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IL12 and viral infection

Valeria Manfreda, Maria Esposito, Elena Campione, Luca Bianchi, Alessandro Giunta
Treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in patients with concomitant chronic, severe viral infections, particularly HIV or HBV, represents a challenge, due to contraindication to conventional immunomodulating systemic drugs and biologics, including anti-TNF alpha, anti-IL12/23 and anti-IL17 agents. Recently, apremilast, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase E4 has been suggested to be a safe and effective therapeutic option in HIV-infected population with psoriatic arthritis. We report the case of a patient with psoriatic arthritis and concomitant HIV and HBV infection successfully treated with apremilast...
January 31, 2019: Postgraduate Medicine
Maria Rotaru, Sanda Marchian, Gyula Laszlo Fekete, Gabriela Mariana Mariana Iancu
Dear Editor, Eczema is an inflammatory dermatitis mediated by cellular immunity, with an etiology in which environmental, immunological, and genetic factors are involved. Skin inflammation through proinflammatory cytokines creates a favorable environment for microbial antigens and optimal conditions for infection (1). In case of underlying immunosuppression, inflammatory features of dermatitis and superimposed infections are more severe. The presence of minor trauma of the skin in the form of fissures can favor both easier inoculation of some bacterial germs, leading to a dermatitis superinfection, and/or the transcutaneous inoculation of atypical mycobacteria, with a possibility of developing localized types of tuberculous lymphadenitis (TLA)...
October 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Myung-Hwa Jung, Sung-Ju Jung
Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV), which is a member of the Megalocytivirus genus, causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream in Korea. To date, the innate immune defense mechanisms of rock bream against RBIV is unclear. In this study, we assessed the expression levels of genes related to TLR9 and MyD88-dependent pathways in RBIV-infected rock bream in high, low or no mortality conditions. In the high mortality group (100% mortality at 15 days post infection (dpi)), high levels of TLR9 and MyD88 expressions (6...
November 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Carlos Carballo, Dolores Castro, Juan J Borrego, Manuel Manchado
In the present study, the pathogenesis of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) and the immune gene expression patterns associated with this viral infection were determined in the flatfish Senegalese sole. The results indicate that LCDV spreads rapidly from the peritoneal cavity through the bloodstream to reach target organs such as kidney, gut, liver, and skin/fin. The viral load was highest in kidney and reduced progressively thorough the experiment in spite of the viral major capsid protein gene was transcribed...
July 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Sudheer Gupta, Midhun K Madhu, Ashok K Sharma, Vineet K Sharma
BACKGROUND: Proinflammatory immune response involves a complex series of molecular events leading to inflammatory reaction at a site, which enables host to combat plurality of infectious agents. It can be initiated by specific stimuli such as viral, bacterial, parasitic or allergenic antigens, or by non-specific stimuli such as LPS. On counter with such antigens, the complex interaction of antigen presenting cells, T cells and inflammatory mediators like IL1α, IL1β, TNFα, IL12, IL18 and IL23 lead to proinflammatory immune response and further clearance of infection...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
I C Ballweg, K Frölich, E Fandrey, H Kliem, M W Pfaffl
The competences of the immune systems of the ancient pig breed Turopolje (T×T), German Landrace × Turopolje (L×T) and 'modern' pig breed German Landrace × Pietrain (L×P) were compared in this study. All pigs were immunized with a modified live vaccine against 'Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome' (PRRS) virus (Ingelvac PRRS MLV(®)) to simulate an infection. Antibody production against PRRS MLV was evaluated in serum. Elimination of the viral infectious fragments during the experimental period was monitored in serum, leukocytes and tonsils by RT-qPCR...
June 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
A Douglas Wilson, Chelsea Hicks
Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) infections of equine species have a central role in the aetiology of equine sarcoids; a common benign skin tumour of horses, zebras and donkeys. Within the lesions, all of the early papillomavirus genes are expressed and promote the excessive replication of fibroblasts which characterise these tumours. Equine sarcoids differ from BPV induced fibro-papillomas of cattle (the natural host of BPV), in that they do not produce high amounts of virus particles, do not usually regress spontaneously and do not sero-convert to BPV; features which suggest that affected horses lack an effective anti-viral immune response to BPV...
