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Yogita Singh, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha, Randeep Guleria, Sushil K Kabra, Anant Mohan, Rama Chaudhry, Lalit Kumar, Sada Nand Dwivedi, Sanjay K Agarwal
Data on the genetic diversity of Pneumocystis jirovecii causing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) among children are still limited, and there are no available data from the Indian subcontinent, particularly associations between genotypes and clinical characteristics. A total of 37 children (62 days-12 years [median 5.5 years]) were included in this study. Pneumocystis was diagnosed by microscopy using Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver stain in 12 cases and by nested PCR using mtLSUrRNA in 25 cases. Genotyping was performed using three different genes, mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mtLSUrRNA), dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Sergey Rekhtman, Andrew Strunk, Amit Garg
BACKGROUND: The decision to administer prophylaxis to patients receiving immunosuppression against pneumocystosis remains a dilemma. OBJECTIVE: To determine overall and age-specific 5-year pneumocystosis incidence within a population exposed to immunosuppressants. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis identifying incident pneumocystosis cases among adults without HIV/AIDS or cancer exposed to immunosuppressant and/or corticosteroid therapy...
January 9, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Serges Tchatchouang, Ariane Nzouankeu, Valerie Donkeng, Sara Eyangoh, Laure Ngando, Veronique Penlap, Marie-Christine Fonkoua, Eric Walter Pefura Yone, Richard Njouom
Tuberculosis (TB) and pneumocystosis are opportunistic diseases associated with HIV/AIDS infection. In Cameroon, although TB HIV-associated diseases are known, limited one are available for pneumocystosis and bacteria. The study was done from January 2017 to January 2018 in Yaounde on HIV-positive and -negative subjects with respiratory tract infections (RTIs). The clinical samples were subjected to bacterial culture and multiplex RT-PCR targeting 10 bacteria and Pneumocystis jirovecii (PCP). Specimens from suspected TB patients were subjected to microscopy, culture and/or GeneXpert analysis...
January 8, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Patrizia Danesi, Michela Corrò, Christian Falcaro, Antonio Carminato, Tommaso Furlanello, Monia Cocchi, Mark B Krockenberger, Wieland Meyer, Gioia Capelli, Richard Malik
The genus Pneumocystis comprises potential pathogens that reside normally in the lungs of a wide range of mammals. Although they generally behave as transient or permanent commensals, they can occasionally cause life-threatening pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia; PCP) in immunosuppressed individuals. Several decades ago, the presence of Pneumocystis morphotypes (trophic forms and cysts) was described in the lungs of normal cats and cats with experimentally induced symptomatic PCP (after immunosuppression by corticosteroids); yet to date spontaneous or drug-induced PCP has not been described in the clinical feline literature, despite immunosuppression of cats by long-standing retrovirus infections or after kidney transplantation...
December 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Asma Husein Roohani, Nazish Fatima, Mohammad Shameem, Haris Manzoor Khan, Parvez Anwar Khan, Anees Akhtar
Introduction: Invasive fungal infections are increasingly common in the nosocomial setting. Materials and Methods: The patients were divided into two groups immunocompetent and immunocompromised that is, patients with significant neutropenia <500 neutrophils/μl for longer than 10 days. microscopy, culture, identification of isolates were done and some specilised tests on serum and BAL for antigen detection were performed. Results: Majority of the patients were young adult males in this study...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Sanam Nami, Rasoul Mohammadi, Mahshid Vakili, Kimia Khezripour, Hamed Mirzaei, Hamid Morovati
Fungal infections include a wide range of opportunistic and invasive diseases. Two of four major fatal diseases in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are related to the fungal infections, cryptococcosis, and pneumocystosis. Disseminated candidiasis and different clinical forms of aspergillosis annually impose expensive medical costs to governments and hospitalized patients and ultimately lead to high mortality rates. Therefore, urgent implementations are necessary to prevent the expansion of these diseases...
