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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30863449/the-role-of-rna-polymerase-ii-contiguity-and-long-range-interactions-in-the-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Livia Eiselleova, Viktor Lukjanov, Simon Farkas, David Svoboda, Karel Stepka, Irena Koutna
The eukaryotic nucleus is a highly complex structure that carries out multiple functions primarily needed for gene expression, and among them, transcription seems to be the most fundamental. Diverse approaches have demonstrated that transcription takes place at discrete sites known as transcription factories, wherein RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) is attached to the factory and immobilized while transcribing DNA. It has been proposed that transcription factories promote chromatin loop formation, creating long-range interactions in which relatively distant genes can be transcribed simultaneously...
2019: Stem Cells International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733598/msx1-loss-suppresses-formation-of-the-ectopic-crypts-developed-in-the-apc-deficient-small-intestinal-epithelium
#2
Monika Horazna, Lucie Janeckova, Jiri Svec, Olga Babosova, Dusan Hrckulak, Martina Vojtechova, Katerina Galuskova, Eva Sloncova, Michal Kolar, Hynek Strnad, Vladimir Korinek
The first step in the development of human colorectal cancer is aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Wnt signaling hyperactivation is predominantly caused by loss-of-function mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that encodes the pathway negative regulator. In order to identify genes affected by the Apc loss, we performed expression profiling of intestinal epithelium isolated from mice harboring a conditional Apc allele. The gene encoding transcriptional factor msh homeobox 1 (Msx1) displayed robust upregulation upon Apc inactivation...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711400/altered-expression-of-dopaminergic-cell-fate-regulating-genes-prior-to-manifestation-of-symptoms-in-a-transgenic-rat-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#3
Gemma Huguet, Yasin Temel, Elisabet Kádár, Sylvana Pol, Joao Casaca-Carreira, Pilar Segura-Torres, Ali Jahanshahi
Hyperactivity of the dopaminergic pathway is thought to contribute to clinical symptoms in the early stages of Huntington's disease (HD). It is suggested to be result of a reduced dopaminergic inhibition by degeneration of medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Previously, we have shown that the number of dopaminergic cells is increased in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of HD patients and transgenic HD (tgHD) rats during the manifestation phase of the disease; as well as in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of tgHD rats...
January 31, 2019: Brain Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696738/genome-wide-profiling-of-cervical-rna-binding-proteins-identifies-human-papillomavirus-regulation-of-rnaseh2a-expression-by-viral-e7-and-e2f1
#4
Junfen Xu, Habin Liu, Yanqin Yang, Xiaohong Wang, Poching Liu, Yang Li, Craig Meyers, Nilam Sanjib Banerjee, Hsu-Kun Wang, Maggie Cam, Weiguo Lu, Louise T Chow, Xing Xie, Jun Zhu, Zhi-Ming Zheng
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) control mRNA processing, stability, transport, editing, and translation. We recently conducted transcriptome analyses comparing normal (i.e., healthy) cervical tissue samples with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cervical cancer tissue samples and identified 614 differentially expressed protein-coding transcripts which are enriched in cancer-related pathways and consist of 95 known RBPs. We verified the altered expression of 26 genes with a cohort of 72 cervical samples, including 24 normal cervical samples, 25 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) and CIN3 samples, and 23 cervical cancer tissue samples...
January 29, 2019: MBio
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30680064/nkl-homeobox-gene-nkx2-2-is-aberrantly-expressed-in-hodgkin-lymphoma
#5
Stefan Nagel, Roderick A F MacLeod, Claudia Pommerenke, Corinna Meyer, Maren Kaufmann, Hans G Drexler
NKL homeobox genes encode basic transcriptional regulators of cell and tissue differentiation. Recently, we described a hematopoietic NKL-code comprising nine specific NKL homeobox genes expressed in normal hematopoietic stem cells, lymphoid progenitors and during lymphopoiesis, highlighting their physiological role in the development of T-, B- and NK-cells. Here, we identified aberrant expression of the non-hematopoietic neural NKL homeobox gene NKX2-2 in about 12% of both, classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and nodular lymphocyte predominant (NLP) HL patients...
