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Federico Ferretti
The emergence of Do-It-Yourself (DIY) science movements is becoming a topic widely discussed in academia and policy, as well as by the general public and the media. While DIY approaches enjoy increasing diffusion even in official research, different social actors frequently talk about them in different ways and circumstances. Interaction and negotiation processes amongst actors (e.g. policy makers and DIY communities) define the premises upon which different conceptualisations of DIY science are deployed.In this paper we offer a framework for analysing the discourse on DIY science...
January 14, 2019: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
Manbachan Singh Bedi, Tanmay Bhavthankar, G Malleswara Rao, K Jagadeesh Babu, Vimala Ambati, Varun Jonalgadda, Elizabeth Ogando-Rivas, Kamesh Konchada, J Chaitanya, Aravind Jvnk
OBJECTIVE: The art of surgery is becoming perpetually complex and dependent on scopes, screens and technology, inviting a complex learning curve and development of hand eye coordination and dexterity amongst other skills.We introduce an affordable, DIY microsurgical simulator which can be setup using a smartphone & a pair of reflective prism glasses. The glasses employ, periscopic prisms on either side which reflect light perpendicularly. When the visual input is combined with the magnification of a smartphone camera...
February 1, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Jacqui Wise
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2019: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Catherine Kenny, Max Liboiron, Sara Ann Wylie
This paper contributes to the growing literature on 'making and doing' in Science and Technology Studies (STS) by describing and theorizing the teaching of making and doing. We describe a collaborative do-it-yourself (DIY) technology project taught simultaneously in Canada and the United States, in sociology and public health, to undergraduates with no prior electronics experience. Students built thermal flashlights - low cost digital tools for making thermal images - and employed them to research their surrounding environments...
January 16, 2019: Social Studies of Science
Chan Liao, Xiaojun Xu, Diying Shen, Hua Song, Weiqun Xu, Fenying Zhao, Shilong Yang, Shuwen Shi, Juan Liang, Sisi Li, Yongmin Tang
The minimal residual disease (MRD) has been shown to be very important to evaluate the prognostic significance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but the impact under the current treatment protocol in China has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of MRD-guided risk restratification of ALL. A total of 676 children with ALL were enrolled. In the predictive study group, 476 patients were enrolled with 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse rates of the low-risk (LR), intermediate-risk (IR), and high-risk groups being 11...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Maria-Pilar Martinez-Moral, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Oxidative stress in humans is affected by the health and nutritional status as well as exposure to external environmental factors. To evaluate the effects of external factors, an assessment of baseline levels as well as diurnal variations in oxidative stress status of healthy individuals is needed. In this study, we examined intra- and inter-individual variability of oxidative stress biomarkers (OSBs) of lipids (malondialdehyde [MDA] and four F2 -isoprostane isomers, namely, 8-isoprostaglandinF2α [8-PGF2α ], 11β-prostaglandinF2α [11-PGF2α ], 15(R)-prostaglandinF2α [15-PGF2α ], and 8-iso,15(R)-prostaglandinF2α [8,15-PGF2α ]); proteins (o,o'-dityrosine [diY]); and DNA (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) in urine from healthy individuals...
December 17, 2018: Environment International
Yutian Zhang, Diying Li, Zhuo Wang, Wanting Zang, Pan Rao, Yunxiang Liang, Yuxia Mei
To enhance production of Antrodia cinnamomea triterpenoids (ACTs) from mycelia in solid-state culture, α-terpineol was added to the medium as an elicitor at an optimal concentration of 0.05 mL L-1. Multi-stage solvent extraction and HPLC analysis were performed, and the compositions of ACTs-E (from culture with elicitor) and ACTs-NE (from culture without elicitor) were found to be quite different. In assays of in vitro antitumor activity, ACTs-E, in comparison with ACTs-NE, produced stronger viability reduction in several tumor cell lines and stronger apoptosis induction in HeLa in a dose-dependent manner...
