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Insula OR insular Cortex OR posterior Insula

Fuqing Zhou, Yanlin Zhao, Li Zhu, Jian Jiang, Muhua Huang, Yong Zhang, Ying Zhuang, Honghan Gong
Understanding the central mechanisms responsible for lumbar nerve root compression may facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this study, our aim was to investigate the amplitude of fluctuations (AF) in five specific frequency bands and the full-frequency band realm to provide novel insight into the rhythm of the neuronal activity of low back/leg pain (LBLP) patients (n = 25). Compared with healthy controls, LBLP patients exhibited a significantly altered AF in multiple brain regions, including the right or left middle and inferior temporal gyri, bilateral precuneus, right anterior insula/frontal operculum, right or left inferior parietal lobule/postcentral gyrus, and other locations at five specific frequencies (P < 0...
February 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
Joseph E Dunsmoor, Marijn C W Kroes, Jian Li, Nathaniel D Daw, Helen B Simpson, Elizabeth A Phelps
Standard fear extinction relies on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to form a new memory given the omission of threat. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans, we investigated whether replacing threat with novel neutral outcomes (instead of just omitting threat) facilitates extinction by engaging the vmPFC more effectively than standard extinction. Computational modeling of associability (indexing surprise strength and dynamically modulating learning rates) characterized skin conductance responses (SCR) and vmPFC activity during novelty-facilitated but not standard extinction...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Matthew A Scult, David M Fresco, Faith M Gunning, Conor Liston, Saren H Seeley, Emmanuel García, Douglas S Mennin
Emotion regulation therapy (ERT) is an efficacious treatment for distress disorders (i.e., depression and anxiety), predicated on a conceptual model wherein difficult to treat distress arises from intense emotionality (e.g., neuroticism, dispositional negativity) and is prolonged by negative self-referentiality (e.g., worry, rumination). Individuals with distress disorders exhibit disruptions in two corresponding brain networks including the salience network (SN) reflecting emotion/motivation and the default mode network (DMN) reflecting self-referentiality...
2019: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Matthias Walter, Lorenz Leitner, Lars Michels, Martina D Liechti, Patrick Freund, Thomas M Kessler, Spyros Kollias, Ulrich Mehnert
Previous functional neuroimaging studies provided evidence for a specific supraspinal network involved in lower urinary tract (LUT) control. However, data on the reliability of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes during LUT task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) across separate measurements are lacking. Proof of the latter is crucial to evaluate whether fMRI can be used to assess supraspinal responses to LUT treatments. Therefore, we prospectively assessed task-specific supraspinal responses from 20 healthy participants undergoing two fMRI measurements (test-retest) within 5-8 weeks...
February 15, 2019: NeuroImage
Merideth Addicott, Bruce Luber, Duy Nguyen, Hannah Palmer, Sarah Lisanby, Lawrence Appelbaum
The insular cortex supports the conscious awareness of physical and emotional sensations, and the ability to modulate the insula could have important clinical applications in psychiatry. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) uses transient magnetic fields to induce electrical currents in the superficial cortex. Given its deep location in the brain, the insula may not be directly stimulated by rTMS; however, rTMS may modulate the insula via its functional connections with superficial cortical regions...
February 16, 2019: Brain Connectivity
Julina A Rattel, Stephan F Miedl, Laila K Franke, Lisa M Grünberger, Jens Blechert, Martin Kronbichler, Victor I Spoormaker, Frank H Wilhelm
BACKGROUND: Pathological peritraumatic encoding is proposed as a proximal risk factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with trauma-analog studies linking increased neural processing of trauma films to intrusive trauma recollections, a core symptom of PTSD. Cumulative lifetime adversity is proposed as a more distal risk factor, with research indicating a tipping point at about five events with regard to PTSD development following re-exposure to trauma. Thus, within a diathesis × stress framework, increased peritraumatic neural processing may constitute a specific risk factor for PTSD, particularly in individuals with several lifetime adversities...
January 4, 2019: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
L K Luo, C P Ren, C H Wang, J L Cheng, X Gao, C Chen
Objective: To explore the relationship between simple numerical function and gray matter volume (GMV) in normal brain aging using the voxel-based morphometry(VBM) approach. Methods: A total of 123 individuals from 18 to 70 years old (63 males,60 females,the average age was (43±14) years, were recruited from right-handed healthy Han Chinese volunteers at the Department of MRI at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between October 2016 and June 2017. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance sagital three-dimensional imaging scanning, and statistical parameter graph (SPM) 8 software was used for voxel-based morphological analysis to compare the differences in gray matter volume between different age groups...
