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Spleen Pathology

Preema Sinha, Sunmeet Sandhu, Arijit Sen, Aradhana Sood
Mastocytosis is a disease characterized by abnormal and pathologic increase in mast cells in the cutaneous tissue and extracutaneous organs such as the bone marrow, liver, spleen, lymph node and gastrointestinal tract. Cutaneous mastocytosis comprises of four major clinical variants: solitary and multiple mastocytomas, urticaria pigmentosa, diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans. Cutaneous mastocytosis of the xanthelasmoid type is a rare variant of diffuse mastocytosis...
February 15, 2019: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Yi-Fan Miao, Hong-Xin Kang, Juan Li, Yu-Mei Zhang, Hong-Yu Ren, Lv Zhu, Huan Chen, Ling Yuan, Hang Su, Mei-Hua Wan, Wen-Fu Tang
BACKGROUND: Obesity worsens inflammatory organ injury in acute pancreatitis (AP), but there is no effective preventive strategy. Sheng-jiang powder (SJP) has been shown to alleviate multiple-organ inflammatory injury in rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Hence, SJP is supposed to have an effect on multiple-organ inflammatory injury in AP in rats fed a high-fat diet. AIM: To explore how obesity may contribute to aggravating inflammatory organ injury in AP in rats and observe the effect of SJP on multiple-organ inflammatory injury in AP in rats fed a high-fat diet...
February 14, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Begoña Monge-Maillo, María Olmedo Samperio, José Antonio Pérez-Molina, Francesca Norman, Carla Ruth Mejía, Sandra Chamorro Tojeiro, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is present in all continents, except for the Antarctica. Characteristically, CE lesions are found in the liver and the lungs, but virtually any part of the body may be affected (the spleen, kidneys, heart, central nervous system, bones, among others). It is estimated that the incidence of bone involvement in CE is 0.5% to 4%. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study was performed of patients with osseous CE treated at the National Reference Unit of Tropical Diseases of the Ramon y Cajal Hospital, Madrid, Spain, between 1989 and December 2017...
February 19, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Niccoló Vendramin, Dhamotharan Kannimuthu, Anne Berit Olsen, Argelia Cuenca, Lena Hammerlund Teige, Øystein Wessel, Tine Moesgaard Iburg, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Espen Rimstad, Niels Jørgen Olesen
Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) mediated diseases have emerged throughout salmonid aquaculture. Three PRV subtypes are currently reported as causative agents of or in association with diseases in different salmonid species. PRV-1 causes heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and is associated with jaundice syndrome in farmed chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). PRV-2 causes erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS) in coho salmon in Japan. PRV-3 has recently been associated with a disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) characterized by anaemia, heart and red muscle pathology; to jaundice syndrome in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)...
February 18, 2019: Veterinary Research
P J Hodge, J R Sandy, A H Noormohammadi
CASE SERIES: Avian mycobacteriosis is a significant disease of a wide range of bird species worldwide. The most common causative agent, Mycobacterium avium, is reported to also infect a range of mammals, including humans. Of 11 brolgas (Antigone rubicunda) submitted to the University of Melbourne for postmortem examination over a 10-year period, 7 were diagnosed with mycobacteriosis. All were from a wildlife park and kept in permanent enclosures as part of a breeding program. Most of the brolgas with mycobacteriosis were in poor body condition and had widely disseminated granulomas throughout the body, especially within the liver, spleen and gastrointestinal tract...
February 17, 2019: Australian Veterinary Journal
Sally Griffin
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Abdominal ultrasound plays a vital role in the diagnostic work-up of many cats presenting to general and specialist practitioners. Ultrasound examination of the liver can be key in the diagnosis of diseases such as hepatic lipidosis and hepatic neoplasia. CLINICAL CHALLENGES: Despite ultrasonography being a commonly used modality, many practitioners are not comfortable performing an ultrasound examination or interpreting the resulting images...