December 25, 2018: Oncotarget
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30590909/ventx1-1-as-a-direct-repressor-of-early-neural-gene-zic3-in-xenopus-laevis
#6
Zobia Umair, Shiv Kumar, Daniel H Kim, Khezina Rafiq, Vijay Kumar, SungChan Kim, Jae-Bong Park, Jae-Yong Lee, Unjoo Lee, Jaebong Kim
From Xenopus embryo studies, the BMP4/Smad1-targeted gene circuit is a key signaling pathway for specifying the cell fate between the ectoderm and neuro-ectoderm as well as the ventral and dorsal mesoderm. In this context, several BMP4/Smad1 target transcriptional factors have been identified as repressors of the neuro-ectoderm. However, none of these direct target transcription factors in this pathway, including GATA1b, Msx1 and Ventx1.1 have yet been proven as direct repressors of early neuro-ectodermal gene expression...
December 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30583699/the-function-and-regulatory-network-of-pax9-gene-in-palate-development
#7
R Li, Z Chen, Q Yu, M Weng, Z Chen
Cleft palate, a common congenital deformity, can arise from disruptions in any stage of palatogenesis, including palatal shelf growth, elevation, adhesion, and fusion. Paired box gene 9 (Pax9) is recognized as a vital regulator of palatogenesis with great relevance to cleft palate in humans and mice. Pax9-deficient murine palatal shelves displayed deficient elongation, postponed elevation, failed contact, and fusion. Pax9 is expressed in epithelium and mesenchyme, exhibiting a dynamic expression pattern that changes according to the proceeding of palatogenesis...
March 2019: Journal of Dental Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30308041/nkl-homeobox-gene-activities-in-b-cell-development-and-lymphomas
#8
Stefan Nagel, Roderick A F MacLeod, Corinna Meyer, Maren Kaufmann, Hans G Drexler
Homeobox genes encode transcription factors which regulate basic processes in development and cell differentiation. Several members of the NKL subclass are deregulated in T-cell progenitors and support leukemogenesis. We have recently described particular expression patterns of nine NKL homeobox genes in early hematopoiesis and T-cell development. Here, we screened NKL homeobox gene activities in normal B-cell development and extended the NKL-code to include this lymphoid lineage. Analysis of public expression profiling datasets revealed that HHEX and NKX6-3 were the only members differentially active in naïve B-cells, germinal center B-cells, plasma cells and memory B-cells...
2018: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30134957/a-novel-mutation-of-msx1-in-oligodontia-inhibits-odontogenesis-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-via-the-erk-pathway
#9
Tianyi Xin, Ting Zhang, Qian Li, Tingting Yu, Yunyan Zhu, Ruili Yang, Yanheng Zhou
BACKGROUND: Tooth agenesis, one of the most common developmental anomalies, can affect the function and esthetics of patients. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic clues for familial tooth agenesis and explore the underlying mechanisms, focusing on the role of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). METHODS: We applied Sanger sequencing to identify the cause of oligodontia in a Chinese family. DNA transfection and functional analysis in DPSCs was also performed to explore the impact of the identified mutation on this phenotype...
August 22, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30127625/-msx1-induces-g0-g1-arrest-and-apoptosis-by-suppressing-notch-signaling-and-is-frequently-methylated-in-cervical-cancer
#10
Yujuan Yue, Kun Zhou, Jiachu Li, Shan Jiang, Chunyan Li, Haitao Men
Purpose: The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression of MSX1 in cervical cells and tissues, the methylation status of the MSX1 promoter, the influence of overexpression of gene MSX1 on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HeLa and SiHa cells, and finally the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the suppressive effects of MSX1 upon cervical cancer cells. Patients and methods: Semi-quantitative and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions were used to investigate the expression levels of MSX1 , and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) was performed to investigate promoter methylation status in cervical cancer cell lines, primary cervical tissues, and normal cervical tissues...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30012125/a-gene-regulatory-network-underlying-the-formation-of-pre-placodal-ectoderm-in-xenopus-laevis
#11
Santosh Kumar Maharana, Gerhard Schlosser
BACKGROUND: The neural plate border ectoderm gives rise to key developmental structures during embryogenesis, including the neural crest and the preplacodal ectoderm. Many sensory organs and ganglia of vertebrates develop from cranial placodes, which themselves arise from preplacodal ectoderm, defined by expression of transcription factor Six1 and its coactivator Eya1. Here we elucidate the gene regulatory network underlying the specification of the preplacodal ectoderm in Xenopus, and the functional interactions among transcription factors that give rise to this structure...
