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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785932/composition-of-gut-microbiota-in-patients-with-toxigenic-clostridioides-clostridium-difficile-comparison-between-subgroups-according-to-clinical-criteria-and-toxin-gene-load
#1
Sung-Hee Han, Joowon Yi, Ji-Hoon Kim, SangWon Lee, Hee-Won Moon
Data concerning the human microbiota composition during Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) using next-generation sequencing are still limited. We aimed to confirm key features indicating tcdB positive patients and compare the microbiota composition between subgroups based on toxin gene load (tcdB gene) and presence of significant diarrhea. Ninety-nine fecal samples from 79 tcdB positive patients and 20 controls were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Chao1 index for alpha diversity were calculated and principal coordinate analysis was performed for beta diversity using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784777/rhoa-rho-associated-kinase-signaling-leads-to-renin-angiotensin-system-imbalance-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-has-a-protective-role-in-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#2
Xiaoling Xu, Liuhong Shi, Xiuqing Ma, Hua Su, Guofeng Ma, Xiaohong Wu, Kejing Ying, Ruifeng Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is a cardiovascular disease with high morbidity and mortality. Although the anatomical obstruction of the pulmonary vascular bed initiates APE, recent studies have suggested that vasoconstrictors in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) play a role in the severity of APE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a 5-year retrospective clinical study to analyze the key RAS components in APE patients, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin 1-7(Ang(1-7))...
February 15, 2019: Thrombosis Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784114/expression-profiling-analysis-of-long-noncoding-rnas-in-a-mouse-model-of-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-indicating-potential-roles-in-inflammation
#3
Nan-Nan Zhang, Yi Zhang, Lu Wang, Jin-Gen Xia, Shun-Tao Liang, Yan Wang, Zhi-Zhi Wang, Xu Huang, Min Li, Hui Zeng, Qing-Yuan Zhan
The key regulators of inflammation underlying ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) remain poorly defined. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in the inflammatory response of many diseases; however, their roles in VILI remain unclear. We, therefore, performed transcriptome profiling of lncRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) using RNA sequencing in lungs collected from mice model of VILI and control groups. Gene expression was analyzed through RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse transctiption polymerase chain reaction...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783948/prediction-of-lignin-contents-from-infrared-spectroscopy-chemical-digestion-and-lignin-biomass-ratios-of-cryptomeria-japonica
#4
Yoshiki Horikawa, Seiya Hirano, Asako Mihashi, Yoshinori Kobayashi, Shengcheng Zhai, Junji Sugiyama
A method for the high-throughput analysis of the relative lignin contents of Cryptomeria japonica samples over a wide concentration range (3-73%), independent of the type of chemical pretreatment, was developed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. First, the assignments of the infrared absorbance related to lignin were reviewed. Then, various chemical treatments, including alkaline, acid, and hydrothermal processes, and a sodium chlorite oxidation treatment, were performed to prepare samples containing a wide range of different lignin contents...
February 20, 2019: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782953/resuscitative-endovascular-balloon-occlusion-of-the-aorta-reboa-a-scoping-review-protocol-concerning-indications-advantages-and-challenges-of-implementation-in-traumatic-non-compressible-torso-haemorrhage
#5
Omar Bekdache, Tiffany Paradis, Yu Bai He Shen, Aly Elbahrawy, Jeremy Grushka, Dan L Deckelbaum, Kosar Khwaja, Paola Fata, Tarek Razek, Andrew Beckett
INTRODUCTION: Haemorrhage remains the leading cause of preventable death in trauma. Damage control measures applied to patients in extremis in order to control exsanguinating bleeding from non-compressible torso injuries use different techniques to limit blood flow from the aorta to the rest of the body. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is regaining momentum recently as an adjunct measure that can provide the same results using less invasive approaches...
February 19, 2019: BMJ Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781960/the-timing-of-ercp-in-acute-biliary-pancreatitis
#6
R Svatoň, Z Kala, I Novotný, J Trna, T Andrašina, L Kunovsky
Despite several studies, the role and timing of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the case of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) remains a subject of discussion.There is a clear indication of early ERCP within 72 hours in patients with ABP andcholedochal obstruction, moreover the ERCP within 24 hours in cases of cholangitis. However, the role of ERCP in patients with ABP without symptoms of cholangitis or concrements obstructing the bile duct is controversial. If ABP is indicated for the ERCP, the earlier the ERCP is performed the less complications it is associated with...
2019: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779659/active-surveillance-versus-nephron-sparing-surgery-for-a-bosniak-iif-or-iii-renal-cyst-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#7
Andrew D Smith, J Daniel Carson, Reza Sirous, Rupan Sanyal, Erick M Remer, Brian C Allen, Kelly L Cox, Brian Shuch, Asser Abou Elkassem, Xu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of active surveillance (AS) versus nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) in patients with a Bosniak IIF or III renal cyst. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Markov models were developed to estimate life expectancy and lifetime costs for 60-year-old patients with a Bosniak IIF or III renal cyst (the reference cases) managed by AS versus NSS. The models incorporated the malignancy rates, reclassification rates during follow-up, treatment effectiveness, complications and costs, and short- and long-term outcomes...