January 2019: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Justin D Glenn, Charles Liu, Katharine A Whartenby
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a diverse group of cells that are recognized for their remarkable suppressive effects on pro-inflammatory T cells. The pleiotropic nature of these cells, however, has been demonstrated by their differential effects on immune responses in different settings. Our and others' work has demonstrated suppressive effects of these cells. We previously demonstrated that these cells were mobilized to the lungs during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is a murine model of multiple sclerosis, and potently inhibited CD8+ T cell responses against influenza infection...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Michael Karass, Katherine Linder, Anup Agarwal, Alexandra Budhai, Yasmin Yusuf, Oleg Epelbaum
Extramedullary hematopoiesis, which represents ectopic blood cell production, is usually an incidental finding accompanying hematologic pathology. The liver and spleen are the most common sites of extramedullary hematopoiesis, but thoracic involvement is likewise observed. Pleural effusions in the setting of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis have been attributed to mechanical interactions between the pleural surface and neighboring paravertebral masses consisting of hematopoietic tissue. Rupture of these highly vascularized lesions into the adjacent pleural space has been the putative mechanism in cases complicated by hemothorax...
December 3, 2018: Curēus
Chang-Ning Liu, Jeffrey Morin, Melba Dokmanovich, Crystal T Bluette, Richard Goldstein, Balasubramanian Manickam, Cedo M Bagi
In drug discovery and development, X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has gained increasing importance over the past decades. In recent years, micro-CT imaging of soft tissues has become popular due to the introduction of a variety of radiopaque contrast agents. More recently, nanoparticle-based ExiTron nano 12,000 has become commercially available for the nonclinical micro-CT imaging of soft tissues in rodents. Phagocytosis and accumulation of the contrast agent by Kupffer cells in the liver, as well as macrophages in the spleen, increase the soft tissue X-ray attenuation for up to 6 months...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
A Saam Youshani, Samuel Rowlston, Claire O'Leary, Gabriella Forte, Helen Parker, Aiyin Liao, Brian Telfer, Kaye Williams, Ian D Kamaly-Asl, Brian W Bigger
BACKGROUND: Chimeric mouse models generated via adoptive bone marrow transfer are the foundation for immune cell tracking in neuroinflammation. Chimeras that exhibit low chimerism levels, blood-brain barrier disruption and pro-inflammatory effects prior to the progression of the pathological phenotype, make it difficult to distinguish the role of immune cells in neuroinflammatory conditions. Head-shielded irradiation overcomes many of the issues described and replaces the recipient bone marrow system with donor haematopoietic cells expressing a reporter gene or different pan-leukocyte antigen, whilst leaving the blood-brain barrier intact...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Eric Cassmann, Bianca Zaffarano, Qi Chen, Ganwu Li, Joseph Haynes
A 15-year-old female cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) undergoing long term management for hepatopathy died and underwent necropsy. Microscopic findings were consistent with chronic liver disease characterized by distorted hepatic architecture, fibrosis and biliary proliferation. The additional finding of large intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes and renal tubular epithelium prompted diagnostic next generation sequencing. The assembled sequences isolated from pooled kidney and liver were related to siadenoviruses...
January 31, 2019: Virus Research
Paula Korhonen, Eveliina Pollari, Katja M Kanninen, Ekaterina Savchenko, Šárka Lehtonen, Sara Wojciechowski, Yuriy Pomeshchik, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Gundars Goldsteins, Jari Koistinaho, Tarja Malm
Inflammation is a prominent feature of the neuropathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Emerging evidence suggests that inflammatory cascades contributing to the disease progression are not restricted to the central nervous system (CNS) but also occur peripherally. Indeed, alterations in T cell responses and their secreted cytokines have been detected in ALS patients and in animal models of ALS. One key cytokine responsible for the shift in T cell responses is interleukin-33 (IL-33), which stimulates innate type 2 immune cells to produce a large amount of Th2 cytokines that are possibly beneficial in the recovery processes of CNS injuries...
June 2019: IBRO Reports
Tian Lin, Jiang Yu, Yanfeng Hu, Hao Liu, Yiming Lu, Mingli Zhao, Hao Chen, Xinhua Chen, Guoxin Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and cosmetic effect of dual-port laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (DPLDG) for gastric cancer. METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients underwent DPLDG at the Department of General Surgery, Nanfang Hospital from November 2016 to August 2018. INCLUSION CRITERIA: (1) age of 18 to 75 years; (2) primary gastric adenocarcinoma confirmed pathologically by endoscopic biopsy; (3) tumor located at middle-low stomach and planned for distal gastrectomy; (4) cT1b-2N0-1M0 at preoperative staging; (5) tumor diameter ≤3 cm; (6) US Eastern Cancer Cooperative Group(ECOG) score 0 to 1 points; (7) American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I to II; (8) perioperative management based on enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) principle...