July 16, 2018: BMC Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29906711/postnatal-expression-of-chondrogenic-and-osteogenic-regulatory-factor-mrna-in-the-rat-condylar-cartilage
#12
Mohamad Al-Dujaili, Trudy J Milne, Richard D Cannon, Mauro Farella
OBJECTIVES: The condylar cartilage is a key site of growth and development of the mandible. The aim of this research was to determine the mRNA expression levels of a number of chondrogenic and osteogenic regulatory factors in the condylar cartilage of the postnatal rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Condyles were extracted from 40 rats aged 4, 10, 21 or 90 days with 10 rats assigned to each age group. The condyles from one rat from each age group was fixed and decalcified in 10% EDTA for histology...
June 1, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29786110/multi%C3%A2-layered-prevention-and-treatment-of-chronic-inflammation-organ-fibrosis-and-cancer-associated-with-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-signaling-activation-review
#13
REVIEW
Masaru Katoh
β‑catenin/CTNNB1 is an intracellular scaffold protein that interacts with adhesion molecules (E‑cadherin/CDH1, N‑cadherin/CDH2, VE‑cadherin/CDH5 and α‑catenins), transmembrane‑type mucins (MUC1/CD227 and MUC16/CA125), signaling regulators (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2 and NHERF1/EBP50) and epigenetic or transcriptional regulators (BCL9, BCL9L, CREBBP/CBP, EP300/p300, FOXM1, MED12, SMARCA4/BRG1 and TCF/LEF). Gain‑of‑function CTTNB1 mutations are detected in bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and uterine cancer, whereas loss‑of‑function CTNNB1 mutations are also detected in human cancer...
August 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29727702/prmt1-regulates-craniofacial-bone-formation-upstream-of-msx1
#14
Yongchao Gou, Jingyuan Li, Jian Wu, Rahul Gupta, Ihnbae Cho, Thach-Vu Ho, Yang Chai, Amy Merrill, Jun Wang, Jian Xu
Protein arginine methylation has been recently identified as an important form of post-translational modification (PTM). It is carried out by the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of enzymes, which in mammals consists of nine members. Among them, PRMT1 is the major arginine methyltransferase and participates in transcription, signal transduction, development and cancer. The function of PRMT1 in craniofacial development remains unclear. We generated Wnt1-Cre;Prmt1fl/fl mice with cranial neural crest (CNC)-specific deletion of Prmt1 and compared CNC-derived craniofacial bones from newborn control and Wnt1-Cre;Prmt1fl/fl mice...
August 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29581848/aberrant-expression-of-nkl-homeobox-gene-hlx-in-hodgkin-lymphoma
#15
Stefan Nagel, Claudia Pommerenke, Corinna Meyer, Maren Kaufmann, Roderick A F MacLeod, Hans G Drexler
NKL homeobox genes are basic regulators of cell and tissue differentiation, many acting as oncogenes in T-cell leukemia. Recently, we described an hematopoietic NKL-code comprising six particular NKL homeobox genes expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and lymphoid progenitors, unmasking their physiological roles in the development of these cell types. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a B-cell malignancy showing aberrant activity of several developmental genes resulting in disturbed B-cell differentiation. To examine potential concordances in abnormal lymphoid differentiation of T- and B-cell malignancies we analyzed the expression of the hematopoietic NKL-code associated genes in HL, comprising HHEX, HLX, MSX1, NKX2-3, NKX3-1 and NKX6-3...
