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Infants and bacteria

Michael A Pitino, Sharon Unger, Alain Doyen, Yves Pouliot, Susanne Aufreiter, Debbie Stone, Alex Kiss, Deborah L O'Connor
BACKGROUND: When mother's milk is insufficient, pasteurized human donor milk (DM) is the recommended supplement for hospitalized very-low-birth-weight infants. The current method of pasteurization (Holder, 62.5°C, 30 min) negatively affects heat-sensitive nutrients and bioactive proteins. OBJECTIVES: Objectives of this study were to compare changes in DM composition after thermal pasteurization (Holder and flash-heating) and nonthermal methods [UV-C irradiation and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)]...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Jeong Min Lee, So Young Oh, Tony V Johnston, Seockmo Ku, Geun Eog Ji
Fucosylated oligosaccharide (FO) is known to selectively promote the growth of probiotic bacteria and is currently marketed as a functional health food and prebiotic in infant formula. Despite widespread interest in FO among functional food customers, high production costs due to high raw material costs, especially those related to fucose, are a significant production issue. Therefore, several actions are required before efficient large-scale operations can occur, including (i) identification of inexpensive raw materials from which fucosylated oligosaccharides may be produced and (ii) development of production methods to which functional food consumers will not object (e...
February 14, 2019: Marine Drugs
Diego A Rojas, Pablo A Iturra, Andrea Méndez, Carolina A Ponce, Rebeca Bustamante, Miriam Gallo, Pamela Bórquez, Sergio L Vargas
Airway mucus responses to subclinical infections may explain variations in progression of chronic lung diseases and differences in clinical expression of respiratory infections across individuals. Pneumocystis associates to more severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma, respiratory distress of premature newborns, and is a consistent subclinical infection between 2 and 5 months of age when hospitalizations for respiratory cause and infant mortality are higher. This atypical fungus associates to increased mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), a central effector of Th2-type allergic inflammation, in infant lungs...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Shirin Moossavi, Shadi Sepehri, Bianca Robertson, Lars Bode, Sue Goruk, Catherine J Field, Lisa M Lix, Russell J de Souza, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Padmaja Subbarao, Theo J Moraes, Diana L Lefebvre, Malcolm R Sears, Ehsan Khafipour, Meghan B Azad
Breastmilk contains a complex community of bacteria that may help seed the infant gut microbiota. The composition and determinants of milk microbiota are poorly understood. Among 393 mother-infant dyads from the CHILD cohort, we found that milk microbiota at 3-4 months postpartum was dominated by inversely correlated Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, and exhibited discrete compositional patterns. Milk microbiota composition and diversity were associated with maternal factors (BMI, parity, and mode of delivery), breastfeeding practices, and other milk components in a sex-specific manner...
February 13, 2019: Cell Host & Microbe
A C Maloupazoa Siawaya, E Kuissi Kamgaing, S Minto'o Rogombe, T Obiang, E Moungoyi Massala, M J V Magossou Mbadinga, M Leboueny, O Mvoundza Ndjindji, A Mveang-Nzoghe, J P Ondo, A Mintsa Ndong, P N Essone, S T Agnandji, M Kaba, S Ategbo, J F Djoba Siawaya
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)-infants have been shown to be particularly vulnerable to infections. In this population, disturbance of the gut micro-environment might increase their susceptibility to enteric diseases and even favour the translocation of bacteria in the bloodstream. METHODS: The gastro-intestinal micro-environment was explored in 22 HEU infants and 16 HIV-unexposed (HU) infants aged 6-24 weeks. Faecal leucocytes, firmicutes (gram-positive bacteria) and gracilicutes (gram-negative bacteria) were assessed by cytology...
February 14, 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Mahesh Bavineni, Trudy M Wassenaar, Kanishk Agnihotri, David W Ussery, Thomas F Lüscher, Jawahar L Mehta
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates in adulthood are high in premature infants; unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms are not well defined. In this review, we discuss potential pathways that could lead to CVD in premature babies. Studies show intense oxidant stress and inflammation at tissue levels in these neonates. Alterations in lipid profile, foetal epigenomics, and gut microbiota in these infants may also underlie the development of CVD. Recently, probiotic bacteria, such as the mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila have been shown to reduce inflammation and prevent heart disease in animal models...