May 9, 2016: Veterinary Research
Amin Haghani, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Nikoo Safi, Nur Ain Aminuddin, Azadeh Bahadoran, Abdul Rahman Omar, Aini Ideris
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: For centuries, Edible Bird Nest (EBN) has been used in treatment of variety of respiratory diseases such as flu and cough as a Chinese natural medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: This natural remedy showed the potential to inhibit influenza A virus (IAV). However, little is known about the mechanism of this process and also the evaluation of this product in an animal model. Hence, the current study was designed to elucidate the antiviral and immunomodulatory effects of EBN against IAV strain A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1)...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Aihua Tan, Yong Gao, Ziting Yao, Shining Su, Yonghua Jiang, Yuanliang Xie, Xiaoying Xian, Zengnan Mo
IL12 plays a major role not only in inducing appropriate immune responses against viral infections (including HBV) but also in the antitumor immune response. This study was conducted to investigate the relationships of genetic variants in IL12 with hepatitis B virus (HBV) clearance and development of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We genotyped three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL12A (rs568406 and rs2243115) and IL12B (rs3212227) in 395 HBV-positive HCC patients, 293 persistent HBV carriers and 686 subjects with HBV natural clearance from southern China, using the improved multiplex ligase detection reaction (iMLDR) method...
May 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Uma Sriram, Bijayesh Haldar, Jonathan M Cenna, Larisa Gofman, Raghava Potula
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant that not only affects the brain and cognitive functions but also greatly impacts the host immune system, rendering the body susceptible to infections and exacerbating the severity of disease. Although there is gathering evidence about METH abuse and increased incidence of HIV and other viral infections, not much is known about the effects on the immune system in a chronic viral infection setting. We have used the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) chronic mouse model of viral infection in a chronic METH environment and demonstrate that METH significantly increases CD3 marker on splenocytes and programmed death-1 (PD-1) expression on T cells, a cell surface signaling molecule known to inhibit T cell function and cause exhaustion in a lymphoid organ...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Natalia A Ballesteros, Sylvia Rodriguez Saint-Jean, Sara I Perez-Prieto
The VP2 gene of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, encoded in an expression plasmid and encapsulated in alginate microspheres, was used for oral DNA vaccination of fish to better understand the carrier state and the action of the vaccine. The efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated by measuring the prevention of virus persistence in the vaccinated fish that survived after waterborne virus challenge. A real-time RT-qPCR analysis revealed lower levels of IPNV-VP4 transcripts in rainbow trout survivors among vaccinated and challenged fish compared with the control virus group at 45 days post-infection...
June 15, 2015: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
José I Quetglas, Sara Labiano, M Ángela Aznar, Elixabet Bolaños, Arantza Azpilikueta, Inmaculada Rodriguez, Erkuden Casales, Alfonso R Sánchez-Paulete, Víctor Segura, Cristian Smerdou, Ignacio Melero
Virotherapy and checkpoint inhibitors can be combined for the treatment of cancer with complementarity and potential for synergistic effects. We have developed a cytolytic but nonreplicative viral vector system based on Semliki Forest virus that encodes IL12 (SFV-IL12). Following direct intratumoral injection, infected cells release transgenic IL12, die, and elicit an inflammatory response triggered by both abundantly copied viral RNA and IL12. In difficult-to-treat mouse cancer models, such as those derived from MC38 and bilateral B16-OVA, SFV-IL12 synergized with an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to induce tumor regression and prolong survival...
May 2015: Cancer Immunology Research
Andrea Ladinig, Joan K Lunney, Carlos J H Souza, Carolyn Ashley, Graham Plastow, John C S Harding
In spite of extensive research, immunologic control mechanisms against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) remain poorly understood. Cytokine responses have been exhaustively studied in nursery pigs and show contradictory results. Since no detailed reports on cytokine responses to PRRSv in pregnant females exist, the objectives of this study were to compare host cytokine responses between PRRSv-infected and non-infected pregnant gilts, and to investigate relationships between cytokine levels in infected gilts and viral load or fetal mortality rate...
2014: Veterinary Research
S Paltrinieri, G Rossi, A Giordano
The aim of this study was to assess whether Holy Birman cats (HB) have a peculiar immune profile and a higher rate of infection by feline coronaviruses (FCoV). Leucocyte and lymphocyte subsets, antibody titers, α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), globulin fractions, IL-4, IL-12 and IFN-γ in blood and fecal FCoV excretion were determined in HB (n = 75) and in cats from other breeds (n = 94). Significantly higher CD4/CD8 ratio, IFN-γ concentration and IL12/IL4 ratio and significantly lower IL-4 concentration and proportion of shedders were found in HB than in other breeds...