November 26, 2018: Food & Function
Christian Pylatiuk, Marcel Vogt, Paul Scheikl, And Eric Gottwald
A versatile robot platform is presented that can be used to design low-cost custom made microscopes in do-ityourself construction. All components like the framework, the linear drives, robot controller and driver, the illumination and the camera are described as well as optional features like fluorescence microscopy and auto-focus. Finally, an application for automated imaging of 3D-cell cultures in 96-well microplates is presented.
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Zhong-Jian Liu, Diying Huang, Chenyang Cai, Xin Wang
A perfect flower in a mid-Cretaceous (early Cenomanian) Myanmar amber is described as Lijinganthus revoluta gen. et sp. nov. The fossil flower is actinomorphic and pentamerous, including calyx, corolla, stamens, and gynoecium. The sepals are tiny, while the petals are large and revolute. The stamens are dorsifixed, filamentous, and each has a longitudinally dehiscing bisporangiate anther. The gynoecium is in the centre of the flower, composed of three fused carpels with a stout style. Lijinganthus revoluta gen...
November 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hannah L Palac, Nameyeh Alam, Susan M Kaiser, Jody D Ciolino, Emily G Lattie, David C Mohr
BACKGROUND: The ability to identify, screen, and enroll potential research participants in an efficient and timely manner is crucial to the success of clinical trials. In the age of the internet, researchers can be confronted with large numbers of people contacting the program, overwhelming study staff and frustrating potential participants. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes a "do-it-yourself" recruitment support framework (DIY-RSF) that uses tools readily available in many academic research settings to support remote participant recruitment, prescreening, enrollment, and management across multiple concurrent eHealth clinical trials...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Pobe Luangjarmekorn, Pravit Kitidumrongsook, Sittisak Honsawek
BACKGROUND:  Microsuture is an essential material for basic microsurgical training. However, it is consumable, expensive, and sometimes unavailable in the microsurgical laboratory. To solve this problem, we developed a microsuture made from human hair and needle gauge. METHODS:  Do-It-Yourself (DIY) microsuture is made from human hair and needle gauge 32G (BD Ultra-Fine Pen Needles 4 mm × 32G). Methods are explained step by step. This DIY microsuture (labeled as "test microsuture") and nylon 8-0 (Ethilon suture 8-0, labeled as "standard microsuture") were used for teaching orthopaedic residents to perform arterial anastomosis in chicken thighs...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Dana Lewis
People with diabetes have been experimenting and self-modifying diabetes devices and technologies for many decades, in order to achieve the best possible quality of life and improving their long-term outcomes. There are now hundreds of individuals using DIY closed loop systems globally. They work similarly to commercial systems at a basic level, automatically adjusting and controlling insulin dosing, but are different in terms of transparency, access, customization, and usability. The potential downsides to DIY closed looping include varying responses from individual HCPs, who may be concerned about their own liability...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Aya Narunsky, Nir Ben-Tal, Rachel Kolodny
Present-day protein space is the result of 3.7 billion years of evolution, constrained by the underlying physicochemical qualities of the proteins. It is difficult to differentiate between evolutionary traces and effects of physicochemical constraints. Nonetheless, as a rule of thumb, instances of structural reuse, or focusing on structural similarity, are likely attributable to physicochemical constraints, whereas sequence reuse, or focusing on sequence similarity, may be more indicative of evolutionary relationships...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xiaojia Feng, Huijuan Zhou, Saman Zulfiqar, Xiang Luo, Yiheng Hu, Li Feng, Maria E Malvolti, Keith Woeste, Peng Zhao
Common walnut ( Juglans regia L.) is an economically important hardwood tree species cultivated worldwide for its high quality wood and edible nuts. It is generally accepted that after the last glaciation J . regia survived and grew in almost completely isolated stands in Asia, and that ancient humans dispersed walnuts across Asia and into new habitats via trade and cultural expansion. The history of common walnut in China is a matter of debate, however. We estimated the genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure of 31 walnut populations sampled across its Chinese range using 22 microsatellite markers (13 neutral and 9 non-neutral)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yutian Zhang, Zhuo Wang, Diying Li, Wanting Zang, Hai Zhu, Pengyu Wu, Yuxia Mei, Yunxiang Liang
A polysaccharide (termed ACPS-1) from mycelia of Antrodia cinnamomea under submerged culture was purified by hot water extraction and successive DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography, and structurally characterized by FTIR, NMR, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and GC-MS. ACPS-1 (MW 2.296 × 104  Da) was composed primarily of Man, Xyl, Ara, Fuc and Rha with a molar ratio of 31.27:1.77:1.44:1.34:1.00, and its backbone consisted of repeating α-(1 → 3), α-(1 → 6), α-(1 → 2), and α-(1 → 4) glycosidic linkages...