February 19, 2019: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779083/mir-202-3p-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-and-reduces-cell-migration-and-invasion-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#8
J Chen, J Yin, J Liu, R-X Zhu, Y Zheng, X-L Wang
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recently identified as key regulators of tumor development and progression. MiR-202-3p functions as tumor suppressor in some cancer types. The aim of the study is to determine its expression pattern and explore the functions underlying the mechanism of miR-202-3p in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: By using quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR) analyses, we detected miR-202-3p expression in PTC tissues and cell lines...
February 2019: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778781/observed-outcomes-an-approach-to-calculate-the-optimum-number-of-psychiatric-beds
#9
Richard O'Reilly, Stephen Allison, Tarun Bastiampiallai
The number of psychiatric beds, in most developed countries, has decreased progressively since the late 1950s. Many clinicians believe that this reduction has gone too far. But how can we determine the number of psychiatric beds a mental health system needs? While the population health approach has advantages over the normative approach, it makes assumptions about optimal and minimum duration of hospitalization required for various psychiatric disorders. In this paper, we describe a naturalistic approach that estimates the required number of psychiatric beds by comparing the bed levels at which negative outcomes develop in different jurisdictions...
February 18, 2019: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778059/long-non-coding-rnas-discriminate-the-stages-and-gene-regulatory-states-of-human-humoral-immune-response
#10
Xabier Agirre, Cem Meydan, Yanwen Jiang, Leire Garate, Ashley S Doane, Zhuoning Li, Akanksha Verma, Bruno Paiva, José I Martín-Subero, Olivier Elemento, Christopher E Mason, Felipe Prosper, Ari Melnick
lncRNAs make up a majority of the human transcriptome and have key regulatory functions. Here we perform unbiased de novo annotation of transcripts expressed during the human humoral immune response to find 30% of the human genome transcribed during this process, yet 58% of these transcripts manifest striking differential expression, indicating an lncRNA phylogenetic relationship among cell types that is more robust than that of coding genes. We provide an atlas of lncRNAs in naive and GC B-cells that indicates their partition into ten functionally categories based on chromatin features, DNase hypersensitivity and transcription factor localization, defining lncRNAs classes such as enhancer-RNAs (eRNA), bivalent-lncRNAs, and CTCF-associated, among others...
February 18, 2019: Nature Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777814/functional-characterization-of-bcrr-a-one-component-transmembrane-signal-transduction-system-for-bacitracin-resistance
#11
Rachel L Darnell, Yoshio Nakatani, Melanie K Knottenbelt, Susanne Gebhard, Gregory M Cook
Bacitracin is a cell wall targeting antimicrobial with clinical and agricultural applications. With the growing mismatch between antimicrobial resistance and development, it is essential we understand the molecular mechanisms of resistance in order to prioritize and generate new effective antimicrobials. BcrR is a unique membrane-bound one-component system that regulates high-level bacitracin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. In the presence of bacitracin, BcrR activates transcription of the bcrABD operon conferring resistance through a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (BcrAB)...
February 19, 2019: Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777082/referral-patterns-through-the-lens-of-health-facility-readiness-to-manage-obstetric-complications-national-facility-based-results-from-ghana
#12
Patricia E Bailey, John Koku Awoonor-Williams, Victoria Lebrun, Emily Keyes, Mario Chen, Patrick Aboagye, Kavita Singh
INTRODUCTION: Countries with high maternal and newborn mortality can benefit from national facility level data that describe intra-facility emergency referral patterns for major obstetric complications. This paper assesses the relationship between referral and facilities' readiness to treat complications at each level of the health system in Ghana. We also investigate other facility characteristics associated with referral. METHODS: The National Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care Assessment 2010 provided aggregated information from 977 health facilities...
February 18, 2019: Reproductive Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777029/deepubi-a-deep-learning-framework-for-prediction-of-ubiquitination-sites-in-proteins
#13
Hongli Fu, Yingxi Yang, Xiaobo Wang, Hui Wang, Yan Xu
BACKGROUND: Protein ubiquitination occurs when the ubiquitin protein binds to a target protein residue of lysine (K), and it is an important regulator of many cellular functions, such as signal transduction, cell division, and immune reactions, in eukaryotes. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that ubiquitination plays a key role in several human diseases, and recent advances in proteomic technology have spurred interest in identifying ubiquitination sites. However, most current computing tools for predicting target sites are based on small-scale data and shallow machine learning algorithms...
