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Juan C Stagnaro, Alfredo Cía, Néstor Vázquez, Horacio Vommaro, Martín Nemirovsky, Edith Serfaty, Sebastián E Sustas, María E Medina Mora, Corina Benjet, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ronald Kessler
In this paper we report the findings of the first "Epidemiological study of mental health in the general population of Argentina" in the framework of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative WHO / Harvard, in collaboration with the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires and the Asociación de Psiquiatras Argentinos (APSA) with funding from the Ministry of Health. Methodology: A multistage probabilistic household survey was conducted using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)...
November 2018: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Elham Sadat Sayed Javad Javaheri, Mohammad Reza Bigdeli, Mohammad Ismail Zibaii, Leila Dargahi, Hamid Reza Pouretemad
Epigenetic agents, such as neonatal isolation during neurodevelopmental period of life, can change various regions of the brain. It may further induce psychological disorders such as autistic-like phenomena. This study indicated the role of chronic increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) output on alteration of caudate putamen (CPu) as a main behavior regulator region of the brain in adult maternal deprived (MD) rats. For making an animal model, neonates were isolated from their mothers in postnatal days (PND 1-10, 3 h/day)...
February 19, 2019: Neuromolecular Medicine
Nathália Novaretti, Ana Luiza N Cunha, Torben C Bezerra, Marcio Alexandre Pena Pereira, Daniel Sabino de Oliveira, Manuelina Mariana C Macruz Brito, Angela V Pimentel, Tamara R Brozinga, Maria Paula Foss, Vitor Tumas
Background: Idiopathic focal dystonia is a motor syndrome associated with dysfunction of basal ganglia circuits. Observations have suggested that many other non-motor symptoms may also be part of the clinical picture. The aim was to assess the prevalence and correlation of non-motor symptoms in patients with common idiopathic focal or segmental dystonia. Methods: In a single-center cross-sectional case-control study, we evaluated the presence of pain, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and sleep alterations in 28 patients with blepharospasm, 28 patients with cervical dystonia, 24 patients with writer's cramp, and 80 control subjects matched for sex, age, and schooling...
2019: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Ryan C Yeung, Myra A Fernandes
Past research is mixed regarding the conditions under which memory biases emerge in individuals with high levels of social anxiety. The current study examined whether high social anxiety would be associated with a memory bias for threatening, but task-irrelevant information, or whether it creates a memory bias for both threatening as well as neutral distractors. 60 undergraduate students were recruited, half classified as having high social anxiety and half as having low social anxiety according to the Social Phobia Inventory...
February 16, 2019: Acta Psychologica
Pauline Maillard, Julie Pellaton, Ueli Kramer
Major depressive disorder is among the most frequently diagnosed mental disorders and is often accompanied by other disorders such as anxiety or substance abuse. As a result of a complicated tangle of comorbidities, psychotherapy in such cases can become quite demanding. The present case study presents and discusses the challenges represented by a complex case of psychotherapy, focusing on ongoing modifications of the clinical hypotheses and therapeutic approach. This process is illustrated through the case of Andy, a 44-year-old man suffering from depressive disorder, social phobia, substance dependency, and an avoidant personality disorder...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Marwa Al Aamri, Ramamoorthy Ravichandran, Naima Al Balushi
For administration of radioactive iodine for the treatment of differentiated cancer thyroid patients, activities ranging between 1.85GBq and 7.0GBq are used. The construction of concrete rooms cleared by national regulatory authorities do not recommend the presence of windows on the walls or advise same lead equivalence of wall for the lead glass if they are put on the walls. To avoid phobia of patients to give consent for I-131 treatment and to stay in isolation rooms, a necessity was felt to introduce glass window on the opposite side wall of entrance door, which had a service corridor with restricted entry, opening toward garden area...
