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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30896675/c-fos-immunoreactivity-in-the-hypothalamus-and-reward-system-of-young-rats-after-social-novelty-exposure
#1
Yvette M Gómez-Gómez, Pedro Sánchez-Aparicio, Sara Mejía-Chávez, Fabio García-García, Luz I Pascual-Mathey, Ulises Aguilera-Reyes, Oscar Galicia, Arturo Venebra-Muñoz
Socialization is an adaptive behavior during the early stages of life because it helps young animals become independent and determines healthy adult social behavior. Therefore, it is probable that the brain areas involved in the processing of social stimuli are more sensitive to social novelty during early life stages. To test this hypothesis, four groups of young male rats were exposed to different socioenvironmental stimuli; nonsocial physical novelty, social familiarity, social novelty, and a control group which received no stimulation...
March 20, 2019: Neuroreport
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892911/angiotensin-type-1a-receptors-in-the-median-preoptic-nucleus-support-intermittent-hypoxia-induced-hypertension
#2
Brent Shell, George E Farmer, T Prashant Nedungadi, Lei A Wang, Alexandria B Marciante, Brina D Snyder, Rebecca L Cunningham, J Thomas Cunningham
Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (CIH) is a model of the hypoxemia from sleep apnea that causes a sustained increase in blood pressure. Inhibition of the central renin-angiotensin system or FosB in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) prevents the sustained hypertensive response to CIH. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin type 1a (AT1a) receptors in the MnPO, which are upregulated by CIH, contribute to this hypertension. In preliminary experiments, retrograde tract tracing studies showed AT1a receptor expression in MnPO neurons projecting to the paraventricular nucleus...
March 20, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30887585/oestradiol-acts-through-its-beta-receptor-to-increase-vasopressin-neuronal-activation-and-secretion-induced-by-dehydration
#3
Tatiane Vilhena-Franco, André Souza Mecawi, Gislaine Almeida-Pereira, Fabiana Lucio Oliveira, Lucila Leico Kagohara Elias, José Antunes-Rodrigues
Vasopressinergic neurones of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei express oestrogen receptor β (ERβ) and receive afferent projections from osmosensitive neurones that express oestrogen receptor α (ERα). However, which subtype of these receptors mediates the oestradiol effects on vasopressin (AVP) secretion induced by hydromineral challenge has not yet been demonstrated in vivo. Moreover, AVP secretion induced by hyperosmolality is well known to involve activation of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vaniloid, member 1) in magnocellular neurones, but whether oestradiol modulates expression of this receptor is unknown...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30887077/c-fos-expression-in-the-limbic-thalamus-following-thermoregulatory-and-wake-sleep-changes-in-the-rat
#4
Marco Luppi, Matteo Cerri, Alessia Di Cristoforo, Timna Hitrec, Daniela Dentico, Flavia Del Vecchio, Davide Martelli, Emanuele Perez, Domenico Tupone, Giovanni Zamboni, Roberto Amici
A cellular degeneration of two thalamic nuclei belonging to the "limbic thalamus", i.e., the anteroventral (AV) and mediodorsal (MD) nuclei, has been shown in patients suffering from Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI), a lethal prion disease characterized by autonomic activation and severe insomnia. To better assess the physiological role of these nuclei in autonomic and sleep regulation, c-Fos expression was measured in rats during a prolonged exposure to low ambient temperature (Ta , - 10 °C) and in the first hours of the subsequent recovery period at normal laboratory Ta (25 °C)...
March 18, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30886140/responsiveness-of-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-to-leptin-is-impaired-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#5
Andrew C Shin, Sheba M J MohanKumar, Priya Balasubramanian, Madhu P Sirivelu, Katrina Linning, Andrew Woolcock, Michelle James, Puliyur S MohanKumar
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Diet-induced obese (DIO) rats have altered stress (HPA) axis activity compared to diet-resistant (DR) rats when chronically exposed to a high-fat (HF) diet. Since stress axis is tightly regulated by leptin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone that is important for controlling body weight, we hypothesized that leptin action is impaired in DIO rats leading to alterations in HPA axis activity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We intraperitoneally injected selectively bred DIO and DR rats with either saline or recombinant rat leptin...
