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Hiv and low level viremia

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685678/differences-in-statin-utilization-and-lipid-lowering-by-race-ethnicity-and-hiv-status-in-a-real-world-cohort-of-persons-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-uninfected-persons
#1
Robert A Riestenberg, Andrew Furman, Avery Cowen, Anna Pawlowksi, Daniel Schneider, Alana A Lewis, Sean Kelly, Babafemi Taiwo, Chad Achenbach, Frank Palella, Neil J Stone, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Matthew J Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Risks for cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction and stroke, are elevated in people with HIV infection (PWH). However, no trials of statin utilization with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) end points have been completed in PWH, and there are sparse real-world data regarding statin use and lipid-lowering effectiveness. We therefore used a unique cohort of PWH and uninfected controls to evaluate (1) differences in statin types used for PWH versus uninfected persons; (2) lipid lowering achieved by statin use for PWH versus uninfected persons; and (3) racial and ethnic disparities in appropriate statin use among PWH and uninfected persons...
December 20, 2018: American Heart Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30626383/meta-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-in-long-term-non-progressors-infected-with-hiv-1
#2
Sun Young Lee, Yong Kwang Park, Cheol-Hee Yoon, Kisoon Kim, Kyung-Chang Kim
BACKGROUND: In the absence of antiretroviral treatments (ARTs), a small group of individuals infected with HIV, including long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) who maintain high levels of CD4+ T cells for more than 7-10 years in the absence of ART and in particular a subgroup of LTNPs, elite controllers (ECs), who have low levels of viremia, remain clinically and/or immunologically stable for years. However, the mechanism of stable disease progression in LTNPs and ECs needs to be elucidated to help those infected with HIV-1 remain healthy...
January 9, 2019: BMC Medical Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601060/factors-associated-with-postpartum-loss-to-follow-up-and-detectable-viremia-after-delivery-among-pregnant-women-living-with-hiv
#3
Emily H Adhikari, Casey S Yule, Scott W Roberts, Vanessa L Rogers, Jeanne S Sheffield, Mary Ann Kelly, Donald D McIntire, Arti Barnes
Pregnant women living with HIV are at risk for loss to follow-up and viral rebound after delivery. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women with HIV who delivered at Parkland Hospital, Dallas, to identify factors associated with postpartum loss to HIV care 1 year after delivery. Logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting loss to follow-up. For a subset of women, we compared odds of viremia detectable at delivery and postpartum among women with higher versus lower pill burden regimens...
January 2019: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30590412/switching-from-a-protease-inhibitor-based-regimen-to-a-dolutegravir-based-regimen-a-randomized-clinical-trial-to-determine-the-effect-on-peripheral-blood-and-ileum-biopsies-from-art-suppressed-hiv-infected-individuals
#4
Sara Moron-Lopez, Jordi Navarro, Montse Jimenez, Sofie Rutsaert, Víctor Urrea, Maria C Puertas, Ariadna Torrella, Laura De Clercq, Bibiana Planas Ribas, Cristina Gálvez, Maria Salgado, Linos Vandekerckhove, Julià Blanco, Manel Crespo, Javier Martinez-Picado
Background: Optimization of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can impact the HIV reservoir. We evaluated the effect on the HIV reservoir in peripheral blood and ileum biopsies of switching from boosted protease inhibitor (PI)-based therapy to dolutegravir (DTG)-based therapy. Methods: INDOOR is a phase IV open-label clinical trial that randomly included 42 HIV-1-infected individuals on effective cART: 20 who switched from boosted PI-based to DTG-based cART (switch group), and 22 who remained in boosted PI-based regimens (control group)...
December 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30567494/cytomegalovirus-epstein-barr-virus-and-human-herpesvirus-8-salivary-shedding-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-controlled-and-uncontrolled-plasma-hiv-viremia-a-24-month-longitudinal-study
#5
Monica Basso, Samantha Andreis, Renzo Scaggiante, Elisa Franchin, Daniela Zago, Maria Angela Biasolo, Claudia Del Vecchio, Carlo Mengoli, Loredana Sarmati, Massimo Andreoni, Giorgio Palù, Saverio Giuseppe Parisi
BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study described Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA, Epstein-Barr (EBV) DNA and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA asymptomatic salivary shedding in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). We aimed to 1-analyze frequency and persistence of herpesvirus shedding, 2-correlate herpesvirus positivity and HIV viroimmunological parameters and 3-assess the association between HIV-RNA suppression and herpesvirus replication. METHODS: Herpesvirus DNA was tested with an in-house real-time PCR in 2 salivary samples obtained at T0 and T1 (24 months after T0)...