January 25, 2019: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Zhaofeng Hou, Dandan Liu, Shijie Su, Lele Wang, Zhenxing Zhao, Yifei Ma, Qiaoqiao Li, Chuanli Jia, Jinjun Xu, Yonghua Zhou, Jianping Tao
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects humans and other warm-blooded animals. Previous quantitative proteomic analyses of infected host cells revealed that the expression of many host proteins is modulated by T. gondii infection. However, at present limited data are available on the differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) associated with the pathology and host immune responses induced by acute and chronic infection with T. gondii in pigs in vivo...
January 30, 2019: BMC Genomics
Katherine A Baugh, Nicole Villafane, Carlos Farinas, Sadhna Dhingra, Eric J Silberfein, Nader N Massarweh, H Tran Cao, William E Fisher, George Van Buren
BACKGROUND: Identification of incidental pancreatic lesions is increasing because of advancements in imaging. Diagnosis remains a challenge for clinicians, with intrapancreatic accessory spleens (IPAS) posing a unique dilemma. IPAS are frequently resected because of inability to exclude alternate diagnoses, subjecting patients to unnecessary risk. The purpose of this study was to examine our institutional experience with IPAS and develop a multidisciplinary algorithm to improve preoperative diagnosis...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
D Azakami, A Saito, K Ochiai, T Ishiwata, K Takahashi, N Kaji, D Kaji, N Kaji, M Michishita
A 13-year-old neutered female mixed-breed dog with a clinical history of emaciation, inappetence and vomiting for 2 months was presented. Blood tests showed marked leucocytosis with increased neutrophil and basophil count, mild thrombocytosis and anaemia. Seven days after the initial visit, the dog died and was submitted for necropsy examination. Grossly, the bone marrow was red in colour and hepatomegaly and splenomegaly with discolouration were observed. A bone marrow smear showed an increased proportion of basophilic lineage cells...
January 2019: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Wentao Zhu, Yanqi Zhang, Jiacheng Zhang, Gailing Yuan, Xiaoling Liu, Taoshan Ai, Jianguo Su
The yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is an economically important fish in China, but Edwardsiella ictaluri, an intracellular pathogenic bacterium, causes great losses to the culture industry. Currently, vaccination is the most promising strategy to combat the infectious diseases, while adjuvant can provide effective assistant for vaccines to enhance immune responses. In the present study, inactivated E. ictaluri vaccine was prepared, then Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), chitosan and poly(I:C) were employed as adjuvants to evaluate the effect on boosting immune responses and protecting yellow catfish against E...
January 25, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Eda Albayrak, Sadık Server
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate spleen stiffness values with shear wave elastography (SWE) quantitatively in healthy adults and investigate the relationship of spleen stiffness with age, gender, and spleen size. METHODS: This study included 65 healthy individuals. Spleen stiffness measurement was obtained with 2 dimensional (2-D) SWE method from the middle portion of spleen and calculated in kilopascals by taking the average of three valid measurements...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Junichi Tsuchiya, Masahide Yamamoto, Hyeyeol Bae, Takumi Oshima, Tomohiro Yoneyama, Osamu Miura, Ukihide Tateishi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of whole-body [C]acetate PET/CT in less aggressive or indolent lymphomas, wherein [F]FDG PET/CT would exhibit limited sensitivity. METHODS: Between September 2016 and May 2018, we prospectively evaluated 17 patients (9 men, 8 women; mean age [range], 71 [45-87] years) with pathologically proven less aggressive or indolent lymphomas according to Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Classification Project, using both [F]FDG PET/CT and [C]acetate PET/CT (performed on the same day)...
January 25, 2019: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Mats I Nilsson, Jacqueline M Bourgeois, Joshua P Nederveen, Marlon R Leite, Bart P Hettinga, Adam L Bujak, Linda May, Ethan Lin, Michael Crozier, Daniel R Rusiecki, Chris Moffatt, Paul Azzopardi, Jacob Young, Yifan Yang, Jenny Nguyen, Ethan Adler, Lucy Lan, Mark A Tarnopolsky
Biological aging is associated with progressive damage accumulation, loss of organ reserves, and systemic inflammation ('inflammaging'), which predispose for a wide spectrum of chronic diseases, including several types of cancer. In contrast, aerobic exercise training (AET) reduces inflammation, lowers all-cause mortality, and enhances both health and lifespan. In this study, we examined the benefits of early-onset, lifelong AET on predictors of health, inflammation, and cancer incidence in a naturally aging mouse model (C57BL/J6)...
2019: PloS One
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