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Shailendra Segobin, Alice Laniepce, Ludivine Ritz, Coralie Lannuzel, Céline Boudehent, Nicolas Cabé, Laurent Urso, François Vabret, Francis Eustache, Hélène Beaunieux, Anne-Lise Pitel
The thalamus, a relay organ consisting of several nuclei, is shared between the frontocerebellar circuit and the Papez circuit, both particularly affected in alcohol use disorder. Shrinkage of the thalamus is known to be more severe in alcoholics with Korsakoff's syndrome than in those without neurological complications (uncomplicated alcoholics). While thalamic atrophy could thus be a key factor explaining amnesia in Korsakoff's syndrome, the loci and nature of alterations within the thalamic nuclei in uncomplicated alcoholics and alcoholics with Korsakoff's syndrome remains unclear...
March 15, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Fan Zhang, Ye Wu, Isaiah Norton, Yogesh Rathi, Alexandra J Golby, Lauren J O'Donnell
There are two popular approaches for automated white matter parcellation using diffusion MRI tractography, including fiber clustering strategies that group white matter fibers according to their geometric trajectories and cortical-parcellation-based strategies that focus on the structural connectivity among different brain regions of interest. While multiple studies have assessed test-retest reproducibility of automated white matter parcellations using cortical-parcellation-based strategies, there are no existing studies of test-retest reproducibility of fiber clustering parcellation...
March 15, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Damon Hyde, Jurriaan M Peters, Simon Warfield
OBJECTIVE: Modern clinical MRI collects millimeter scale anatomic information, but scalp electroencephalography (EEG) source localization (ESL) is ill-posed, and cannot resolve individual sources at that resolution. Dimensionality reduction in the space of cortical sources is needed to improve computational and storage complexity. Surface based cortical source models allow scalable complexity, but volumetric methods still employ simplistic grid coarsening that eliminates fine scale anatomic structure...
March 13, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Chemin Lin, Shwu-Hua Lee, Chih-Mao Huang, Guan-Yen Chen, Pei-Shan Ho, Ho-Ling Liu, Yao-Liang Chen, Tatia Mei-Chun Lee, Shun-Chi Wu
BACKGROUND: Entropy analysis is a computational method used to quantify the complexity in a system, and loss of brain complexity is hypothesized to be related to mental disorders. Here, we applied entropy analysis to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) signal in subjects with late-life depression (LLD), an illness combined with emotion dysregulation and aging effect. METHODS: A total of 35 unremitted depressed elderly and 22 control subjects were recruited...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Nicole R Karcher, Kathleen J O'Brien, Sridhar Kandala, Deanna M Barch
BACKGROUND: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) during childhood are associated with greater risk of developing a psychotic disorder (and other mental disorders), highlighting the importance of identifying neural correlates of childhood PLEs. Three major cortical networks-the cingulo-opercular network (CON), default mode network (DMN), and frontoparietal network-are consistently implicated in psychosis and PLEs in adults. However, it is unclear whether variation in functional connectivity is associated with PLEs in school-aged children...
January 26, 2019: Biological Psychiatry
Oren Civier, Robert Elton Smith, Chun-Hung Yeh, Alan Connelly, Fernando Calamante
Recent advances in diffusion MRI tractography permit the generation of dense weighted structural connectomes that offer greater insight into brain organization. However, these efforts are hampered by the lack of consensus on how to extract topological measures from the resulting graphs. Here we evaluate the common practice of removing the graphs' weak connections, which is primarily intended to eliminate spurious connections and emphasize strong connections. Because this processing step requires arbitrary or heuristic-based choices (e...
March 4, 2019: NeuroImage
Răzvan V Marinescu, Arman Eshaghi, Marco Lorenzi, Alexandra L Young, Neil P Oxtoby, Sara Garbarino, Sebastian J Crutch, Daniel C Alexander
Current models of progression in neurodegenerative diseases use neuroimaging measures that are averaged across pre-defined regions of interest (ROIs). Such models are unable to recover fine details of atrophy patterns; they tend to impose an assumption of strong spatial correlation within each ROI and no correlation among ROIs. Such assumptions may be violated by the influence of underlying brain network connectivity on pathology propagation - a strong hypothesis e.g. in Alzheimer's Disease. Here we present DIVE: Data-driven Inference of Vertexwise Evolution...