January 29, 2019: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Silvia Erika Kober, Doris Grössinger, Guilherme Wood
Motor imagery of movements is used as mental strategy in neurofeedback applications to gain voluntary control over activity in motor areas of the brain. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we first addressed the question whether motor imagery and execution of swallowing activate comparable brain areas, which has been already proven for hand and foot movements. Prior near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies provide evidence that this is the case in the outer layer of the cortex...
February 15, 2019: Dysphagia
Furong Zhu, Yi Liu, Feng Liu, Ru Yang, Huabing Li, Jindong Chen, David N Kennedy, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
Disrupted functional asymmetry has been implicated in schizophrenia. However, it remains unknown whether disrupted functional asymmetry originates from intra-hemispheric and/or inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (FC) in the patients, and whether it starts at very early stage of psychosis. Seventy-six patients with first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia, 74 subjects at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), and 71 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The 'Parameter of asymmetry' (PAS) metric was calculated and support vector machine (SVM) classification analysis was applied to analyze the data...
February 12, 2019: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ewelina Marciniewicz, Przemysław Podgórski, Tomasz Pawłowski, Krzysztof Małyszczak, Katarzyna Fleischer-Stępniewska, Brygida Knysz, Marta Waliszewska-Prosół, Agnieszka Żelwetro, Weronika Rymer, Małgorzata Inglot, Maria Ejma, Marek Sąsiadek, Joanna Bladowska
The study was performed to evaluate cerebral volume changes in HCV-infected subjects before and after interferon-free therapy with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA). We aimed also to estimate the impact of successful DAA therapy on the neuropsychological state of patients. Eleven HCV genotype 1 (GT1) patients treated with ombitasvir/paritaprevir (boosted with ritonavir) and dasabuvir, with or without ribavirin underwent brain magnetic resonance (MR) before and 24 weeks after completion of therapy. All patients achieved sustained viral response...
February 7, 2019: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Gail A Bernstein, Kathryn R Cullen, Elizabeth C Harris, Christine A Conelea, Alexandra D Zagoloff, Patricia A Carstedt, Susanne S Lee, Bryon A Mueller
OBJECTIVE: Foundational knowledge on neural circuitry underlying pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and how it changes during standard treatment is needed to provide the basis for conceptualization and development of novel, targeted treatments. This study explored the effects of sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits in pediatric OCD. METHOD: Medication-free youths with OCD (n=14) and healthy controls (n=14) were examined at baseline and 12 weeks with resting-state fMRI...
October 30, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Sonia Crottaz-Herbette, Isabel Tissieres, Eleonora Fornari, Pierre-André Rapin, Stephanie Clarke
Left hemispheric stroke is known to be associated with right neglect and/or not lateralized attentional deficits. The former appears to respond favourably to leftward prismatic adaptation (L-PA), as reported in a case of a large left stroke. In normal subjects, brief exposure to L-PA was shown to enhance the representation of the right visual field within the right inferior parietal lobule, emphasizing thus right hemispheric dominance within the ventral attentional system. We have investigated whether L-PA does the same in left hemispheric stroke by comparing neural responses to left, central and right stimuli before and after a brief exposure to L-PA...
January 24, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Chelsea M Kaplan, Andrew Schrepf, Deniz Vatansever, Tony E Larkin, Ishtiaq Mawla, Eric Ichesco, Laura Kochlefl, Steven E Harte, Daniel J Clauw, George A Mashour, Richard E Harris
A critical component of brain network architecture is a robust hub structure, wherein hub regions facilitate efficient information integration by occupying highly connected and functionally central roles in the network. Across a wide range of neurological disorders, hub brain regions seem to be disrupted, and the character of this disruption can yield insights into the pathophysiology of these disorders. We applied a brain network-based approach to examine hub topology in fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition with prominent central nervous system involvement...
