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Afzal Hussain, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Hailong Wang, Jörg Rinklebe
The present study demonstrated the possible impacts of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe NPs) on the alleviation of toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) in wheat and enhance its growth, yield, and Fe biofortification. A pot experiment was conducted in historically Cd-contaminated soil using five levels of Fe NPs (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ppm) by soil and foliar application methods. The plants were harvested after 125 days of growth while vegetative parameters, antioxidant capacity, electrolyte leakage (EL) in leaves as well as Cd, and Fe concentrations in wheat grains, roots, and shoots were measured...
February 13, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Leandro Costa Nascimento, Karina Yanagui, Juliana Jose, Eduardo L O Camargo, Maria Carolina B Grassi, Camila P Cunha, José Antonio Bressiani, Guilherme M A Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Carvalho, Paula F Prado, Piotr Mieczkowski, Gonçalo A G Pereira, Marcelo F Carazzolle
The Polyploid Gene Assembler (PGA), developed and tested in this study, represents a new strategy to perform gene-space assembly from complex genomes using low coverage DNA sequencing. The pipeline integrates reference-assisted loci and de novo assembly strategies to construct high-quality sequences focused on gene content. Pipeline validation was conducted with wheat (Triticum aestivum), a hexaploid species, using barley (Hordeum vulgare) as reference, that resulted in the identification of more than 90% of genes and several new genes...
February 14, 2019: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Nader R Abdelsalam, Essam E Kandil, Mohammed A F Al-Msari, Malik A M Al-Jaddadi, Hayssam M Ali, Mohamed Z M Salem, Mohamed S Elshikh
Two field experiments were conducted at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha), Abess Region, Alexandria University, Egypt, over two harvest seasons (2016/2017 and 2017/2018) to study the effect of a nanoparticle fertilizer (Hyper Feed Amino NPs) compound on productivity and genotoxicity in two wheat cultivars compared with conventional mineral fertilizer. Total yield, its components, and yield components were measured. After harvest, grains of both cultivars were collected and germinated to produce root tip...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Ranjeet Kaur, Kshitija Sinha, Rupam Kumar Bhunia
Wheat is an important cereal crop that fulfils the calorie demands of the global humanity. Rapidly expanding populations are exposed to a fast approaching acute shortage in the adequate supply of food and fibre from agricultural resources. One of the significant threats to food security lies in the constantly increasing global temperatures which inflict serious injuries to the plants in terms of various physiological, biochemical and molecular processes. Wheat being a cool season crop is majorly impacted by the heat stress which adversely affects crop productivity and yield...
February 13, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
Rajen Bajgain, Xiangming Xiao, Jeffrey Basara, Pradeep Wagle, Yuting Zhou, Hayden Mahan, Prasanna Gowda, Heather R McCarthy, Brian Northup, Jim Neel, Jean Steiner
Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and tallgrass prairie are common land cover types in the Southern Plains of the United States. During the last century, agricultural expansion into native grasslands was extensive, particularly managed pasture or winter wheat. In this study, we measured carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and water vapor (H2 O) fluxes from winter wheat and tallgrass prairie sites in Central Oklahoma using the eddy covariance in 2015 and 2016. The objective of this study was to contrast CO2 and H2 O fluxes between these two ecosystems to provide insights on the impacts of conversion of tallgrass prairie to winter wheat on carbon and water budgets...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Juan J Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Martin Mascher, Jesse Poland, Gary J Muehlbauer
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) genetic maps are a key enabling tool for genetic studies. We used genotyping-by-sequencing-(GBS) derived markers to map recombinant inbred line (RIL) and doubled haploid (DH) populations from crosses of W7984 by Opata, and used the maps to explore features of recombination control. The RIL and DH populations, SynOpRIL and SynOpDH, were composed of 906 and 92 individuals, respectively. Two high-density genetic linkage framework maps were constructed of 2,842 and 2,961 cM, harboring 3,634 and 6,580 markers, respectively...