December 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30531307/copy-years-viremia-and-risk-of-virological-failure-in-long-term-treated-hiv-patients
#6
Francesca Falasca, Corrado De Vito, Laura Mazzuti, Daniele di Carlo, Luigi Celani, Caterina Fimiani, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Ivano Mezzaroma, Guido Antonelli, Ombretta Turriziani
BACKGROUND: Viremia copy-years (VCY) is associated with mortality and disease outcome prediction. This study evaluated the association of VCY with virological failure (VF), defined as a pVL >400 copies/mL, and with single levels of viremia. METHODS: Eight hundred and fifty ART-treated patients with plasma viral load (pVL) < 37 copies/mL [target not detected (TND) or target detected (TD)] or >37, but less than 200 copies/mL [low level viremia (LLV)], and at least 6 pVL measures during 54 months of follow-up were selected...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30514229/confirmation-of-hcv-viremia-using-hcv-rna-and-core-antigen-testing-on-dried-blood-spot-in-hiv-infected-peoples-who-inject-drugs-in-vietnam
#7
Truong Tam Nguyen, Véronique Lemee, Karine Bollore, Hai Vinh Vu, Karine Lacombe, Xuan Lien Truong Thi, Que Anh Luong, Charline Dubos, Jean-Christophe Plantier, Huong Duong Thi, Didier Laureillard, Maud Lemoine, Edouard Tuaillon
BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid tests performed on blood samples collected on Dried Blood Spot (DBS) and detection of HCV core antigen (HCVcAg) are two approaches that may facilitate access to HCV diagnosis in low and middle incomes countries. In this study we evaluate HCV RNA and HCV antigen testing on DBS in HIV/HCV co-infected peoples who inject drugs in Vietnam. METHOD: One hundred and four HIV/HCV seropositive patients managed in outpatient care at the Haiphong Viet Tiep hospital were included in this study from February to March, 2014 (ANRS 12262 study)...
December 4, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30487276/mechanisms-of-abrupt-loss-of-virus-control-in-a-cohort-of-previous-hiv-controllers
#8
Miriam Rosás-Umbert, Anuska Llano, Rocío Bellido, Alex Olvera, Marta Ruiz-Riol, Muntsa Rocafort, Marco A Fernández, Patricia Cobarsi, Manel Crespo, Lucy Dorrell, Jorge Del Romero, José Alcami, Roger Paredes, Christian Brander, Beatriz Mothe
Elite and Viremic HIV controllers are able to control their HIV infection and maintain undetectable or low-level viremia in the absence of antiretroviral treatment. Despite extensive studies, the immune factors responsible for such exclusive control remain poorly defined. We identified a cohort of 14 HIV controllers that suffered an abrupt loss of HIV control (LoC) to investigate possible mechanisms and virological and immunological events related to the sudden loss of control. The in-depth analysis of these subjects involved the study of cell-tropism of circulating virus, evidence for HIV super-infection, cellular immune responses to HIV as well as an examination of viral adaptation to host immunity by Gag sequencing...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30462188/persistent-low-level-viremia-predicts-subsequent-virologic-failure-is-it-time-to-change-the-3rd-90
#9
Allahna Esber, Christina Polyak, Francis Kiweewa, Jonah Maswai, John Owuoth, Lucas Maganga, Yakubu Adamu, Patrick Hickey, Julie Ake, Trevor A Crowell
Background: World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines identify HIV viral load less than 1000 copies/mL as the goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the clinical implications of viremia below this threshold are unclear in the African context. We examined factors associated with persistent low level viremia (pLLV) and quantified the risk of subsequent virologic failure among participants with pLLV. Methods: The African Cohort Study enrolled HIV-infected adults at clinics in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, and Nigeria, with assessments every six months...
November 20, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30443645/involvement-of-epigenetic-promoter-dna-methylation-of-mir-124-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#10
Shilpa Buch, Palsamy Periyasamy, Minglei Guo
Despite the efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in controlling viremia, the central nervous system (CNS) continues to harbor viral reservoirs. The persistence of low-level virus replication leads to the accumulation of early viral proteins, including HIV-1 Transactivator of transcription (HIV-1 Tat) protein. Based on the premise that cART does not impact levels of HIV-1 Tat, and since the CNS is inaccessible to the cART regimens, HIV-1-Tat-mediated neuroinflammation has been implicated as an underlying mediator of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)...
