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GRD cancer

Thomas H Beckham, Paul B Romesser, Andries H Groen, Christopher Sabol, Ashok R Shaha, Mona Sabra, Thomas Brinkman, Daniel Spielsinger, Sean McBride, C Jillian Tsai, Nadeem Riaz, R Michael Tuttle, James A Fagin, Eric J Sherman, Richard J Wong, Nancy Y Lee
BACKGROUND: Differentiated thyroid cancer typically has an indolent clinical course but can cause significant morbidity by local progression. Oncologic surgical resection can be technically difficult due to the proximity to critical normal structures in the neck. Our objective was to review the safety, feasibility, and outcomes of definitive-intent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to analyze whether patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy (CC-IMRT) had higher rates of disease control and survival over IMRT alone in patients with unresectable or gross residual disease (GRD)...
September 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Liu Hui
To quantify the effects of ageing and non-ageing factors, a characterization of the effects of ageing, genetic, and exogenous variables on 12 major non-communicable diseases was evaluated using a model assessing cumulative frequency of death and survival by age group from dead and surviving populations based on mortality statistics. Indices (0-1) of the roles of ageing (ARD), genetics (GRD) and exogenous (ERD) variables in deaths due to disease were established, and the sum of ARD, GRD and ERD was 1 (value of each indices was <1)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Theresia Dunzendorfer-Matt, Ellen L Mercado, Karl Maly, Frank McCormick, Klaus Scheffzek
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Legius syndrome are related diseases with partially overlapping symptoms caused by alterations of the tumor suppressor genes NF1 (encoding the protein neurofibromin) and SPRED1 (encoding sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1, Spred1), respectively. Both proteins are negative regulators of Ras/MAPK signaling with neurofibromin functioning as a Ras-specific GTPase activating protein (GAP) and Spred1 acting on hitherto undefined components of the pathway. Importantly, neurofibromin has been identified as a key protein in the development of cancer, as it is genetically altered in a large number of sporadic human malignancies unrelated to NF1...
July 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Efrat Mashiach-Farkash, Roni Rak, Galit Elad-Sfadia, Roni Haklai, Shmuel Carmeli, Yoel Kloog, Haim J Wolfson
Neurofibromin regulates cell motility via three distinct GTPase pathways acting through two different domains, the Ras GTPase-activating protein-related domain (GRD) and the pre-GRD domain. First, the GRD domain inhibits Ras-dependent changes in cell motility through the mitogen activated protein cascade. Second, it also regulates Rho-dependent (Ras-independent) changes by activating LIM kinase 2 (LIMK2), an enzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates cofilin (an actin-depolymerizing factor). Third, the pre-GRD domain acts through the Rac1 GTPase, that activate the P21 activated kinase 1 (PAK1)-LIMK1-cofilin pathway...
June 2012: Oncotarget
Almut F Molzberger, Günter Vollmer, Torsten Hertrampf, Frank Josef Möller, Sabine Kulling, Patrick Diel
SCOPE: Exposure scenarios during different stages of development of an organism are discussed to trigger adverse and beneficial effects of isoflavones (ISO). The aim of this study was to investigate how in utero and postnatal ISO exposure modulates the estrogen sensitivity of the mammary gland and to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Therefore, rats were exposed to either ISO-free (IDD), ISO-rich (IRD) or genistein-rich diet (GRD), up to young adulthood...
March 2012: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Matthew Koshy, Bruce D Greenwald, Petr Hausner, Mark J Krasna, Naomi Horiba, Richard J Battafarano, Whitney Burrows, Mohan Suntharalingam
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective analysis of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgical resection was performed to determine if histology or pathologic response affected local-regional control (LRC), survival outcomes or patterns of failure. METHODS: We performed a review of 164 patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgical resection from 1992 to 2006 for esophageal cancer. Information on patient characteristics, pathologic response, failure patterns, and survival was collected...
June 2011: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Walter Akers, Frederic Lesage, Dewey Holten, Samuel Achilefu
The biodistribution of two near-infrared fluorescent agents was assessed in vivo by time-resolved diffuse optical imaging. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BC) and cypate-glysine-arginine-aspartic acid-serine-proline-lysine-OH (Cyp-GRD) were administered separately or combined to mice with subcutaneous xenografts of human breast adenocarcinoma and slow-release estradiol pellets for improved tumor growth. The same excitation (780 nm) and emission (830 nm) wavelengths were used to image the distinct fluorescence lifetime distribution of the fluorescent molecular probes in the mouse cancer model...
July 2007: Molecular Imaging
Sharon Bloch, Frédéric Lesage, Laura McIntosh, Amir Gandjbakhche, Kexian Liang, Samuel Achilefu
Fluorescence lifetime imaging can provide valuable diagnostic information relating to the functional status of diseases. In this study, a near-infrared (NIR) dye-labeled hexapeptide (abbreviated Cyp-GRD) was synthesized. In vitro, Cyp-GRD internalized in nonsmall cell lung cancer cells (A549) without observable cytotoxic or proliferative effects to the cells at a concentration up to 1x10(-4) M. Time-domain fluorescence intensity and lifetime imaging of Cyp-GRD injected into A549 tumor-bearing mice revealed that the probe preferentially accumulated in the tumor and the major excretion organs...