February 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Narinder Singh, Shuangye Wu, Vijay Tiwari, Sunish Sehgal, John Raupp, Duane Wilson, Mehraj Abbasov, Bikram Gill, Jesse Poland
Aegilops tauschii , the D-genome donor of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum , is a storehouse of genetic diversity, and an important resource for future wheat improvement. Genomic and population analysis of 549 Ae. tauschii and 103 wheat accessions was performed by using 13,135 high quality SNPs. Population structure, principal component, and cluster analysis confirmed the differentiation of Ae. tauschii into two lineages; lineage 1 (L1) and lineage 2 (L2), the latter being the wheat D-genome donor. Lineage L1 contributes only 2...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chuanyu Han, Junwei Zhao, Bing Yu, Haoran Shi, Chen Zhang, Xiaowei Guo, Wensheng Xiang, Xiangjing Wang
A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-HRGS1-13T , was isolated from a root of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and characterised using a polyphasic approach. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics were consistent with those of members of the genus Microbispora. The major menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H2 ) and MK-9(H4 ) and the whole cell hydrolysates found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and madurose. The phospholipid profile was found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, a ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipid, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, an unidentified glycolipid and an unidentified lipid...
February 9, 2019: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Ghader Mirzaghaderi, Annaliese S Mason
Although Ae. tauschii has been extensively utilised for wheat breeding, the D-genome-containing allopolyploids have largely remained unexploited. In this review, we discuss approaches that can be used to exploit the D genomes of the different Aegilops species for the improvement of bread wheat. The D genome of allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = AABBDD) is the least diverse of the three wheat genomes and is unarguably less diverse than that of diploid progenitor Aegilops tauschii (2n = DD)...
February 10, 2019: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Håkan Pleijel, Malin C Broberg, Petra Högy, Johan Uddling
Elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) generally promotes increased grain yield and decreased grain protein concentration, but the extent to which these effects depend on the magnitude of fertilization remains unclear. We collected data on the eCO2 responses of grain yield, grain protein concentration and grain protein yield and their relationships with nitrogen (N) application rates across experimental data covering 11 field grown wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars studied in eight countries on four continents. The eCO2 -induced stimulation of grain yield increased with N application rates up to ~200 kg ha-1 ...
February 8, 2019: Global Change Biology
Qian Qu, Mingjing Ke, Yizhi Ye, Qi Zhang, Tao Lu, Zhenyan Zhang, Haifeng Qian
The unfounded use of chiral pesticides has caused widespread concern. In this study, the enantioselective effects of S- and racemic (Rac)-metolachlor on the oxidative stress of wheat seedlings was determined based on physiological and gene transcription differences. Growth inhibition increased with increasing concentrations of tested metolachlor, and S-metolachlor had a stronger inhibitory effect than did Rac-metolachlor. Root growth was also significantly inhibited, but no enantioselective effects from the tested concentrations of the metolachlor enantiomers were observed...
February 7, 2019: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Muhammad Shoaib, Wenlong Yang, Qiangqiang Shan, Muhammad Sajjad, Aimin Zhang
Cytokinins (CKs) are involved in determining the final grain yield in wheat. Multiple gene families are responsible for the controlled production of CKs in plants, including isopentenyl transferases for de novo synthesis, zeatin O-glucosyltransferases for reversible inactivation, β-glucosidases for reactivation, and CK oxidases/dehydrogenases for permanent degradation. Identifying and characterizing the genes of these families is an important step in furthering our understanding of CK metabolism. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified four new TaIPT , four new TaZOG , and 25 new TaGLU genes in common wheat...
2019: PeerJ
Marianna Rakszegi, Éva Darkó, Alison Lovegrove, István Molnár, László Láng, Zoltán Bedő, Márta Molnár-Láng, Peter Shewry
Wild relatives of wheat, such as Aegilops spp. are potential sources of genes conferring tolerance to drought stress. As drought stress affects seed composition, the main goal of the present study was to determine the effects of drought stress on the content and composition of the grain storage protein (gliadin (Gli), glutenin (Glu), unextractable polymeric proteins (UPP%) and dietary fiber (arabinoxylan, β-glucan) components of hexaploid bread wheat (T. aestivum) lines containing added chromosomes from Ae...
2019: PloS One
Wen-Jing Yang, Yong-Tao Du, Yong-Bin Zhou, Jun Chen, Zhao-Shi Xu, You-Zhi Ma, Ming Chen, Dong-Hong Min
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is involved in many developmental processes and responses to various abiotic stresses in plants. Most of the studies on melatonin focus on its functions and physiological responses in plants, while its regulation mechanism remains unknown. Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) functions at a key step of the biosynthesis process of melatonin. In this study, a COMT-like gene, TaCOMT (Traes_1AL_D9035D5E0.1) was identified in common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). Transient transformation in wheat protoplasts determined that TaCOMT is localized in cytoplasm...
