrigues, Ana Carolina D Noseda, Flávia W C Dorieux, Franciele F Scarante, Jessica L Ilkiw, Fernando M Louzada, Namrata R Chowdhury, Daan R van der Veen, Benita Middleton, Jeroen L A Pennings, Jonathan R Swann, Debra J Skene, Marcelo M S Lima
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic disorder that presents a range of premotor signs, such as sleep disturbances and cognitive decline, which are key non-motor features of the disease. Increasing evidence of a possible association between sleep disruption and the neurodegenerative process suggests that sleep impairment could produce a detectable metabolic signature on the disease. In order to integrate neurocognitive and metabolic parameters, we performed untargeted and targeted metabolic profiling of the rotenone PD model in a chronic sleep restriction (SR) (6 h/day for 21 days) condition...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Trevor R Norman, James S Olver
Agomelatine is an antidepressant with unique pharmacological actions; it is both a melatonin agonist and selective serotonin antagonist. Both actions combined are necessary for antidepressant efficacy. Effects on melatonin receptors enable resynchronisation of disrupted circadian rhythms with beneficial effects on sleep patterns. Areas covered: The issue of use of an antidepressant for depression co-morbid with somatic disorders is covered by the authors. A review of the literature from 2000 to August 2018 was undertaken using Scopus and Web of Science with the key words: agomelatine, depression, medical illness...
February 13, 2019: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Luiz M Oliveira, Maria A Oliveira, Henrique T Moriya, Thiago S Moreira, Ana C Takakura
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Clinical reports have described and suggested respiratory central and peripheral abnormalities in PD patients; however, these reports have never addressed the occurrences of such abnormalities in an animal model before. PD mice has reduced NK1r-ir in the preBötC and Phox2b-expressing neurons in the RTN. PD mice has respiratory frequency and HCVR impairments. Lung collagen deposition and ribcage stiffness appear in PD mice. ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative motor disorder characterized by dopaminergic deficits in the brain...
February 13, 2019: Experimental Physiology
Jungwoo Yang, Kwang Soo Kim, Grace O Iyirhiaro, Paul C Marcogliese, Steve M Callaghan, Dianbo Qu, Woo Jae Kim, Ruth S Slack, David S Park
The unfolded protein response (UPR) triggered by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a feature of many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the vast majority of PD is sporadic, mutations in a number of genes including PARK7 which encodes the protein DJ-1 have been linked to early-onset, familial PD. In this regard, both PD of sporadic and genetic origins exhibit markers of ER stress-induced UPR. However, the relationship between pathogenic mutations in PARK7 and ER stress-induced UPR in PD pathogenesis remains unclear...
February 12, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Daniel Richter, Dirk Bartig, Siegfried Muhlack, Elke Hartelt, Raphael Scherbaum, Aristeides H Katsanos, Thomas Müller, Wolfgang Jost, Georg Ebersbach, Ralf Gold, Christos Krogias, Lars Tönges
Parkinson's disease (PD) is currently the world's fastest-growing neurological disorder. It is characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms which progressively lead to significant clinical impairment, causing a high burden of disease. In addition to pharmacological therapies, various non-pharmacological treatment options are available. A well established and frequently used multiprofessional inpatient treatment concept in Germany is "Parkinson's disease multimodal complex treatment" (PD-MCT) which involves physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, and other specializations for the optimization of treatment in PD (ICD G20) and other Parkinsonian syndromes (ICD G21 and G23)...
February 11, 2019: Cells
Marianna Guida, Alessandra Zanon, Luigi Montibeller, Alexandros A Lavdas, Judith Ladurner, Francesca Pischedda, Aleksandar Rakovic, Francisco S Domingues, Giovanni Piccoli, Christine Klein, Peter P Pramstaller, Andrew A Hicks, Irene Pichler
Mutations in the PRKN gene (encoding parkin) have been linked to the most frequent known cause of recessive Parkinson's disease (PD), and parkin dysfunction represents a risk factor for sporadic PD. Parkin is widely neuroprotective through different cellular pathways, as it protects dopaminergic neurons from apoptosis in a series of cellular and animal models of PD. The mitochondrial protein apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is an important cell death effector, which, upon cellular stress in many paradigms, is redistributed from the mitochondria to the nucleus to function as a proapoptotic factor, mostly independent of caspase activity, while in normal mitochondria it functions as an antiapoptotic factor...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Erik Boot, Anne S Bassett, Connie Marras
Background: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a multisystem condition associated with an increased risk of early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: We review the clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropathological observations, as well as diagnostic challenges, of PD in 22q11.2DS. We conducted a search of PubMed up until June 1, 2018 and personal files to identify relevant publications. Results: 22q11.2DS-associated PD is responsible for approximately 0...
January 2019: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
Alberto J Espay, Joaquin A Vizcarra, Luca Marsili, Anthony E Lang, David K Simon, Aristide Merola, Keith A Josephs, Alfonso Fasano, Francesca Morgante, Rodolfo Savica, J Timothy Greenamyre, Franca Cambi, Tritia R Yamasaki, Caroline M Tanner, Ziv Gan-Or, Irene Litvan, Ignacio F Mata, Cyrus P Zabetian, Patrik Brundin, Hubert H Fernandez, David G Standaert, Marcelo A Kauffman, Michael A Schwarzschild, S Pablo Sardi, Todd Sherer, George Perry, James B Leverenz
The gold standard for a definitive diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) is the pathologic finding of aggregated α-synuclein into Lewy bodies and for Alzheimer disease (AD) aggregated amyloid into plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau into tangles. Implicit in this clinicopathologic-based nosology is the assumption that pathologic protein aggregation at autopsy reflects pathogenesis at disease onset. While these aggregates may in exceptional cases be on a causal pathway in humans (e.g., aggregated α-synuclein in SNCA gene multiplication or aggregated β-amyloid in APP mutations), their near universality at postmortem in sporadic PD and AD suggests they may alternatively represent common outcomes from upstream mechanisms or compensatory responses to cellular stress in order to delay cell death...
February 12, 2019: Neurology
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