December 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Michelle L Litchman, Dana Lewis, Lesly A Kelly, Perry M Gee
BACKGROUND: Patient-driven innovation in diabetes management has resulted in a group of people with type 1 diabetes who choose to build and share knowledge around a do-it-yourself (DIY) open source artificial pancreas systems (OpenAPS). The purpose of this study was to examine Twitter data to understand how patients, caregivers, and care partners perceive OpenAPS, the personal and emotional ramifications of using OpenAPS, and the influence of OpenAPS on daily life. METHODS: Qualitative netnography was used to analyze #OpenAPS on Twitter over a two-year period...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Rebekah Brennan, John S G Wells, Marieclaire Van Hout
This study reports on an empirically underdocumented practice in contemporary aesthetic enhancement culture, the self-injection of unregulated DIY Botox and dermal filler kits purchased online. Data were collected from 4 online discussion forums containing disclosures in relation to use of DIY kits and analyzed using ethnographic content analysis. Motivation to source DIY Botox and dermal fillers online was grounded in desire to avoid financial cost of professional services and a lack of confidence in practitioners...
August 2018: Plastic Surgery
Sara Paparini, Will Nutland, Tim Rhodes, Vinh-Kim Nguyen, Jane Anderson
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral medication is an effective, evidence-based option for HIV prevention. In England, issues of cost-effectiveness and of responsibility for commissioning prevention services have so far led National Health Service (NHS) England to decide not to commission PrEP. Given the significant lag between the awareness of PrEP efficacy and the opportunity to obtain PrEP through traditional health care routes, many gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have turned to 'DIY PrEP', purchasing generic formulations of PrEP for themselves on the internet or via other alternative routes...
2018: PloS One
Chenyang Cai, Hermes E Escalona, Liqin Li, Ziwei Yin, Diying Huang, Michael S Engel
Cycads, unlike modern wind-pollinated conifers and Ginkgo, are unusual in that they are an ancient group of gymnosperms pollinated by insects [1-3]. Although it is well documented that cycads were diverse and abundant during the mid-Mesozoic, little is known about their biogeography and pollination before the rise of angiosperms. Direct fossil evidence illuminating the evolutionary history of cycads is extremely rare [4, 5]. Here we report a specialized beetle-mediated pollination mode from the mid-Cretaceous of Myanmar, wherein a new boganiid beetle, Cretoparacucujus cycadophilus, with specialized pollen-feeding adaptations in its mouthparts and legs, was associated with many pollen grains of Cycadopites...
September 10, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Teuta Pilizota, Ya-Tang Yang
With the emergence of inexpensive 3D printing technology, open-source platforms for electronic prototyping and single-board computers, "Do it Yourself" (DIY) approaches to the cultivation of microbial cultures are becoming more feasible, user-friendly, and thus wider spread. In this perspective, we survey some of these approaches, as well as add-on solutions to commercial instruments for synthetic and system biology applications. We discuss different cultivation designs, including capabilities and limitations...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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