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Stem cell and placenta

Sota Iwatani, Makiko Yoshida, Keiji Yamana, Daisuke Kurokawa, Jumpei Kuroda, Khin Kyae Mon Thwin, Suguru Uemura, Satoru Takafuji, Nanako Nino, Tsubasa Koda, Masami Mizobuchi, Masahiro Nishiyama, Kazumichi Fujioka, Hiroaki Nagase, Ichiro Morioka, Kazumoto Iijima, Noriyuki Nishimura
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have considerable therapeutic potential and attract increasing interest in the biomedical field. MSCs are originally isolated and characterized from bone marrow (BM), then acquired from tissues including adipose tissue, synovium, skin, dental pulp, and fetal appendages such as placenta, umbilical cord blood (UCB), and umbilical cord (UC). MSCs are a heterogeneous cell population with the capacity for (1) adherence to plastic in standard culture conditions, (2) surface marker expression of CD73+ /CD90+ /CD105+ /CD45- /CD34- /CD14- /CD19- /HLA-DR- phenotypes, and (3) trilineage differentiation into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes, as currently defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT)...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Evangelia Koutelou, Li Wang, Andria Schibler, Hsueh-Ping Chao, Xianghong Kuang, Kevin Lin, Yue Lu, Jianjun Shen, Collene R Jeter, Andrew Salinger, Marenda Wilson, Yi Chun Chen, Boyko S Atanassov, Dean G Tang, Sharon Yr Dent
Usp22, a component of the SAGA complex, is over expressed in highly aggressive cancers, but the normal functions of this deubiquitinase are not well defined. We determined that loss of Usp22 in mice results in embryonic lethality due to defects in extra-embryonic placental tissues and failure to establish proper vascular interactions with the maternal circulatory system. These phenotypes arise from abnormal gene expression patterns that reflect defective kinase signaling, including TGFβ and several receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways...
February 4, 2019: Development
Yuki Maruyama, Atsushi P Kimura
SummaryIn eutherian mammals, the placenta plays a critical role in embryo development by supplying nutrients and hormones and mediating interaction with the mother. To establish the fine connection between mother and embryo, the placenta needs to be formed normally, but the mechanism of placental differentiation is not fully understood. We previously revealed that mouse prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) plays a role in trophoblast stem cell (TSC) differentiation into two placental cell types, spongiotrophoblasts (SpT) and trophoblast giant cells...
February 4, 2019: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Chul Kim, Ji-Min Park, Youngsook Song, Sunghoon Kim, Jisook Moon
Senescence in stem cells, which occurs as a consequence of chronic responses to the environment, defines the capacity of stem cells for proliferation and differentiation as well as their potential for tissue regeneration and homeostasis maintenance. Although stem cells reside under low oxygen pressure and the availability of oxygen is known to be a crucial determinant in their fate, the key modulators in stem cell aging and the underlying mechanism have yet to be unraveled. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hpMSCs) were cultured under hypoxia (3% O2 ) or normoxia (21% O2 ) to investigate the key factors that regulate stem cell senescence under hypoxic conditions...
January 31, 2019: Aging Cell
Dana Alhattab, Fatima Jamali, Dema Ali, Hana Hammad, Sofia Adwan, Reem Rahmeh, Omar Samarah, Bareqa Salah, Mohammad Hamdan, Abdalla Awidi
AIM: Variations in the clinical outcomes using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) treatments exist, reflecting different origins and niches. To date, there is no consensus on the best source of MSCs most suitable to treat a specific disease. METHODS: Total transcriptome analysis of human MSCs was performed. MSCs were isolated from two adult sources bone marrow, adipose tissue and two perinatal sources umbilical cord and placenta. RESULTS: Each MSCs type possessed a unique expression pattern that reflects an advantage in terms of their potential therapeutic use...
January 31, 2019: Regenerative Medicine
HyunJeong Lee, Joo-Il Kim, Jin-Sung Park, Jae-Il Roh, Jaehoon Lee, Byeong-Cheol Kang, Han-Woong Lee
Placenta specific 8 (PLAC8, also known as ONZIN) is a multi-functional protein that is highly expressed in the intestine, lung, spleen, and innate immune cells, and is involved in various diseases, including cancers, obesity, and innate immune deficiency. Here, we generated a Plac8 knockout mouse using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The Cas9 mRNA and two single guide RNAs targeting a region near the translation start codon at Plac8 exon 2 were microinjected into mouse zygotes. This successfully eliminated the conventional translation start site, as confirmed by Sanger sequencing and PCR genotyping analysis...