November 2, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Pedro Paulo Teixeira E Silva Torres, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi, Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira, Pablo Rydz Pinheiro Santana, Antônio Carlos Portugal Gomes, Edson Marchiori
Pulmonary fungal infections, which can be opportunistic or endemic, lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. Such infections have multiple clinical presentations and imaging patterns, overlapping with those of various other diseases, complicating the diagnostic approach. Given the immensity of Brazil, knowledge of the epidemiological context of pulmonary fungal infections in the various regions of the country is paramount when considering their differential diagnoses. In addition, defining the patient immunological status will facilitate the identification of opportunistic infections, such as those occurring in patients with AIDS or febrile neutropenia...
September 2018: Radiologia Brasileira
Olivia Sánchez-Cabral, Dina Martínez-Mendoza, Ángel Paul Flores-Bello, José Arturo Martínez-Orozco, Rosa María Rivera-Rosales, César Luna-Rivero, Patricio Santillán-Doherty, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
Background: The key diagnostic method for the evaluation of lung diseases associated with HIV infection is bronchoscopy, with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) being the most commonly used sampling technique. Transbronchial biopsy (TBB) is often complementary. Setting: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study to determine the diagnostic usefulness of bronchoscopy with simultaneous samples obtained through BAL and TBB in HIV-infected patients with pneumonia at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases Ismael Cosío Villegas...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Antonio Riccardo Buonomo, Emanuela Zappulo, Giulio Viceconte, Riccardo Scotto, Guglielmo Borgia, Ivan Gentile
Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal anti CD-52 antibody recently approved for use in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis(MS). Given that the targeted antigen is primarily expressed on B and T lymphocytes, the administration of this biological drug is associated with rapid but protracted peripheral lymphopenia. Areas covered: The impact on infective risk of this immune impairment is still to be fully understood. In this review, we attempt to summarize all the available literature concerning opportunistic infections occurring in patients with MS receiving alemtuzumab...
July 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
N Issa, F Gabriel, G Baulier, G Mourissoux, I Accoceberry, O Guisset, F Camou
OBJECTIVE: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is now predominantly observed in immunosuppressed non-HIV-infected patients. The sensitivity of the PCR is here higher than direct examination (DE) of respiratory secretions because the infection is caused by a lower inoculum of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii). The objective of our retrospective study was to assess the contribution of quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the diagnosis of PCP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients hospitalized for PCP suspicion with a positive qPCR were included...
May 19, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Ricardo Garcia Pastorello, Anderson da Costa Lino Costa, Marcio Valente Yamada Sawamura, Antonio Carlos Nicodemo, Amaro Nunes Duarte-Neto
Extracerebral toxoplasmosis, with pulmonary involvement and shock, is a rare form of toxoplasmosis in patients with advanced AIDS. It can mimic pneumocystosis, histoplasmosis, and disseminated tuberculosis, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of causes of respiratory failure and fulminant disease in this group of individuals, especially in areas where the Toxoplasma gondii infection is highly prevalent and in those without proper use of antimicrobial prophylaxis. We report the case of a 46-year-old male patient who presented to the emergency department with uremia, requiring urgent dialysis...
January 2018: Autopsy & case reports
Sanata Bamba, Adama Zida, Ibrahim Sangaré, Mamoudou Cissé, David W Denning, Christophe Hennequin
Because of the limited access to more powerful diagnostic tools, there is a paucity of data regarding the burden of fungal infections in Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in this sub-Saharan country. We primarily used the national demographic data and performed a PubMed search to retrieve all published papers on fungal infections from Burkina Faso and its surrounding West African countries. Considering the prevalence of HIV infection (0...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Diego H Caceres, Ángela M Tobón, Ángela Restrepo, Tom Chiller, Beatriz L Gómez
A total of 23/45 (51%) patients with AIDS and histoplasmosis from Medellín, Colombia had other infections. Tuberculosis was the most common (n = 16/23, 70%). Pneumocystosis and cryptococcosis were found in three patients each (13%), bacterial infection and cytomegalovirus occurred each in two patients (9%) while toxoplasmosis, herpes virus and esophageal candidiasis were recorded in one patient each (4%). Of all co-infected patients, 18/23 (78%) had one, four (17%) had two and one (4%) had three additional opportunistic infections...
