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Michiel Siebelt, Klaas A Hartholt, Daniëlle F M van Winden, Femke Boot, Dafni Papathanasiou, Bas C Verdouw, Mark R de Vries, Nina M Mathijssen, Gerald A Kraan
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a conventional fracture hematoma block (FHB) or an ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block has more superior analgesic effect during nonoperative management of distal radius fractures in an emergency department setting. Two peripheral nerve block types were investigated, one at the level of the elbow, or cubital nerve block (CNB), and another an axillary nerve block (ANB). DESIGN: Two prospective randomized controlled studies were performed to compare the difference in pain intensity during closed reduction of a distal radius fracture between FHB-, CNB-, and, ANB-treated patients...
April 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Yun Chen, H Corby Kistler, Zhonghua Ma
Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals caused by Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium species is an economically important plant disease worldwide. Fusarium infections not only result in severe yield losses but also contaminate grain with various mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON). With the complete genome sequencing of F. graminearum, tremendous progress has been made during the past two decades toward understanding the basis for DON biosynthesis and its regulation. Here, we summarize the current understanding of DON biosynthesis and the effect of regulators, signal transduction pathways, and epigenetic modifications on DON production and the expression of biosynthetic TRI genes...
March 20, 2019: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Lei Wu, Yu Zhang, Yi He, Peng Jiang, Xu Zhang, Hongxiang Ma Ma
Improving resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat is crucial in integrated FHB management of the disease and prevention of DON contaminations in grains. To identify novel sources of resistance, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using a panel of 213 accessions offrom elite Chinese wheat germplasm of China. The panel was evaluated for FHB severity in four environments and DON content in grains in two environments. High correlations across environments and high heritability were observed for FHB severity and DON content in grains...
March 7, 2019: Phytopathology
Deanna L Funnell-Harris, Robert A Graybosch, Patrick M O'Neill, Zachary T Duray, Stephen N Wegulo
Hexaploid waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has null mutations in Wx genes and grain lacking amylose with increased digestibility and usability for specialty foods. The waxy cultivar Mattern is susceptible to Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum species complex, which produces the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). In experiment 1, conducted during low natural FHB, grain from waxy breeding lines, Mattern, and wild-type breeding lines and cultivars were assessed for Fusarium infection and DON concentration...
March 6, 2019: Plant Disease
Alexandre Perochon, Amal Kahla, Monika Vranić, Jianguang Jia, Keshav B Malla, Melanie Craze, Emma Wallington, Fiona M Doohan
Taxonomically-restricted orphan genes play an important role in environmental adaptation, as recently demonstrated by the fact that the Pooideae-specific orphan TaFROG (Triticum aestivum Fusarium Resistance Orphan Gene) enhanced wheat resistance to the economically devastating Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease. Like most orphan genes, little is known about the cellular function of the encoded protein TaFROG, other than it interacts with the central stress regulator TaSnRK1α. Here, we functionally characterized a wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAC-like transcription factor TaNACL-D1 that interacts with TaFROG and investigated its' role in FHB using studies to assess motif analyses, yeast transactivation, protein-protein interaction, gene expression and the disease response of wheat lines overexpressing TaNACL-D1...
March 1, 2019: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Sabrina Sarrocco, Fabio Valenti, Sara Manfredini, Pilar Esteban, Rodolfo Bernardi, Grazia Puntoni, Riccardo Baroncelli, Miriam Haidukowski, Antonio Moretti, Giovanni Vannacci
Trichoderma gamsii T6085 was used in combination with a Fusarium oxysporum isolate (7121) in order to evaluate, in a multitrophic approach, their competitive ability against F. graminearum, one of the main causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. The two antagonists and the pathogen were coinoculated on two different natural substrates, wheat and rice kernels. Both T6085 and 7121, alone and coinoculated, significantly reduced the substrate colonization and mycotoxin production by the pathogen. The two antagonists did not affect each other...