January 2019: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Morag Maskey, Jacqui Rodgers, Victoria Grahame, Magdalena Glod, Emma Honey, Julia Kinnear, Marie Labus, Jenny Milne, Dimitrios Minos, Helen McConachie, Jeremy R Parr
We examined the feasibility and acceptability of using an immersive virtual reality environment (VRE) alongside cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with autism experiencing specific phobia. Thirty-two participants were randomised to treatment or control. Treatment involved one session introducing CBT techniques and four VRE sessions, delivered by local clinical therapists. Change in target behaviour was independently rated. Two weeks after treatment, four treatment participants (25%) and no control participants were responders; at 6 months after treatment, six (38%) treatment and no control participants were responders...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Silvia Papalini, Iris Lange, Jindra Bakker, Stijn Michielse, Machteld Marcelis, Marieke Wichers, Bram Vervliet, Jim van Os, Therese Van Amelsvoort, Liesbet Goossens, Koen Schruers
BACKGROUND: Exposure is the gold standard treatment for phobic anxiety and is thought to represent the clinical application of extinction learning. Reward sensitivity might however also represent a predictive factor for exposure therapy outcome, as this therapy promotes positive experiences and involves positive comments by the therapist. We hypothesized that high reward sensitivity, as expressed by elevated reward expectancy and reward value, can be associated with better outcome to exposure therapy specifically...
February 11, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Febe E van der Flier, Caroline M B Kwee, Danielle C Cath, Neeltje M Batelaan, Lucianne Groenink, Puck Duits, Date C van der Veen, Anton J L M van Balkom, Johanna M P Baas
BACKGROUND: Phobic anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and are burdensome in terms of loss of quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatments are relatively successful in the majority of patients, especially exposure therapy. However, a substantial subset of patients fails to achieve or stay in remission. Preclinical and genetic research have yielded evidence that the cannabinoid system is involved in the extinction of fear, presumed to underlie the beneficial effects of exposure therapy in phobic disorders...
February 13, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Sneha B Vadher, Bharat N Panchal, Ashok U Vala, Imran J Ratnani, Kinjal J Vasava, Rishi S Desai, Aayushi H Shah
BACKGROUND: Problematic Internet use (PIU) is the inability of individuals to control their Internet use, resulting in marked distress and/or functional impairment in daily life. AIM/OBJECTIVE: We assessed the frequency of PIU and predictors of PIU, including social anxiety disorder (SAD), quality of sleep, quality of life and Internet-related demographic variables among school going adolescents. METHODS: This was an observational, single-centered, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of 1,312 school going adolescents studying in Grades 10, 11 and 12 in Bhavnagar, India...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Jennifer Zink, Britni R Belcher, Afton Kechter, Matthew D Stone, Adam M Leventhal
Screen-based sedentary behaviors and emotional disorders are associated with one another in youth. Yet, the direction of the association is unclear, as is whether specific types of screen-based sedentary behaviors and emotional disorder symptoms are more closely linked. This study estimated the bi-directional associations between two types of screen-based sedentary behaviors and four types of self-reported emotional disorder symptoms, and tested whether physical activity buffered these associations in a Los Angeles high school student cohort ( N  = 2525, baseline M age = 14...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Tania Lecomte, Laurence Théroux, Karine Paquin, Stéphane Potvin, Amélie Achim
Social anxiety is highly prevalent in individuals with schizophrenia, with studies suggesting rates of 30%. This study aimed at determining if social anxiety is linked to specific emotion recognition deficits and to specific social functioning deficits. A total of 47 participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and receiving outpatient services answered measures of facial recognition (Ekman; Facial Emotion Identification Test), facial discrimination (Facial Emotion Discrimination Test), role-play, social anxiety (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Brief Social Phobia Scale), psychiatric symptoms (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale), self-esteem (Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form), and social functioning (Social Functioning Scale)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Kumar Raghav Gujjar, Arjen van Wijk, Ratika Kumar, Ad de Jongh
BACKGROUND: Although Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) has proven to be effective in the treatment of various subtypes of specific phobia, there is limited evidence of its role in the treatment of dental phobia. METHOD: A single-blind RCT was conducted among 30 randomized patients with dental phobia to either VRET or informational pamphlet (IP) condition. Primary outcome anxiety measures (VAS-A, MDAS and DFS) were evaluated at baseline, pre- and post-intervention, 1-week, 3-months and 6-months follow-up...