October 2014: Research in Veterinary Science
Tilman E Klassert, Anja Hanisch, Julia Bräuer, Esther Klaile, Kerstin A Heyl, Michael K Mansour, Michael M Mansour, Jenny M Tam, Jatin M Vyas, Hortense Slevogt
Beyond its well-documented role in reproduction, embryogenesis and maintenance of body tissues, vitamin A has attracted considerable attention due to its immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and the adaptive immune responses. In infectious diseases, vitamin A has been shown to have a host-protective effect in infections of bacterial, viral or protozoan origin. Nevertheless, its impact in fungal infections remains unknown. Meanwhile, the frequency of invasive mycoses keeps on growing, with Candida albicans being the major opportunistic fungal pathogen and associated with high mortality...
December 2014: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Natalia A Ballesteros, Sylvia Rodriguez Saint-Jean, Sara I Perez-Prieto
A DNA vaccine based on the VP2 gene of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was incorporated into feed to evaluate the effectiveness of this oral delivery method in rainbow trout. Lyophilized alginate-plasmid complexes were added to feed dissolved in water and the mixture was then lyophilized again. We compared rainbow trout that were fed for 3 consecutive days with vaccine pellets with fish that received the empty plasmid or a commercial pellet. VP2 gene expression could be detected in tissues of different organs in the rainbow trout that received the pcDNA-VP2 coated feed (kidney, spleen, gut and gill) throughout the 15 day time-course of the experiments...
April 2014: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xiaogang Cheng, Lee Ratner
Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members have been implicated as critical transcription factors that function in immune responses, hematopoietic differentiation, and cell growth regulation. Activation of IRF5 results in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL6, and IL12, as well as type I interferons. In this study, we demonstrate that HIV-2 Vpx interacts with IRF5, and Vpx inhibits IRF5-mediated transactivation. Expression of Vpx in THP-1 cells reduced mRNA levels and protein production of Toll-like receptor-dependent IL6, IL12p40, and TNFα induced by lipopolysaccharide, R848, and ODN2216...
March 28, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
M C Jaffar-Bandjee, P Gasque
Chronic arthritis following chikungunya infection has no specific treatment. Studies on mice have confirmed involvement of fibroblasts and myoblasts as target cells replicating the virus and shown that macrophages play a key role in the innate immune response involving multiple cytokines and chimiokines. Paradoxically, TH1 and TH2 cytokine levels do not increase significantly during the acute and chronic phases, with the exception of interferon-gamma and IL12 that rise dramatically during the acute phase. The level of IL12 returns to normal in patients who recover...
March 2012: Médecine Tropicale: Revue du Corps de Santé Colonial
Denada Dibra, Jeffry Cutrera, Xueqing Xia, Bhaskar Kallakury, Lopa Mishra, Shulin Li
UNLABELLED: The liver is the major metabolic organ and is subjected to constant attacks from chronic viral infection, uptake of therapeutic drugs, life behavior (alcoholic), and environmental contaminants, all of which result in chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and, ultimately, cancer. Therefore, there is an urgent need to discover effective therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of liver injury, the ideal drug being a naturally occurring biological inhibitor. Here we establish the role of IL30 as a potent antiinflammatory cytokine that can inhibit inflammation-induced liver injury...
April 2012: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Juan-Carlos Ramos, Sang-Hoon Sin, Michelle R Staudt, Debasmita Roy, Wolfgang Vahrson, Bruce J Dezube, William Harrington, Dirk P Dittmer
The nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway is essential for many human cancers. Therapeutics such as bortezomib (Velcade™) that interfere with NFκB signaling are of great clinical interest. NFκB signaling, however, is multifaceted and variable among tissues, developmental and disease entities. Hence, targeted biomarkers of NFκB pathways are of prime importance for clinical research. We developed a novel real-time qPCR-based NFκB array. Only mechanistically validated NFκB targets were included. We then used random-forest classification to define individual genes and gene combinations within the NFκB pathways that define viral lymphoma subclasses as well as Kaposi sarcoma (KS)...
June 1, 2012: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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