March 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
J Kehrmann, B Veckollari, D Schmidt, O Schildgen, V Schildgen, N Wagner, M Zeschnigk, L Klein-Hitpass, O Witzke, J Buer, J Steinmann
BACKROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic fungal infection that is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we analysed the microbiome of the lower respiratory tract from critically ill intensive care unit patients with and without pneumocystosis. METHODS: Broncho-alveolar fluids from 65 intubated and mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients (34 PCP+ and 31 PCP- patients) were collected...
December 4, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Andrea Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Abigail Guija-De-Arespacochaga, Andrea Klang, Herbert Weissenböck, Frank Künzel
We evaluated 43 published cases of dogs with confirmed Pneumocystis infection regarding the value of clinical parameters indicating the presence of the disease as well as tools for the detection of the pathogen. The assessed parameters included clinical signs, laboratory findings, results of thoracic radiography, autopsy, histopathology, methods for the detection of Pneumocystis, as well as medical therapy. Pneumocystosis was diagnosed most often in certain breeds (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Miniature Dachshund) with a predisposition for impaired immunity...
January 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Valerio Del Bono, Claudio Viscoli, Malgorzata Mikulska
Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hematology patients. Within a diagnostic-driven approach, the use of the serum (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) test represents a valid tool for the early diagnosis and treatment of IFD. Areas covered: The available literature on the use of BDG in hematology patients was systematically retrieved. Then, it was reviewed and discussed, to identify key issues pertaining to a clinically-oriented narrative presentation of the topic. Expert commentary: The use of BDG in hematology patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis (IA) is secondary to the use of galactomannan...
December 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Andrew H Limper, Antoine Adenis, Thuy Le, Thomas S Harrison
Fungi are major contributors to the opportunistic infections that affect patients with HIV/AIDS. Systemic infections are mainly with Pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumocystosis), Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis), Histoplasma capsulatum (histoplasmosis), and Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei (talaromycosis). The incidence of systemic fungal infections has decreased in people with HIV in high-income countries because of the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs and early testing for HIV. However, in many areas with high HIV prevalence, patients present to care with advanced HIV infection and with a low CD4 cell count or re-present with persistent low CD4 cell counts because of poor adherence, resistance to antiretroviral drugs, or both...
November 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Ana Isabela Morsch Passos, Rachel Polo Dertkigil, Marcelo de Carvalho Ramos, Ariane Fidelis Busso-Lopes, Cibele Tararan, Erivan Olinda Ribeiro, Angélica Zaninelli Schreiber, Plinio Trabasso, Mariangela Ribeiro Resende, Maria Luiza Moretti
INTRODUCTION: The etiology of pulmonary infections in HIV patients is determined by several variables including geographic region and availability of antiretroviral therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted from 2012 to 2016 to evaluate the occurrence of pulmonary fungal infection in HIV-patients hospitalized due to pulmonary infections. Patients' serums were tested for (1-3)-β-D-Glugan, galactomannan, and lactate dehydrogenase...
November 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ranjana N Wickramasekaran, Mirna Ponce Jewell, Frank Sorvillo, Tony Kuo
Pneumocystosis (PCP) mortality in the U.S. has received less attention in recent years. This study describes recent trends in mortality and the estimated burden of PCP in the U.S., using the national multiple cause of death data during 1999-2014. PCP mortality rates were calculated for age, sex, race and year. Demographic differences were presented for decedents with and without a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-diagnosis. Matched odds ratios (MOR) were generated to describe associations between non-HIV conditions and PCP mortality...
September 2017: Mycoses
Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Andrea Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea Klang, Sibylle Kneissl, Armin Pirker, Sarina Shibly, Stephanie von Ritgen, Herbert Weissenböck, Frank Künzel
A 3.5-y-old Whippet mixed-breed dog was presented with a history of respiratory distress, exercise intolerance, and generalized demodicosis. Hematologic alterations included marked leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Radiographic examination showed a diffuse interstitial and mild peripheral alveolar lung pattern and pneumomediastinum. Because the cytologic examination of the bronchoalveolar aspirate was not diagnostic and a persistent perforation of the upper respiratory tract could not be ruled out, the dog was submitted to thoracoscopy, and subsequently the left cranial lung lobe as well as mediastinal and sternal lymph nodes were resected...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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