March 18, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30885832/anorexigenic-effects-of-mesotocin-in-chicks-are-genetic-background-dependent-and-are-associated-with-changes-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-and-lateral-hypothalamus
#6
Betty R McConn, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
Mesotocin (MT) decreases food intake and induces hyperthermia in chicks although hypothalamic mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate effects of receptor antagonists and MT on feeding behavior and hypothalamic physiology. Intracerebroventricular injection of 2.5 nmol into broiler chicks was associated with decreased food intake for 180 min and water intake from 60 to 180 min. Cloacal temperatures were elevated in chicks injected with 0.156 and 0.625 nmol at 30 and 60 min, and up to 180 min in those injected with 2...
March 15, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879175/paraventricular-thalamus-as-a-major-thalamic-structure-for-wake-control
#7
Yu-Feng Shao, Jian-Sheng Lin, Yi-Ping Hou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878404/exercise-training-augments-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-dimerization-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-rats-with-chronic-heart-failure
#8
Neeru M Sharma, Xuefei Liu, Tamra L Llewellyn, Kenichi Katsurada, Kaushik P Patel
Exercise training (ExT) is an established non-pharmacological therapy that improves the health and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Exaggerated sympathetic drive characterizes CHF due to an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system. Neuronal nitric oxide synthases (nNOS) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) produce nitric oxide (NO•), which is known to regulate the sympathetic tone. Previously we have shown that during CHF, the catalytically active dimeric form of nNOS is significantly decreased with a concurrent increase in protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN) expression, a protein that dissociates dimeric nNOS to monomers and facilitates its degradation...
March 13, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872665/complement-component-1q-subcomponent-binding-protein-in-the-brain-of-the-rat
#9
János Barna, Diána Dimén, Gina Puska, Dávid Kovács, Vivien Csikós, Szilvia Oláh, Edina B Udvari, Gabriella Pál, Árpád Dobolyi
Complement component 1q subcomponent binding protein (C1qbp) is a multifunctional protein involved in immune response, energy homeostasis of cells as a plasma membrane receptor, and a nuclear, cytoplasmic or mitochondrial protein. Recent reports suggested its neuronal function, too, possibly in axon maintenance, synaptic function, and neuroplasticity. Therefore, we addressed to identify C1qbp in the rat brain using in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunolabelling at light and electron microscopic level...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867669/naomaitai-ameliorated-brain-damage-in-rats-with-vascular-dementia-by-pi3k-pdk1-akt-signaling-pathway
#10
Kui Huang, Lei Shen, Tieming Niu, Ying Zhao, Jiucun Fu, Yunpeng Cao
Background/Aims: Naomaitai can improve blood perfusion and ameliorate the damage in the paraventricular white matter. This study was focused on observing the neuroprotective effect of Naomaitai on the vascular dementia of rat and exploring the action mechanism of PI3K/PDK1/AKT signaling pathway. Methods: A vascular dementia model of rats was established by permanent, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. Rats' behavior was tested by Neurological deficit score and the Morris water maze...
2019: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30865890/parabrachial-interleukin-6-reduces-body-weight-and-food-intake-and-increases-thermogenesis-to-regulate-energy-metabolism
#11
Devesh Mishra, Jennifer E Richard, Ivana Maric, Begona Porteiro, Martin Häring, Sander Kooijman, Saliha Musovic, Kim Eerola, Lorena López-Ferreras, Eduard Peris, Katarzyna Grycel, Olesya T Shevchouk, Peter Micallef, Charlotta S Olofsson, Ingrid Wernstedt Asterholm, Harvey J Grill, Ruben Nogueiras, Karolina P Skibicka
Chronic low-grade inflammation and increased serum levels of the cytokine IL-6 accompany obesity. For brain-produced IL-6, the mechanisms by which it controls energy balance and its role in obesity remain unclear. Here, we show that brain-produced IL-6 is decreased in obese mice and rats in a neuroanatomically and sex-specific manner. Reduced IL-6 mRNA localized to lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) astrocytes, microglia, and neurons, including paraventricular hypothalamus-innervating lPBN neurons. IL-6 microinjection into lPBN reduced food intake and increased brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in male lean and obese rats by increasing thyroid and sympathetic outflow to BAT...