January 16, 2019: Pain
Zhifu Shen, Siyi Yu, Minyu Wang, Tianwei She, Ya Yang, Yanan Wang, Wei Wei, Xiaoli Guo, Youping Hu, Fanrong Liang, Jie Yang
Neuroimaging studies have manifested functional abnormalities in pain-related brain regions in patients with primary dysmenorrhea (PDM). However, as the key region in brain pain matrix, whether and how the amygdala functional network alteration in PDM is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the intrinsic amygdala functional connectivity (AFC) network alteration in patients with PDM during ovulatory period. Thirty-six PDM patients and 35 matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The AFC was constructed using amygdala-based functional connectivity using resting-state functional MRI data...
February 11, 2019: Neuroreport
Elizabeth D Ballard, Jessica L Reed, Joanna Szczepanik, Jennifer W Evans, Julia S Yarrington, Daniel P Dickstein, Matthew K Nock, Allison C Nugent, Carlos A Zarate
OBJECTIVE: A critical need exists to identify objective markers of suicide ideation. One potential suicide risk marker is the Suicide Implicit Association Task (S-IAT), a behavioral task that uses differential reaction times to compare the implicit association between the self and death to the implicit association between the self and life. Individuals with a stronger association between the self and death on the S-IAT are more likely to attempt suicide in the future. To better understand the neural underpinnings of the implicit association between self and either life or death, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) version of the S-IAT was adapted and piloted in healthy volunteers...
February 13, 2019: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Compes Paloma, Tabouret Emeline, Etcheverry Amandine, Colin Carole, Appay Romain, Cordier Nicolas, Mosser Jean, Chinot Olivier, Delingette Hervé, Girard Nadine, Dufour Henry, Metellus Philippe, Figarella-Branger Dominique
INTRODUCTION: The phenotypic heterogeneity of diffuse gliomas is still inconsistently explained by known molecular abnormalities. Here, we report the molecular and radiological features of diffuse grade WHO II and III gliomas involving the insula and its potential impact on prognosis. METHODS: Clinical, pathological, molecular and neuro-radiological features of 43 consecutive patients who underwent a surgical resection between 2006 and 2013 for a grade II and III gliomas involving the insula was retrospectively analyzed...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Philip R Szeszko, Rachel Yehuda
The earliest neuroimaging studies in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) utilized positron emission tomography (PET) to examine the brain's response to glucocorticoid administration given predominant neurobiological models of the stress response focusing on that neuroendocrine system. This work revealed that the anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala, which is now considered part of the salience network, play a role in treatment response, and set the stage for subsequent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies focused on understanding the role of the salience network in the neurobiology of treatment response in PTSD...
February 2, 2019: Psychiatry Research
Lisa J M van den Berg, Marieke S Tollenaar, Laura H C G Compier-de Block, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Bernet M Elzinga
Altered processing of emotional faces due to childhood maltreatment has repeatedly been reported, and may be a key process underlying the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment. The current study is the first to examine the role of neural reactivity to emotional and neutral faces in the transmission of maltreatment, using a multi-generational family design including 171 participants of 51 families of two generations with a large age range (8-69 years). The impact of experienced and perpetrated maltreatment (abuse and neglect) on face processing was examined in association with activation in the amygdala, hippocampus, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and insula in response to angry, fearful, happy and neutral faces...
February 1, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Vitalie Chiosa, Dumitru Ciolac, Stanislav Groppa, Nabin Koirala, Bogdan Pintea, Anatolie Vataman, Yaroslav Winter, Gabriel Gonzalez-Escamilla, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa
Study Objectives: In this study, we aimed to estimate the alterations of brain networks and structural integrity linked to seizure occurrence during sleep and awake states. Methods: Using a graph theory approach to magnetic resonance imaging-derived volumes of cortical and subcortical regions, we investigated the topological organization of structural networks in patients with sleep seizures (n = 13), patients with awake seizures (n = 12), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 10)...
January 31, 2019: Sleep
Rosalind D Butterfield, Greg Siegle, Kyung Hwa Lee, Cecile D Ladouceur, Erika E Forbes, Ronald E Dahl, Neal D Ryan, Lisa Sheeber, Jennifer S Silk
The ways parents socialize their adolescents to cope with anxiety (i.e. coping socialization) may be instrumental in the development of threat processing and coping responses. Coping socialization may be important for anxious adolescents, as they show altered neural threat processing and over-reliance on disengaged coping (e.g., avoidance and distraction), which can maintain anxiety. We investigated whether coping socialization was associated with anxious and healthy adolescents' neural response to threat, and whether neural activation was associated with disengaged coping...
February 11, 2019: Developmental Science
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