March 4, 2019: NeuroImage
Ryo Sakamoto, Christopher Marano, Michael I Miller, Constantine G Lyketsos, Yue Li, Susumu Mori, Kenichi Oishi, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Adni
For patients with cognitive disorders and dementia, accurate prognosis of cognitive worsening is critical to their ability to prepare for the future, in collaboration with health-care providers. Despite multiple efforts to apply computational brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) analysis in predicting cognitive worsening, with several successes, brain MRI is not routinely quantified in clinical settings to guide prognosis and clinical decision-making. To encourage the clinical use of a cutting-edge image segmentation method, we developed a prediction model as part of an established web-based cloud platform, MRICloud...
2019: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Jinhua Sheng, Bocheng Wang, Qiao Zhang, Qingqiang Liu, Yangjie Ma, Weixiang Liu, Meiling Shao, Bin Chen
A 360-area surface-based cortical parcellation was recently generated using multimodal data in a group average of 210 healthy young adults from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). In order to automatically and accurately identify mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at its two levels (early MCI and late MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy control (HC), a novel joint HCP MMP method was first proposed to delineate the cortical architecture and function connectivity in a group of non healthy adults. The proposed method was applied to register a dataset of 96 resting-state functional connectomes from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) to Connectivity Informatics Technology Initiative (CIFTI) space and parcellated brain into human connectome project multi-modal parcellation (HCPMMP) with 360 areas...
March 2, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Michael J Paldino, Farahnaz Golriz, Wei Zhang, Zili D Chu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Architecture of the cerebral network has been shown to associate with IQ in children with epilepsy. However, subject-level prediction on this basis, a crucial step toward harnessing network analyses for the benefit of children with epilepsy, has yet to be achieved. We compared two network normalization strategies in terms of their ability to optimize subject-level inferences on the relationship between brain network architecture and brain function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with epilepsy and resting state fMRI were retrospectively identified...
2019: PloS One
Heather Wilson, Gennaro Pagano, Flavia Niccolini, Nils Muhlert, Mitul A Mehta, Graham Searle, Roger N Gunn, Eugenii A Rabiner, Thomas Foltynie, Marios Politis
INTRODUCTION: Preclinical studies suggest a link between cAMP/PKA signalling, phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) expression and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Here, we investigated in vivo the association between PDE4 expression and EDS in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients using [11 C]rolipram PET and MR imaging. METHODS: Eighteen participants, 12 PD and 6 healthy controls, underwent one [11 C]rolipram PET and a multi-modal MRI scan. Probabilistic tractography was performed on subjects' diffusion data to functionally parcellate the striatum according with projections to limbic cortical areas...
February 22, 2019: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Dongtao Wei, Kangcheng Wang, Jie Meng, Kaixiang Zhuang, Qunlin Chen, Wenjing Yan, Peng Xie, Jiang Qiu
BACKGROUND: Imaging studies have shown that the subcallosal region (SCR) volume was decreased in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, whether the volumetric reductions in the SCR are due to thinning of the cortex or a loss of surface area (SA) remains unclear. In addition, the relationship between cortical measurements of the SCR and age through the adult life span in MDD remains unclear. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional design from 114 individuals with MDD and 112 matched healthy control (HC) individuals across the adult life span (range: 18-74 years)...
March 1, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Chiara Damiani, Davide Maspero, Marzia Di Filippo, Riccardo Colombo, Dario Pescini, Alex Graudenzi, Hans Victor Westerhoff, Lilia Alberghina, Marco Vanoni, Giancarlo Mauri
Metabolic reprogramming is a general feature of cancer cells. Regrettably, the comprehensive quantification of metabolites in biological specimens does not promptly translate into knowledge on the utilization of metabolic pathways. By estimating fluxes across metabolic pathways, computational models hold the promise to bridge this gap between data and biological functionality. These models currently portray the average behavior of cell populations however, masking the inherent heterogeneity that is part and parcel of tumorigenesis as much as drug resistance...
February 28, 2019: PLoS Computational Biology
Uk-Su Choi, Hirokazu Kawaguchi, Yuichiro Matsuoka, Tobias Kober, Ikuhiro Kida
We proposed a method for segmentation of brain tissues-gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid-using multi-contrast images, including a T1 map and a uniform T1-weighted image, from a magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echoes (MP2RAGE) sequence at 7 Tesla. The proposed method was evaluated with respect to the processing time and the similarity of the segmented masks of brain tissues with those obtained using FSL, FreeSurfer, and SPM12. The processing time of the proposed method (28 ± 0 s) was significantly shorter than those of FSL and SPM12 (444 ± 4 s and 159 ± 2 s for FSL and SPM12, respectively)...