March 12, 2019: Cell Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30861133/new-viral-genetic-mapping-uncovers-an-enrichment-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-expressing-neuronal-inputs-to-the-nucleus-accumbens-from-stress-related-brain-regions
#12
Christy A Itoga, Yuncai Chen, Cameron Fateri, Paula A Echeverry, Jennifer M Lai, Jasmine Delgado, Shapatur Badhon, Annabel Short, Tallie Z Baram, Xiangmin Xu
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an essential, evolutionarily-conserved stress- neuropeptide. In addition to hypothalamus, CRH is expressed in brain regions including amygdala and hippocampus where it plays crucial roles in modulating the function of circuits underlying emotion and cognition. CRH+ fibers are found in nucleus accumbens (NAc), where CRH modulates reward/motivation behaviors. CRH actions in NAc may vary by the individual's stress history, suggesting roles for CRH in neuroplasticity and adaptation of the reward circuitry...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853436/reward-inhibits-paraventricular-crh-neurons-to-relieve-stress
#13
Yuan Yuan, Wei Wu, Ming Chen, Fang Cai, Chengyu Fan, Wei Shen, Wenzhi Sun, Ji Hu
Chronic, uncontrollable stress can lead to various pathologies [1-6]. Adaptive behaviors, such as reward consumption, control excessive stress responses and promote positive health outcomes [3, 7-10]. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) represent a key neural population organizing endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress by initiating hormonal cascades along the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and orchestrating stress-related behaviors through direct projections to limbic and autonomic brain centers [11-18]...
February 27, 2019: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30842533/involvement-of-trpm2-and-trpm8-in-temperature-dependent-masking-behavior
#14
Wataru Ota, Yusuke Nakane, Makiko Kashio, Yoshiro Suzuki, Kazuhiro Nakamura, Yasuo Mori, Makoto Tominaga, Takashi Yoshimura
Masking is a direct behavioral response to environmental changes and plays an important role in the temporal distribution of activity. However, the mechanisms responsible for masking remain unclear. Here we identify thermosensors and a possible neural circuit regulating temperature-dependent masking behavior in mice. Analysis of mice lacking thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels (Trpv1/3/4 and Trpm2/8) reveals that temperature-dependent masking is impaired in Trpm2- and Trpm8-null mice...
March 6, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30826522/neuropathic-pain-upregulates-hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-and-hypothalamo-spinal-oxytocinergic-pathways-in-oxytocin-monomeric-red-fluorescent-protein-1-transgenic-rat
#15
Haruki Nishimura, Makoto Kawasaki, Hitoshi Suzuki, Takanori Matsuura, Yasuhito Motojima, Hideo Ohnishi, Yoshiaki Yamanaka, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Reiko Saito, Hiromichi Ueno, Satomi Sonoda, Kazuaki Nishimura, Tatsushi Onaka, Yoichi Ueta, Akinori Sakai
Despite the high incidence of neuropathic pain, its mechanism remains unclear. Oxytocin (OXT) is an established endogenous polypeptide produced in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. OXT, which is synthesized by OXT neurons in the SON and the magnocellular part of the PVN (mPVN), is delivered into the posterior pituitary (PP), then released into the systemic blood circulation. Meanwhile, OXT-containing neurosecretory cells in the parvocellular part of the PVN (pPVN) are directly projected to the spinal cord and are associated with sensory modulation...