March 2019: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Caterina M Clericetti, Gregorio P Milani, Mario G Bianchetti, Giacomo D Simonetti, Emilio F Fossali, Alessandra M Balestra, Marie-Ange Bozzini, Carlo Agostoni, Sebastiano A G Lava
AIM: Fever phobia describes exaggerated concerns about the consequences of childhood fever and broader awareness is needed in everyday clinical practice. We investigated the factors associated with fever phobia in caregivers and healthcare providers and the geographical distribution of the issue. METHODS: The National Library of Medicine and Excerpta Medica databases were searched for papers on fever phobia, excluding those that tackled fever phobia. RESULTS: We retrieved 76 papers, published in English from 1985-2018, which covered wide areas of Asia, Europe, America, Africa and Australia...
February 4, 2019: Acta Paediatrica
Julia Diemer, Peter Zwanzger
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) has been investigated as a medium for exposure therapy of anxiety disorders for 20 years. Various meta-analyses have provided convincing evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of exposure therapy in VR. OBJECTIVE: In recent years VR technology and its applications have considerably improved. Therefore, the current state of the art of VR exposure therapy is presented. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article provides a narrative review of current research on VR exposure therapy for anxiety disorders and major directions of development in this area...
February 4, 2019: Der Nervenarzt
Chelsea Sawyers, Thomas Ollendick, Melissa A Brotman, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Dever M Carney, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema
Fear and anxiety are conceptualized as responses to acute or potential threat, respectively. Adult twin studies found substantial interplay between genetic and environmental factors influencing fear disorders (phobias) and anxiety disorders. Research in children, however, has largely examined these factors independently. Thus, there exists a substantial knowledge gap regarding the underlying etiologic structure of these closely-related constructs during development. Symptom counts for five fear (criticism, the unknown, death, animal, medical) and four anxiety (generalized, panic, separation, social) dimensions were obtained for 373 twin pairs ages 9-14...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Jan Mohlman, Sean Lauderdale, Viviana Wuthrich
OBJECTIVES: One major obstacle to the diagnosis and treatment of specific phobias in later life is the lack of assessment tools that are relevant to the fears of older adults. This study investigated the utility of five reliable subscales (Blood/Injury, Agoraphobia, Aggression, Animal/Insect, Social Fears) derived from the Fear Survey Schedule-III, a popular measure of phobic fear, in discriminating older from younger participants. METHOD: The sample was comprised of 81 younger and 61 older adults who completed self-report measures of anxiety and depression and neuropsychological tests...
February 1, 2019: Clinical Gerontologist
Hacı Ömer Yılmaz, Nurcan Yabancı Ayhan
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess whether there is prejudice toward obese persons among student nurses and registered nurses. DESIGN AND METHOD: A total of 379 participants were included (190 student nurses, 189 registered nurses). The Fat Phobia Scale and Belief About Obese Persons Scale were used to determine the prejudice. FINDINGS: Registered nurses were found to have more negative prejudices toward obese persons than those of student nurses...
January 30, 2019: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
Eva Asselmann, Hanna Kische, Robin Haring, Johannes Hertel, Carsten-Oliver Schmidt, Matthias Nauck, Katja Beesdo-Baum, Hans-Jörgen Grabe, Christiane A Pané-Farré
BACKGROUND: Findings on associations of androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with anxiety and depressive disorders in the general population remain inconclusive. METHODS: We used data of n = 993 men and n = 980 women from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP, a prospective-longitudinal general population study from northeastern Germany). Immunoassay-measured serum concentrations of total testosterone, androstenedione and SHBG were assessed when participants were aged 20-80...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Fanny Kählke, Thomas Berger, Ava Schulz, Harald Baumeister, Matthias Berking, Randy P Auerbach, Ronny Bruffaerts, Pim Cuijpers, Ronald C Kessler, David Daniel Ebert
OBJECTIVES: Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) offer the opportunity to deliver mental health treatments on a large scale. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of an unguided IMI (StudiCare SAD) for university students with social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHODS: University students (N = 200) diagnosed with SAD were randomly assigned to an IMI or a waitlist control group (WLC) with full access to treatment as usual. StudiCare SAD consists of nine sessions...
January 27, 2019: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
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