December 2018: Laboratory Animal Research
Tongtong Cui, Liyuan Jiang, Tianda Li, Fei Teng, Guihai Feng, Xuepeng Wang, Zhengquan He, Lu Guo, Kai Xu, Yihuan Mao, Leyun Wang, Xuewei Yuan, Liu Wang, Wei Li, Qi Zhou
Trophoblast stem (TS) cells are increasingly used as a model system for studying placentation and placental disorders. However, practical limitations of genetic manipulation have posed challenges for genetic analysis using TS cells. Here, we report the generation of mouse parthenogenetic haploid TS cells (haTSCs) and show that supplementation with FGF4 and inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) enable the maintenance of their haploidy and developmental potential. The resulting haTSCs have 20 chromosomes, exhibit typical expression features of TS cells, possess the multipotency to differentiate into specialized trophoblast cell types, and can chimerize E13...
January 8, 2019: Cell Reports
Marie Maumus, Yves-Marie Pers, Maxime Ruiz, Christian Jorgensen, Danièle Noël
Mesenchymal stromal or stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult cells that can be isolated from a variety of adult or neonatal tissues, such as bone marrow, fat tissue, placenta or umbilical cord. A therapy based on MSCs can be justified in osteoarthritis (OA) thanks to their differentiation abilities but mostly, to their paracrine and immunosuppressive properties. Possible therapeutic strategies therefore rely on the articular injection of MSCs suspensions for trophic activity or the implantation of MSCs combined with biodegradable materials for tissue engineering applications...
December 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Busra Cetinkaya, Gozde Unek, Dijle Kipmen-Korgun, Sadi Koksoy, Emin Turkay Korgun
Background and Objectives: The feature of chronic kidney failure (CKF) is loss of kidney functions due to erosion of healthy tissue and fibrosis. Recent studies showed that Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiated into tubular epithelial cells thus renal function and structures renewed.Furthermore, MSCs protect renal function in CKF. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) can repair fibrosis and determine the effects on proliferation and apoptosis mechanisms in chronic kidney failure...
December 31, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Busra Cetinkaya, Gozde Unek, Dijle Kipmen-Korgun, Sadi Koksoy, Emin Turkay Korgun
Background and Objectives: The feature of chronic kidney failure (CKF) is loss of kidney functions due to erosion of healthy tissue and fibrosis. Recent studies showed that Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiated into tubular epithelial cells thus renal function and structures renewed.Furthermore, MSCs protect renal function in CKF. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) can repair fibrosis and determine the effects on proliferation and apoptosis mechanisms in chronic kidney failure...
December 31, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Anan Huang, Danni Liu, Xin Qi, Zhiwei Yue, Hongmei Cao, Kaiyue Zhang, Xudan Lei, Youzhi Wang, Deling Kong, Jie Gao, Zongjin Li, Na Liu, Yuebing Wang
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has emerged as a very promising strategy for the treatments of peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, MSC-based therapies are limited by low cell retention and survival rate in the ischemic zone. Small molecular (SM) hydrogels have shown attractive abilities to enhance the therapeutic effects of human MSCs via promoting their proliferation or maintaining their differentiation potential. Here, we designed and synthesized a new bioactive and biocompatible hydrogel, Nap-GFFYK-Thiol, using disulfide bonds as cleavable linkers to control the molecular self-assembly and we hypothesized this hydrogel could enhance the retention and engraftment of human placenta-derived MSCs (hP-MSCs) in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model...
December 11, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Shayesteh Khalifeh Soltani, Bijan Forogh, Naser Ahmadbeigi, Homayoun Hadizadeh Kharazi, Khadijeh Fallahzadeh, Ladan Kashani, Masoumeh Karami, Yadollah Kheyrollah, Mohammad Vasei
OBJECTIVE: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common skeletal impairment that can cause many limitations in normal life activities. Stem cell therapy has been studied for decades for its regenerative potency in various diseases. We investigated the safety and efficacy of intra-articular injection of placental mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in knee OA healing. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 20 patients with symptomatic knee OA were randomly divided into two groups to receive intra-articular injection of either 0...
December 3, 2018: Cytotherapy
Guizhen Du, Mingming Yu, Lingling Wang, Weiyue Hu, Ling Song, Chuncheng Lu, Xinru Wang
Cardiac development is a dynamic process and sensitive to environmental chemicals. Triclosan is widely used as an antibacterial agent and reported to transport across the placenta and affect embryonic development. Here, we used human embryonic stem cell- (hESC-) derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) to determine the effects of TCS exposure on cardiac development. After TCS treatment, the differentiation process was significantly blocked and spontaneous beating rates of CMs were also decreased. Transcriptome analysis showed the dysregulation of genes involved in cardiogenesis, including GATA4 and TNNT2...