February 8, 2019: European Heart Journal
Starin McKeen, Wayne Young, Jane Mullaney, Karl Fraser, Warren C McNabb, Nicole C Roy
Complementary feeding transitions infants from a milk-based diet to solid foods, providing essential nutrients to the infant and the developing gut microbiome while influencing immune development. Some of the earliest microbial colonisers readily ferment select oligosaccharides, influencing the ongoing establishment of the microbiome. Non-digestible oligosaccharides in prebiotic-supplemented formula and human milk oligosaccharides promote commensal immune-modulating bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, which decrease in abundance during weaning...
February 9, 2019: Nutrients
Aneesa Vanker, Polite M Nduru, Whitney Barnett, Felix S Dube, Peter D Sly, Robert P Gie, Mark P Nicol, Heather J Zar
Indoor air pollution (IAP) or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure may influence nasopharyngeal carriage of bacterial species and development of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the impact of antenatal or postnatal IAP/ETS exposure on nasopharyngeal bacteria in mothers and infants. A South African cohort study followed mother-infant pairs from birth through the first year. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken at birth, 6 and 12 months for bacterial culture...
February 2019: ERJ Open Research
Julio Plaza-Diaz, Francisco Javier Ruiz-Ojeda, Mercedes Gil-Campos, Angel Gil
Probiotics are living microorganisms that confer health benefits to the host when administered in adequate amounts; however, dead bacteria and their components can also exhibit probiotic properties. Bifidobacterium and strains of lactic acid bacteria are the most widely used bacteria that exhibit probiotic properties and are included in many functional foods and dietary supplements. Probiotics have been shown to prevent and ameliorate the course of digestive disorders such as acute, nosocomial, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea; allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis (eczema) and allergic rhinitis in infants; and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and some inflammatory bowel disorders in adults...
January 1, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Shohei Akagawa, Shoji Tsuji, Chikushi Onuma, Yuko Akagawa, Tadashi Yamaguchi, Mitsuru Yamagishi, Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Takahisa Kimata, Shin-Ichiro Sekiya, Atsushi Ohashi, Masaki Hashiyada, Atsushi Akane, Kazunari Kaneko
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The mode of delivery (vaginal or cesarean section) and feeding type (breastfeeding or formula feeding) of neonates are considered the most influential factors in the development of gut microbiota. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of prebiotic-rich breast milk on overcoming gut microbiota dysbiosis. METHOD: Stool samples from 36 healthy Japanese neonates were obtained at 4 days and 1 month of age, and divided into 4 groups based on mode of delivery and feeding type...
February 4, 2019: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Claas Baier, Sabine Pirr, Stefan Ziesing, Ella Ebadi, Gesine Hansen, Bettina Bohnhorst, Franz-Christoph Bange
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants and critically ill neonates are predisposed to nosocomial infections as sepsis. Moreover, these infants acquire commensal bacteria, which might become potentially harming. On-ward transmission of these bacteria can cause outbreaks. AIM: To report the findings of a prospective surveillance of bacterial colonization and primary sepsis in preterm infants and neonates. METHODS: We analyzed the results of the surveillance of bacterial colonization of the gut and the respiratory tract, targeting meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Gram-negative bacteria from November 2016 to March 2018...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Xiaorui Chen, Bo Li, Jinfei Yu, Yue Zhang, Zujian Mo, Tiejun Gu, Wei Kong, Yong Zhang, Yongge Wu
Streptococcuspneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a major respiratory-tract pathogen that causes high levels of mortality and morbidity in infants and elderly individuals. Despite the development of various capsular polysaccharide vaccines to prevent pneumococcal disease, it remains epidemic. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a highly immunogenic surface protein existing in all strains of S. pneumoniae, and it can elicit immunizing protection against pneumococcal infection. In our previous studies, a fusion protein (PsaA-PspA23), consisting of PspA and pneumococcal surface antigen A (PsaA), displayed greater immunogenicity and provided better protection in mice against S...