September 2005: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Kenichi Furukawa, Noboru Yanai, Michiya Fujita, Yukio Harada
PURPOSE: Mutations in the GTPase-activating protein-related domain (GRD) of the von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene have been reported in several tumors that were not previously associated with NF1. We analyzed 37 cases of lung cancer, including 9 cases of small cell carcinoma, to detect mutations in this domain. METHODS: DNA was extracted from the tumors, and single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing were used to detect mutations...
2003: Surgery Today
Mumtaz Iscan, Tulay Coban, Ismet Cok, Dilek Bulbul, Benay C Eke, Sema Burgaz
The levels of some organochlorine pesticides (OCP)s (hexachlorobenzene, HCB, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, heptachlorepoxide, HE, bis (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene, p.p'DDE, bis (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, p.p' DDT and total DDT (E-DDT) and antioxidant enzyme activities namely Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), total glutathione peroxidase (T-GSH-Px), selenium independent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px II), glutathione reductase (GRd), level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LP), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity toward several substrates including 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), ethacrynic acid (EAA), 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)-propane (ENPP) were measured in tumor and surrounding tumor free tissues of 24 female breast cancer patients and was evaluated whether there exist any association between the levels of OCPs and antioxidants...
March 2002: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
M Schelling, N Avril, J Nährig, W Kuhn, W Römer, D Sattler, M Werner, J Dose, F Jänicke, H Graeff, M Schwaiger
PURPOSE: To address the role of positron emission tomography (PET) using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to monitor primary (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Quantification of regional FDG uptake of the breast acquired after the first and second courses of chemotherapy was compared with the baseline scan in 22 patients with a total of 24 breast carcinomas. To evaluate the predictive value of PET imaging, histopathologic response after completion of chemotherapy classified as gross residual disease (GRD) or minimal residual disease (MRD) served as the gold standard...
April 2000: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
T D Iyengar, S Ng, C C Lau, W R Welch, D A Bell, R S Berkowitz, S C Mok
The NF1 gene, a putative tumor suppressor gene, contains a GAP related domain (GRD) which accelerates hydrolysis of ras-bound GTP to GDP, thereby converting the ras oncogene from its active to inactive form. Two forms of the NF1 GRD transcript (Type I and Type II) are differentially expressed in neuroectodermal tumor tissue relative to differentiated neural cells, and in gastric cancer cell lines relative to normal stomach mucosa. We measured relative expression of NF1 Type II and Type I isoforms in cultured normal and malignant human ovarian surface epithelial cells(HOSE) and in invasive and borderline ovarian tumor tissue...
January 7, 1999: Oncogene
M S Nur-E-Kamal, M Varga, H Maruta
The human neurofibromatosis type 1 gene encodes a Ras GAP (GTPase-activating protein) of 2818 amino acids called NF1. This GAP contains a domain of 338 amino acids (residues 1194-1531) called NF1-GRD, which shares 26% sequence identity with the C-terminal domain (GAP1C, residues 709-1044) of another Ras GAP called GAP1. Both NF1-GRD and GAP1C activate normal Ras GTPases but not oncogenic mutants such as v-Ha-Ras. Any attempt to reverse the v-Ha-Ras-induced malignant transformation by the GAP1C has, so far, been unsuccessful...
October 25, 1993: Journal of Biological Chemistry
M F Schray, R S Cox, A Martinez
Between 1956 and 1975, lower abdominal radiotherapy was administered as primary postoperative treatment to 82 patients with stages I, II, and selected III epithelial ovarian carcinoma and with varying amounts of postoperative residual disease. The median follow-up was 7.5 years, and the overall freedom from relapse (FFR) at 10 years for the entire group was 57%. The FFR at 10 years for stages I, II, and III was 78, 60, and 24% respectively, and these results are better than published series of similarly staged patients treated with surgery alone...
February 1983: Gynecologic Oncology
T Uchida, T Matozaki, T Suzuki, K Matsuda, K Wada, O Nakano, Y Konda, H Nishisaki, M Nagao, C Sakamoto
To understand the molecular mechanism of gastric tumorigenesis, the status of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene was analyzed in human gastric cancer cell lines. Although the sequencing of the GTPase activating protein (GAP)-related region of NF1 (NF1-GRD) revealed no apparent mutation, the NF1-GRD transcript (type I) and that containing an additional 63 bp insert in the center of NF1-GRD (type II) were equally expressed in most gastric cancer cells. By contrast, type II was predominantly expressed in normal stomach mucosa...
August 31, 1992: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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