February 2, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shaopeng Li, Jun Wang, Mengyun Ding, Donghong Min, Zhonghua Wang, Xin Gao
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the important cereals for human life. As people pursue higher quality of life, the requirements of improving the quality of wheat flour also increase accordingly. Global warming exhibits asymmetrically, that is, the warming rate during the night is significantly greater than that during the day. However, the effect of moderate warming on the quality formation of wheat is still unclear. In this study, night warming treatment was carried out at the grain filling stage to clarify the effects of night warming on the accumulation of UPP% (percentage of SDS-unextractable polymeric protein) and micro-structure of wheat gluten, with a strong gluten wheat cultivar Xinong979 and a plain gluten wheat cultivar Tam107 as materials...
February 2019: Food Research International
Melissa Garcia, Paul Eckermann, Stephan Haefele, Sanjiv Satija, Beata Sznajder, Andy Timmins, Ute Baumann, Petra Wolters, Diane E Mather, Delphine Fleury
Wheat landraces, wild relatives and other 'exotic' accessions are important sources of new favorable alleles. The use of those exotic alleles is facilitated by having access to information on the association of specific genomic regions with desirable traits. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a wheat panel that includes landraces, synthetic hexaploids and other exotic wheat accessions to identify loci that contribute to increases in grain yield in southern Australia. The 568 accessions were grown in the field during the 2014 and 2015 seasons and measured for plant height, maturity, spike length, spike number, grain yield, plant biomass, HI and TGW...
2019: PloS One
Zhisheng Han, Yanlin Liu, Xiong Deng, Dongmiao Liu, Yue Liu, Yingkao Hu, Yueming Yan
BACKGROUND: Expansin loosens plant cell walls and involves in cell enlargement and various abiotic stresses. Plant expansin superfamily contains four subfamilies: α-expansin (EXPA), β-expansin (EXPB), expansin-like A (EXLA), and expansin-like B (EXLB). In this work, we performed a comprehensive study on the molecular characterization, phylogenetic relationship and expression profiling of common wheat (Triticum aestivum) expansin gene family using the recently released wheat genome database (IWGSC RefSeq v1...
February 1, 2019: BMC Genomics
Jafar Shahabifar, Ebrahim Panahpour, Farhad Moshiri, Ali Gholami, Mehrzad Mostashari
The use of organic fertilization increases the availability of phosphorus (P) in calcareous soils by affecting the colloidal properties of soils. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that chemical and organic fertilizers affect P availability in calcareous soils by influencing P sorption and buffering capacity. The objective was to investigate the quantity/intensity (Q/I) relation in calcareous soils as affected by chemical and organic P fertilization. Three different soil types with different Olsen-P values including Qazvin1 (very low P, VLP), Qazvin2 (low P, LP) and Dizan (medium P, MP) were fertilized with 50 mg P kg-1 soil using triple superphosphate (TSP), sheep manure (SM), and municipal solid waste compost (MSWC)...
January 29, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Andrea Roncolini, Vesna Milanović, Federica Cardinali, Andrea Osimani, Cristiana Garofalo, Riccardo Sabbatini, Francesca Clementi, Marina Pasquini, Massimo Mozzon, Roberta Foligni, Nadia Raffaelli, Federica Zamporlini, Gabriele Minazzato, Maria Federica Trombetta, Anse Van Buitenen, Leen Van Campenhout, Lucia Aquilanti
In the present study, inclusion of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) powder into bread doughs at 5 and 10% substitution level of soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour was tested to produce protein fortified breads. The addition of mealworm powder (MP) did not negatively affect the technological features of either doughs or breads. All the tested doughs showed the same leavening ability, whereas breads containing 5% MP showed the highest specific volume and the lowest firmness. An enrichment in protein content was observed in experimental breads where the highest values for this parameter were recorded in breads containing 10% MP...
2019: PloS One
Rakesh Kumar, Harohalli Masthigowda Mamrutha, Amandeep Kaur, Karnam Venkatesh, Davinder Sharma, Gyanendra Pratap Singh
Wheat is the most widely grown staple food crop in the world and accounts for dietary needs of more than 35% of the human population. Current status of transgenic wheat development is slow all over the world due to the lack of a suitable transformation system. In the present study, an efficient and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is established. The mature and immature embryos of six recently released high yielding spring bread wheat genotypes were used to standardize various parameters using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harbouring binary vector pCAMBIA3301 having gus and bar as marker genes...
February 1, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
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