February 28, 2019: Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30826070/de-novo-protein-synthesis-mediated-by-the-eukaryotic-elongation-factor-2-is-required-for-the-anxiolytic-effect-of-oxytocin
#16
Stefanie Martinetz, Carl-Philipp Meinung, Benjamin Jurek, David von Schack, Erwin H van den Burg, David A Slattery, Inga D Neumann
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) mediates its actions, including anxiolysis, via its G protein-coupled OXT receptor. Within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), OXT-induced anxiolysis is mediated, at least in part, via activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway following calcium influx through transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2 channels. In the periphery, OXT activates eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), an essential mediator of protein synthesis...
January 22, 2019: Biological Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30825582/maternal-ethanol-exposure-reshapes-cart-system-in-the-rat-brain-correlation-with-development-of-anxiety-depression-and-memory-deficits
#17
Manoj P Dandekar, Ashish P Bharne, Pradip D Borkar, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Ethanol ingestion by a mother during pregnancy entails adverse consequences for her offspring. In this study, adult female rats were given access to ethanol from eight days prior to mating to post-parturition weaning, and the effects on her offspring were evaluated. We investigated changes in the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), a neuropeptide involved in the central effects of ethanol in the frame of reward and stress processing circuits. CART-immunoreactivity was augmented in the cells of Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus and lateral hypothalamus (LH) and fibers in the LH and ventral tegmental area (VTA) in 25 days old pups...
February 27, 2019: Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30812013/the-melanocortin-pathway-and-control-of-appetite-progress-and-therapeutic-implications
#18
REVIEW
Giulia Baldini, Kevin D Phelan
The initial discovery that ob/ob mice become obese because of a recessive mutation of the leptin gene has been crucial to discover the melanocortin pathway to control appetite. In the melanocortin pathway, the fed state is signaled by abundance of circulating hormones such as leptin and insulin, which bind to receptors expressed at the surface of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons to promote processing of POMC to the mature hormone α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). The α-MSH released by POMC neurons then signals to decrease energy intake by binding to melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) expressed by MC4R neurons to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN)...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30808956/protective-effect-of-oxytocin-on-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice
#19
Xiaona An, Xiaotong Sun, Yonghao Hou, Xiaomei Yang, Hongli Chen, Peng Zhang, Jianbo Wu
Oxytocin (OT), a neurohypophyseal hormone synthesized in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, has been reported to have an anti- inflammatory effect. However, its role in acute lung injury (ALI) has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects and potential mechanism action of OT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Mice were treated with OT 30 min before the intraperitoneal injection of LPS. After 2 h, the effects of OT on lung histopathological changes, lung wet/dry (W/D) ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, levels of inflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and expression of inflammation proteins were detected...
February 26, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30802533/alteration-in-oxytocin-levels-induced-by-early-social-environment-affects-maternal-behavior-and-estrogen-receptor-alpha-in-mandarin-voles-microtus-mandarinus
#20
Tuo Feng, Shucheng An, Renee Kinden, Xia Zhang, Rui Jia, Fadao Tai
Many studies have shown that the early social environment exerts long-term effects on the brain and also the parental behavior of adults. Oxytocin (OXT) is one of the most important neurotransmitters that regulate social behavior; howerve, whether the early social environment affects parental behavior via OXT remains unclear. Using socially monogamous adult mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), the present study found that 1) both paternal deprivation and early social deprivation significantly decreased OXT expression in both the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of F2 generation offspring; 2) systemic neonatal OXT injection in naïve animals promoted maternal but not paternal behavior in adult F2 offspring; 3) systemic neonatal OXT injection significantly increased ERα expression in both the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and the ventro medial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) in female but not in male mandarin voles; 4) systemic neonatal administration of an OXT antagonist significantly reduced ERα expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), VMH, and the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc) in females and in all examined brain regions in males...
February 22, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
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