February 18, 2019: BMC Bioinformatics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776256/clustering-tennis-players-anthropometric-and-individual-features-helps-to-reveal-performance-fingerprints
#14
Yixiong Cui, Miguel-Ángel Gómez, Bruno Gonçalves, Jaime Sampaio
The study was aimed to explore distinct players' groups according to their anthropometric and individual features, and to identify the key performance indicators that discriminate player groups. Match statistics, anthropometric and personal features of 1188 male players competing during 2015-2017 main draw Grand Slam singles events were collected. Height, weight, experience, handedness and backhand style were used to automatically classify players into different clusters through unsupervised learning model...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774861/admet-score-a-comprehensive-scoring-function-for-evaluation-of-chemical-drug-likeness
#15
Longfei Guan, Hongbin Yang, Yingchun Cai, Lixia Sun, Peiwen Di, Weihua Li, Guixia Liu, Yun Tang
Chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET), play key roles in drug discovery and development. A high-quality drug candidate should not only have sufficient efficacy against the therapeutic target, but also show appropriate ADMET properties at a therapeutic dose. A lot of in silico models are hence developed for prediction of chemical ADMET properties. However, it is still not easy to evaluate the drug-likeness of compounds in terms of so many ADMET properties. In this study, we proposed a scoring function named the ADMET-score to evaluate drug-likeness of a compound...
January 1, 2019: MedChemComm
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774785/data-collection-infrastructure-for-patient-outcomes-in-the-uk-opportunities-and-challenges-for-cell-and-gene-therapies-launching
#16
Jesper Jørgensen, Laura Mungapen, Panos Kefalas
Background : Cell and gene therapies are associated with uncertainty around their value claims at launch due to limitations of supporting clinical data; furthermore, their high costs present affordability issues for payers. Outcomes-based reimbursement can reduce payer decision uncertainty and improve patient access, however, requires data collection infrastructure and practice to be operational. Objective : To identify indications most likely to see launch of cell or gene therapies in the UK over the next five years, and to perform a qualitative assessment of how conducive the existing data collection infrastructure and clinical practice is in facilitating adoption of outcomes-based reimbursement in the corresponding indications...
2019: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774642/cold-induced-antisense-transcription-of-flowering-locus-c-in-distant-grasses
#17
Fuchao Jiao, Kanchan Pahwa, Murray Manning, Niklas Dochy, Koen Geuten
Functional conservation of RNAs between different species is a key argument for their importance. While few long non-coding RNAs are conserved at the sequence level, many long non-coding RNAs have been identified that only share a position relative to other genes. It remains largely unknown whether and how these lncRNAs are conserved beyond their position. In Arabidopsis thaliana , the lncRNA COOLAIR is transcribed antisense from FLOWERING LOCUS C ( FLC ) in response to cold. Despite relatively low sequence similarity, the COOLAIR expression pattern and in vitro RNA secondary structure are highly conserved across the family Brassicaceae, which originated some 50 mya...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774041/designing-a-sustainable-dynamic-collection-service-for-weee-an-economic-and-environmental-analysis-through-simulation
#18
Valerio Elia, Maria Grazia Gnoni, Fabiana Tornese
The integration of economic and environmental objectives is crucial in the waste collection sector, especially for flows characterized by a high economic value like waste from electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). WEEE needs a complex and flexible reverse logistics system to face high uncertainty and variability of waste flows, while keeping a high efficiency. A few efforts in the literature have focused on planning an efficient collection service on a local scale. In this paper, a simulation-based methodology is adopted to compare different alternatives for a WEEE collection service in Italy...
February 17, 2019: Waste Management & Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772816/use-of-a-maternal-newborn-audit-and-feedback-system-in-ontario-a-collective-case-study
#19
Jessica Reszel, Sandra I Dunn, Ann E Sprague, Ian D Graham, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Wendy E Peterson, Holly Ockenden, Jodi Wilding, Ashley Quosdorf, Elizabeth K Darling, Deshayne B Fell, JoAnn Harrold, Andrea Lanes, Graeme N Smith, Monica Taljaard, Deborah Weiss, Mark C Walker
BACKGROUND: As part of a larger study examining the effectiveness of the Maternal Newborn Dashboard, an electronic audit and feedback system to improve maternal-newborn care practices and outcomes, the purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of factors explaining variability in performance after implementation of the Dashboard in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: A collective case study. A maximum variation sampling approach was used to invite hospitals reflecting different criteria to participate in a 1-day to 2-day site visit by the research team...
February 16, 2019: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771701/which-cognitive-tools-do-we-prefer-to-use-and-is-that-preference-rational
#20
Boris Alexandre, Jordan Navarro, Emanuelle Reynaud, François Osiurak
This work aims to address the issue of which kind of cognitive tools we prefer, and whether this preference is rational. To do so, we proposed three experiments in which participants had to play the game Guess Who? by choosing between three tools that assisted them in three distinct cognitive functions (Working memory vs. Selective visual attention vs. Decision-making). In Experiment 3, additional tasks were proposed to assess participants' performance and meta-representations in working memory, selective visual attention and decision-making...
February 13, 2019: Cognition
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