2018: Stem Cells International
Haiyan Yu, Xiaoling Yuan, Lifeng Liu, Tian Wang, Dianrong Gong
Multiple system atrophy is a sporadic progressive degenerative disease which is characterized by multiple central nervous systems involved. So far, there is no effective medicine to cure MSA. The main research direction of treatment includes immunization transplantation and cytotherapy. Human umbilical cord blood is the residue of blood in the placenta and umbilical cord after fetal delivery. It is the most abundant cell bank and its usage is not limited to treat hematological diseases. The researches about hUCB-MNC treatment on MSA are increasing gradually...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Xunsha Sun, Yulin Jin, Qihua Liang, Jie Tang, Jinsong Chen, Qiuxia Yu, Fatao Li, Yan Li, Jieying Wu, Shaoqing Wu
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic preconditioning alters the biological properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). It is not known whether this process has an effect on circular RNAs (circRNAs) in MSCs. METHODS: Human placental chorionic plate-derived MSCs (hpcpMSCs) isolated from the same placentae were classed into two groups: hypoxic pretreated (hypoxia) group and normally cultured (normoxia) group. The comparative circRNA microarray analysis was used to determine circRNAs expression and verified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the two groups...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Hsi-Ting Lin, Shao-Kuan Chen, Jiun-Wen Guo, I-Chang Su, Chi-Jung Huang, Chih-Cheng Chien, Chih-Ju Chang
Human pluripotent stem cells have the potential assist in the identification of genes involved in mammalian development. The human placenta is considered a repository of stem cells, termed placenta‑derived multipotent cells (PDMCs), which are able to differentiate into cells with an osteoblastic phenotype. This plasticity of PDMCs maybe applied clinically to the understanding of osteogenesis and osteoporosis. In the presentstudy, osteoblasts were generated by culturing PDMCs in osteogenic medium. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reactionand the degree of osteoblast calcification were used to evaluate the efficacy of osteogenesis...
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Teena Kjb Gamage, William Schierding, Daniel Hurley, Peter Tsai, Jackie L Ludgate, Chandrakanth Bhoothpur, Lawrence W Chamley, Robert J Weeks, Erin C Macaulay, Joanna L James
The placenta is a vital fetal exchange organ connecting mother and baby. Specialised placental epithelial cells, called trophoblasts, are essential for adequate placental function. Trophoblasts transform the maternal vasculature to allow efficient blood flow to the placenta and facilitate adequate nutrient uptake. Placental development is in part regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. However, our understanding of how DNA methylation contributes to human trophoblast differentiation is limited. To better understand how genome-wide methylation differences affect trophoblast differentiation, reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) was conducted on four matched sets of trophoblasts (a candidate human trophoblast stem cell population), cytotrophoblasts (an intermediate progenitor population) and extravillous trophoblasts (EVT, a terminally differentiated population) each isolated from the same first trimester placenta...
November 26, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Saehong Min, Ok Joon Kim, Jinkun Bae, Tae Nyoung Chung
Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Enhancement of the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs in ICH is necessary, considering the diseases high association with mortality and morbidity. Various preconditioning methods to enhance the beneficial properties of MSCs have been introduced. We suggested apocynin, a well-known nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, as a novel preconditioning regimen to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs in ICH...
November 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bryony V Natale, Prutha Mehta, Priscilla Vu, Christina Schweitzer, Katarina Gustin, Ramie Kotadia, David R C Natale
This study characterized the effect of the reduced utero-placental perfusion pressure (RUPP) model of placental insufficiency on placental morphology and trophoblast differentiation at mid-late gestation (E14.5). Altered trophoblast proliferation, reduced syncytiotrophoblast gene expression, increased numbers of sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells, decreased Vegfa and decreased pericyte presence in the labyrinth were observed in addition to changes in maternal blood spaces, the fetal capillary network and reduced fetal weight...
November 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ruhma Mahmood, Azra Mehmood, Mahmood S Choudhery, Sana Javaid Awan, Shaheen N Khan, Sheikh Riazuddin
Conventional approaches can repair minor skin injuries; however, severe burn injuries require innovative approaches for efficient and better wound repair. Recent studies indicate that stem-cell-based regenerative therapies can restore severe damaged skin both structurally and functionally. The current study aims to evaluate the wound healing potential of skin substitute derived from human neonatal stem cells (hNSCs) using a severe burn injury rat model. AECs (Amniotic epithelial cells) and MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) were isolated from placenta (a source of neonatal stem cells) by explant culture method...
November 16, 2018: Cell Biology International
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