March 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29552326/research-progress-on-the-forkhead-box-c1
#16
REVIEW
Jinhua Wang, Wan Li, Xiangjin Zheng, Xiaocong Pang, Guanhua Du
FOXC1 is a vital member of FOX families which play important roles in biological processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, metabolism, and longevity. Here we are focusing on roles of FOXC1 and their mechanisms in cancers. FOXC1 promoted progress of many cancers, such as breast cancer (especially basal-like breast cancer), hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer and so on. FOXC1 was also found to be associated with drug resistance of cancers. FOXC1 promoted metastasis of cancers by increasing expression of MMP7, NEDD9 and Snail...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29321139/bmp-smad-pathway-promotes-neurogenesis-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-in-vivo-and-in-human-induced-pluripotent-and-neural-stem-cells
#17
Vukasin M Jovanovic, Ahmad Salti, Hadas Tilleman, Ksenija Zega, Marin M Jukic, Hongyan Zou, Roland H Friedel, Nilima Prakash, Sandra Blaess, Frank Edenhofer, Claude Brodski
The embryonic formation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in vivo provides critical guidelines for the in vitro differentiation of mDA neurons from stem cells, which are currently being developed for Parkinson's disease cell replacement therapy. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD inhibition is routinely used during early steps of stem cell differentiation protocols, including for the generation of mDA neurons. However, the function of the BMP/SMAD pathway for in vivo specification of mammalian mDA neurons is virtually unknown...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29156143/identification-of-nuclear-localization-signals-in-the-human-homeoprotein-msx1
#18
Akio Shibata, Junichiro Machida, Seishi Yamaguchi, Masashi Kimura, Tadashi Tatematsu, Hitoshi Miyachi, Atsuo Nakayama, Kazuo Shimozato, Yoshihito Tokita
MSX1 is one of the homeoproteins with the homeodomain (HD) sequence, which regulates proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal cells. In this study, we investigated the nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the MSX1 HD by deletion and amino acid substitution analyses. The web-based tool NLStradamus predicted 2 putative basic motifs in the N- and C-termini of the MSX1 HD. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimera studies revealed that NLS1 (161 RKHKTNRKPR170 ) and NLS2 (216 NRRAKAKR223 ) were independently insufficient for robust nuclear localization...
August 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29148101/homeobox-protein-msx-1-inhibits-expression-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-bone-morphogenetic-protein-4-and-lymphoid-enhancer-binding-factor-1-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-to-prevent-differentiation-of-dental-mesenchymal-cells-during-the-late-bell-stage
#19
Xiao-Yu Feng, Xiao-Shan Wu, Jin-Song Wang, Chun-Mei Zhang, Song-Lin Wang
Homeobox protein MSX-1 (hereafter referred to as MSX-1) is essential for early tooth-germ development. Tooth-germ development is arrested at bud stage in Msx1 knockout mice, which prompted us to study the functions of MSX-1 beyond this stage. Here, we investigated the roles of MSX-1 during late bell stage. Mesenchymal cells of the mandibular first molar were isolated from mice at embryonic day (E)17.5 and cultured in vitro. We determined the expression levels of β-catenin, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2), Bmp4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef1) after knockdown or overexpression of Msx1...
February 2018: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28933666/regulation-of-proliferation-in-developing-human-tooth-germs-by-msx-homeodomain-proteins-and-cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitor-p19-ink4d
#20
Darko Kero, Katarina Vukojevic, Petra Stazic, Danijela Sundov, Snjezana Mardesic Brakus, Mirna Saraga-Babic
Before the secretion of hard dental tissues, tooth germs undergo several distinctive stages of development (dental lamina, bud, cap and bell). Every stage is characterized by specific proliferation patterns, which is regulated by various morphogens, growth factors and homeodomain proteins. The role of MSX homeodomain proteins in odontogenesis is rather complex. Expression domains of genes encoding for murine Msx1/2 during development are observed in tissues containing highly proliferative progenitor cells. Arrest of tooth development in Msx knockout mice can be attributed to impaired proliferation of progenitor cells...
October 2, 2017: Organogenesis
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