February 18, 2019: Phytopathology
Guixia Hao, Susan McCormick, Martha Vaughan, Todd Naumann, Hye-Seon Kim, Robert H Proctor, Amy Kelly, Todd Ward
Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and barley caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum reduces crop yield and contaminates grain with mycotoxins. In this study, we investigated two exo-1, 5-α-L-arabinanases (Arb93A and Arb93B) secreted by F. graminearum, and their effect on wheat head blight development. Arabinan is an important component of plant cell walls, but it was not known if these arabinanases play a role in FHB. Both ARB93A and ARB93B were induced during the early stages of infection. arb93A mutants did not exhibit a detectable change in ability to cause FHB, whereas, arb93B mutants caused lower levels of FHB symptoms and deoxynivalenol contamination compared to the wild type...
February 13, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Jing Li, Yabing Duan, Chuanhong Bian, Xiayan Pan, Chengjie Yao, Jianxin Wang, Mingguo Zhou
Validamycin, known to interfere with fungal energy metabolism by inhibiting trehalase, has been extensively used to control plant diseases caused by Rhizoctonia spp. However, the effect of validamycin on controlling Fusarium graminearum has not been previously reported. In this study, when applied to F. graminearum in vitro, validamycin inhibited the synthesis of deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a mycotoxin and virulence factor, by decreasing trehalase activity and the production of glucose and pyruvate, which are precursors of DON biosynthesis...
January 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Madeleen Bosma, Frans Waanders, H P Van Schaik, Douwe Van Loon, Sander Rigter, Erik Scholten, Chris M Hackeng
PURPOSE: Patients with extracorporeal life support (ECLS) are at risk for hemolysis-related complications. Therefore, monitoring of free hemoglobin (fHb) levels is indicated. Conventional methods for fHb are laborious and not always available. Here we evaluated the suitability of the hemolysis-index (H-index), an internal quality control parameter of clinical chemistry platforms, as a clinical parameter for ECLS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The performance of the H-index assay was evaluated using standard procedures...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Critical Care
Salme Timmusk, Dana Copolovici, Lucian Copolovici, Tiiu Teder, Eviatar Nevo, Lawrence Behers
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum pathogens constitutes a major threat to agricultural production because it frequently reduces the yield and quality of the crop. The disease severity is predicted to increase in various regions owing to climate change. Integrated management where biocontrol plays an important role has been suggested in order to fight FHB. P. polymyxa A26 is known to be an effective antagonist against F. graminearum. Deeper understanding of the mode of action of P. polymyxa A26 is needed to develop strategies for its application under natural settings in order to effectively overcome the pathogenic effects...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
Camila Primieri Nicolli, Franklin Jackson Machado, Piérri Spolti, Emerson M Del Ponte
Fusarium graminearum of the 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON) chemotype is the main cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat in southern Brazil. However, 3-ADON and nivalenol (NIV) chemotypes have been found in other members of the species complex causing FHB in wheat. To improve our understanding of the pathogen biology and ecology, we assessed a range of fitness-related traits in a sample of 30 strains representatives of 15-ADON (F. graminearum), 3-ADON (F. cortaderiae and F. austroamericanum), and NIV (F...
July 2018: Plant Disease
Kaitlyn M Bissonnette, Frederic L Kolb, Keith A Ames, Carl A Bradley
Management of Fusarium graminearum-associated mycotoxins in wheat grain has been extensively evaluated, but little is known about management of mycotoxins in straw. Two research trials were conducted at four locations from 2011 to 2014. The objective of the first trial was to determine the efficacy of fungicides, and the objective of the second trial was to evaluate the use of integrated disease management strategies, for the control of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and reducing the concentration of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol in straw...
June 2018: Plant Disease
Hélène Rocheleau, Reem Al-Harthi, Thérèse Ouellet
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major cereal crop disease, caused most frequently by the fungus Fusarium graminearum. We have previously demonstrated that F. graminearum can utilize SA as sole source of carbon to grow. In this current study, we further characterized selected four fungal SA-responsive genes that are predicted to encode salicylic acid (SA)-degrading enzymes and we used a gene replacement approach to characterize them further. These included two genes predicted to encode a salicylate 1-monooxygenase, FGSG_03657 and FGSG_09063, a catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase gene, FGSG_03667, and a 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid decarboxylase gene, FGSG_09061...