February 1, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Tae Jin Cho, Min Suk Rhee
Although nitrite in powdered milk formula (PIF) is a recognized health risk for infants, the presence of nitrite in PIF has only been investigated as a chemical contaminant during the inspection of end-products. The risk posed by microbial sources of nitrite during the PIF manufacturing process has not been considered. This is the first study to report the taxonomy and physiological characteristics of nitrite-producing bacteria isolated from PIF processing environments. All isolates identified as nitrite-producers (133 out of 501 strains collected over four years) from work-in-process and end-products of PIF were spore-forming bacilli...
June 2019: Food Microbiology
Daniela Schulz, Florian Schlieckau, Sara Fill Malfertheiner, Edith Reuschel, Birgit Seelbach-Göbel, Wolfgang Ernst
Despite considerable progress in the field of perinatal care, infectious diseases, especially when caused by gram negative bacteria, remain a major reason for neonatal morbidity and mortality. Notably infants born prematurely and those with very low birth weight are at risk due to their immature and deficient immune system and their prolonged hospitalization which promotes nosocomial infections. In case of impending preterm birth, betamethasone is given to induce lung maturation and tocolytic agents like indomethacin or fenoterol are administered to suppress premature labor...
January 28, 2019: Cytokine
Mohamed A Aly, Erik Reimhult, Wolfgang Kneifel, Konrad J Domig
Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic human pathogens that cause serious diseases in neonates and immunocompromised people. Owing to their biofilm formation on various surfaces, both their detection and their removal from production plants constitute a major challenge. In this study, food samples were randomly collected in Austria and examined for the presence of Cronobacter spp. Presumptive isolates were identified by a polyphasic approach. Five percent of the samples were positive for C. sakazakii and 2.4% for C...
January 2019: Journal of Food Protection
Chiaki Tao, Noriko Kinoshita, Kensuke Shoji, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Rumiko Eura, Katsuhiko Ueoka, Mitsuru Kubota, Akira Ishiguro, Isao Miyairi
The significance of anaerobic bacteria as a pathogen in urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is unclear. A two-month-old infant presenting with poor feeding received a diagnosis of polymicrobial anaerobic UTI by next-generation sequencing and was found to have obstructive uropathy. Anaerobic bacteria may be a cause of UTI in children with urinary tract obstruction.
January 25, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Jillian R Baranowski, Erika C Claud
Bacterial colonization patterns in preterm infants differ from those of their term counterparts due to maternal microbial diversity, delivery mode, feeding methods, antibiotic use, and exposure to commensal microbiota and pathogens in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Early gut microbiome dysbiosis predisposes neonates to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating intestinal disease with high morbidity and mortality. Though mechanisms of NEC pathogenesis are not fully understood, the microbiome is a promising therapy target for prevention and treatment...
January 26, 2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mingzhi Lin, Edo Kussell
We present a robust, computationally efficient method ( ) for inferring the parameters of homologous recombination in bacteria, which can be applied in diverse datasets, from whole-genome sequencing to metagenomic shotgun sequencing data. Using correlation profiles of synonymous substitutions, we determine recombination rates and diversity levels of the shared gene pool that has contributed to a given sample. We validated the recombination parameters using data from laboratory experiments...
January 21, 2019: Nature Methods
Fabio Mosca, Maria Lorella Gianni, Maria Rescigno
Increasing evidence indicates that many of the health beneficial effects associated with the establishment of a symbiotic gut microbiota are driven by bacterial metabolic by-products.The term "postbiotics" indicates any soluble factor resulting from the metabolic activity of a live bacteria or any released molecule capable of providing health benefits through a direct or indirect mechanism.Alterations in preterm gut colonization associated with the intestinal barrier immaturity and the increased reactivity of the intestinal mucosa to colonizing bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis...
January 18, 2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yong Ge, Minghao Gong, Natacha Colliou, Mojgan Zadeh, Jing Li, Dean P Jones, Shuzhao Li, Mansour Mohamadzadeh
Newborns are highly susceptible to pathogenic infections with significant worldwide morbidity possibly due to an immature immune system. Recently, we reported that Propionibacterium strain, P. UF1, isolated from the gut microbiota of preterm infants, induced the differentiation of bacteria-specific Th17 cells. Here, we demonstrate that P. UF1 significantly increased the number of protective Th17 cells and maintained IL-10+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in newborn mice. In addition, P. UF1 protected mice from intestinal Listeria monocytogenes (L...
January 15, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
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