2019: PloS One
Tomokazu Tsurugizawa, Boucif Djemai, Andrew Zalesky
Fasting is known to influence learning and memory in mice and alter the neural networks that subserve these cognitive functions. We used high-resolution functional MRI to study the impact of fasting on resting-state functional connectivity in mice following 12 h of fasting. The cortex and subcortex were parcellated into 52 subregions and functional connectivity was measured between each pair of subregions in groups of fasted and non-fasted mice. Functional connectivity was globally increased in the fasted group compared to the non-fasted group, with the most significant increases evident between the hippocampus (bilateral), retrosplenial cortex (left), visual cortex (left) and auditory cortex (left)...
February 27, 2019: Scientific Reports
Gayane Aghakhanyan, Andrea Vergallo, Marta Gennaro, Sara Mazzarri, Federica Guidoccio, Claudia Radicchi, Roberto Ceravolo, Gloria Tognoni, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Duccio Volterrani
Evidence of cortical beta-amyloid (Aβ) load, assessed by Aβ positron emission tomography (Aβ-PET), is an established in vivo biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathophysiology. Qualitative assessment of Aβ-PET provides binary information; meanwhile semiquantitative approaches require a parcellation of PET image either manually or by placement of atlas-based volumes of interest. We supposed that a whole-brain approach with voxel-by-voxel standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) parametric images may better elucidate the spatial trajectories of Aβ burden along the continuum of AD...
February 27, 2019: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Bonnie Alexander, Wai Yen Loh, Lillian G Matthews, Andrea L Murray, Chris Adamson, Richard Beare, Jian Chen, Claire E Kelly, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Alicia J Spittle, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Marc L Seal, Deanne K Thompson
Our recently published M-CRIB atlas comprises 100 neonatal brain regions including 68 compatible with the widely-used Desikan-Killiany adult cortical atlas. A successor to the Desikan-Killiany atlas is the Desikan-Killiany-Tourville atlas, in which some regions with unclear boundaries were removed, and many existing boundaries were revised to conform to clearer landmarks in sulcal fundi. Our first aim here was to modify cortical M-CRIB regions to comply with the Desikan-Killiany-Tourville protocol, in order to offer: (a) compatibility with this adult cortical atlas, (b) greater labeling accuracy due to clearer landmarks, and (c) optimisation of cortical regions for integration with surface-based infant parcellation pipelines...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Gyujoon Hwang, Veena A Nair, Jedidiah Mathis, Cole John Cook, Rosaleena Mohanty, Gengyan Zhao, Neelima Tellapragada, Candida Ustine, Onyekachi Nwoke, Charlene Rivera-Bonet, Megan Rozman, Linda Allen, Courtney Forseth, Dace N Almane, Peter Kraegel, Andrew Nencka, Elizabeth Felton, Aaron Struck, Rasmus Birn, Rama Maganti, Lisa Conant, Colin Humphries, Bruce Hermann, Manoj Raghavan, Edgar DeYoe, Jeff Binder, Mary E Meyerand, Vivek Prabhakaran
The NIH-sponsored Epilepsy Connectome Project aims to characterize connectivity changes in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. The MRI protocol follows that used in the Human Connectome Project, and includes 20 minutes of resting-state fMRI acquired at 3T using 8-band multiband imaging. Glasser parcellation atlas was combined with the FreeSurfer subcortical regions to generate resting state functional connectivity (RSFC), amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF), and fractional ALFF (fALFF) measures...
February 26, 2019: Brain Connectivity
S Sharma, D Mantini, W Vanduffel, K Nelissen
Based on architectonic, tract-tracing or functional criteria, the rostral portion of ventral premotor cortex in the macaque monkey, also termed area F5, has been divided into several subfields. Cytoarchitectonical investigations suggest the existence of three subfields, F5c (convexity), F5p (posterior) and F5a (anterior). Electrophysiological investigations have suggested a gradual dorso-ventral transition from hand-to mouth-dominated motor fields, with F5p and ventral F5c strictly related to hand movements and mouth movements, respectively...
February 22, 2019: NeuroImage
J Zimmermann, J Griffiths, M Schirner, P Ritter, A R McIntosh
Structural connectivity (SC), the physical pathways connecting regions in the brain, and functional connectivity (FC), the temporal coactivations, are known to be tightly linked. However, the nature of this relationship is still not understood. In the present study, we examined this relation more closely in six separate human neuroimaging datasets with different acquisition and preprocessing methods. We show that using simple linear associations, the relation between an individual's SC and FC is not subject specific for five of the datasets...
2019: Network Neuroscience
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