January 2019: Fungal Biology
Anne-Laure Boutigny, Angélique Gautier, Ryan Basler, Florian Dauthieux, Stephen Leite, Romain Valade, Jaime Aguayo, Renaud Ioos, Valérie Laval
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major cereal disease caused by a complex of Fusarium species. These species vary in importance depending on climatic conditions, agronomic factors or host genotype. In addition, Fusarium species can release toxic secondary metabolites. These mycotoxins constitute a significant food safety concern as they have health implications in both humans and animals. The Fusarium species involved in FHB differ in their pathogenicity, ability to produce mycotoxins, and fungicide sensitivity...
2019: PloS One
Sujon Sarowar, Syeda T Alam, Ragiba Makandar, Hyeonju Lee, Harold N Trick, Yanhong Dong, Jyoti Shah
FHB (Fusarium head blight) is a disease of the floral tissues of wheat and barley for which highly resistant varieties are not available, thus necessitating the need for identifying genes/mechanisms that can be targeted for controlling this devastating disease. Fusarium graminearum is the primary causal agent of FHB in North America. In addition, it also causes Fusarium seedling blight. F. graminearum can also cause disease in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The Arabidopsis-F. graminearum pathosystem has facilitated the identification of targets for controlling disease caused by this fungus...
December 30, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Tihana Marček, Marija Viljevac Vuletić, Valentina Španić
In wheat, Fusarium fungus promotes the appearance of destructive disease named as Fusarium head blight (FHB) that can cause grain yield reduction and mycotoxin accumulation. The focus of this research was to verify the influence of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum on wheat genotypes with different susceptibility to FHB: "Super Žitarka" (susceptible), "Lucija" (moderately resistant) and "Apache" (resistant). The experiment was performed under field conditions by artificial spore inoculation of ears at the flowering stage...
December 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
S F Li, Y Wang, G F Li, Y Y Zhao, L Chen, S Zhang
Objective: To investigate the diurnal rhythms of fetal heart rate in third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: From June 2014 and October 2017, 97 cases of low-risk pregnancy women who received antenatal care and deliveried in Peking University Third Hospital were collected. Totally 130 cases of fetal heart rate and maternal holter monitoring data were analyzed. All cases were singleton pregnancy, cephalic position and had normal perinatal outcome. They were divided into three groups based on gestational age, 29 cases (22...
December 25, 2018: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Tomasz Góral, Halina Wiśniewska, Piotr Ochodzki, Linda Kærgaard Nielsen, Dorota Walentyn-Góral, Łukasz Stępień
Winter wheat lines were evaluated for their reaction to Fusarium head blight (FHB) after inoculation with Fusarium culmorum in two field experiments. A mixture of two F. culmorum chemotypes was applied (3ADON-deoxynivalenol producing, NIV-nivalenol producing). Different types of resistance were evaluated, including head infection, kernel damage, Fusarium biomass content and trichothecenes B (deoxynivalenol (DON), and nivalenol (NIV)) accumulation in grain. The aim of the study was to find relationships between different types of resistance...
December 21, 2018: Toxins
Osman Melih Can, Yekta Ülgen
Free hemoglobin (FHB) concentration is considered a prospect quality indicator for erythrocyte suspensions (ES) under storage. Storage lesions alter the optical properties of ES and can be monitored by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Due to storage lesions, erythrocytes lyse and release hemoglobin into the extracellular medium. The purpose of the study is to model and assess the quality of ES units in a blood bank with diffuse reflectance measurements together with hematological variables reflecting absorption and scattering characteristics of ES...
December 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Isabell Speer, Maren Preis, Jörg Breitkreutz
Oromucosal film preparations have gained popularity in pharmaceutical research and development. Therefore, oral films have been integrated into the monograph "oromucosal preparations" of the European Pharmacopeia in 2012. Regulatory authorities explicitly demand dissolution studies for films, but neither refer to suitable methods nor established specifications. Test methods described in the literature are often limited to immediate release formulations or not applicable to investigate the drug release of films with prolonged release profiles considering the different stages of gastrointestinal transit...
December 17, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
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