2018: Epigenetics insights
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30381490/dolutegravir-monotherapy-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-macaques-selects-for-several-patterns-of-resistance-mutations-with-variable-virological-outcomes
#11
Koen K A Van Rompay, Said Hassounah, Brandon F Keele, Jeffrey D Lifson, Amir Ardeshir, Jennifer Watanabe, Hanh Thi Pham, Elena Chertova, Raymond Sowder, Jan Balzarini, Thibault Mesplède, Mark A Wainberg
Drug resistance remains a major concern for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment. To date, very few resistance mutations have emerged in first-line combination therapy that includes the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) dolutegravir (DTG). In vitro , DTG selects for several primary mutations that induce low-level DTG resistance; secondary mutations, while increasing the level of resistance, however, further impair replication fitness, which raised the idea that DTG monotherapy may be feasible...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30311877/genetic-diversity-in-the-env-v1-v2-region-of-proviral-quasispecies-from-long-term-controller-mhc-typed-cynomolgus-macaques-infected-with-shivsf162p4cy
#12
Alessia Capone, Alessandra Lo Presti, Leonardo Sernicola, Stefania Farcomeni, Flavia Ferrantelli, Maria T Maggiorella, Edward T Mee, Nicola J Rose, Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi, Barbara Ensoli, Alessandra Borsetti
Intra-host evolution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has been shown by viral RNA analysis in subjects who naturally suppress plasma viremia to low levels, known as controllers. However, little is known about the variability of proviral DNA and the inter-relationships among contained systemic viremia, rate of reservoir reseeding and specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotypes, in controllers. Here, we analysed the proviral DNA quasispecies of the env V1-V2 region, in PBMCs and in anatomical compartments of 13 long-term controller monkeys after 3...
October 12, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30240941/measurement-of-plasma-hiv-1-rna-below-the-limit-of-quantification-20-copies-ml-of-commercial-assays-with-the-integrase-hiv-rna-single-copy-assay
#13
N Margot, D Koontz, S McCallister, J W Mellors, C Callebaut
BACKGROUND: Plasma HIV-1 RNA (viral load, VL) is measured routinely in HIV-infected persons with FDA-approved commercially available assays such as the Cobas-TaqMan HIV-1 Assay v2.0. This assay provides quantification of viremia ≥20 copies/mL. More sensitive methods, able to quantify low-level persistent viremia below the detection limit of commercially available assays, are needed to assess the impact of current HIV cure strategies on viremia. OBJECTIVES: The novel integrase HIV-1 RNA single-copy assay (iSCA) was evaluated for measurement of low-level persistent viremia in clinical trial samples (n = 151) from subjects participating in Gilead HIV clinical research...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30134290/hiv-1-second-line-failure-and-drug-resistance-at-high-level-and-low-level-viremia-in-western-kenya
#14
Rami Kantor, Allison DeLong, Leeann Schreier, Marissa Reitsma, Emanuel Kemboi, Millicent Orido, Salome Obonge, Robert Boinett, Mary Rono, Wilfred Emonyi, Katie Brooks, Mia Coetzer, Nathan Buziba, Joseph Hogan, Lameck Diero
OBJECTIVE: Characterize failure and resistance above and below guidelines-recommended 1000 copies/ml virologic threshold, upon second-line failure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Kenyan adults on lopinavir/ritonavir-based second-line were enrolled at AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare). Charts were reviewed for demographic/clinical characteristics and CD4/viral load were obtained. Participants with detectable viral load had a second visit and pol genotyping was attempted in both visits...
November 13, 2018: AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29925666/marginal-effects-of-systemic-ccr5-blockade-with-maraviroc-on-oral-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-transmission-to-infant-macaques
#15
Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Cuiling Xu, Katherine S Wetzel, Mackenzie L Cottrell, Benjamin B Policicchio, Kevin D Raehtz, Dongzhu Ma, Tammy Dunsmore, George S Haret-Richter, Karam Musaitif, Brandon F Keele, Angela D Kashuba, Ronald G Collman, Ivona Pandrea, Cristian Apetrei
Current approaches do not eliminate all human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maternal-to-infant transmissions (MTIT); new prevention paradigms might help avert new infections. We administered maraviroc (MVC) to rhesus macaques (RMs) to block CCR5-mediated entry, followed by repeated oral exposure of a CCR5-dependent clone of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac251 (SIVmac766). MVC significantly blocked the CCR5 coreceptor in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tissue cells. All control animals and 60% of MVC-treated infant RMs became infected by the 6th challenge, with no significant difference between the number of exposures ( P = 0...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29788421/predicting-viral-failure-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-perinatally-infected-youth-with-persistent-low-level-viremia-on-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
Ruth Pereira, David A Ludwig, Sunil Mathew, Claudia Flores, Sady Dominguez, Ivan Gonzalez, Delia Rivera-Hernandez, Gwendolyn B Scott, Charles D Mitchell
Background: Less than optimal adherence with antiretroviral therapy occurs commonly among human immunodeficiency virus HIV)-infected youth. In this study, our object was to identify patterns in the prefailure measurement of viral load (VL) that can reliably predict virological failure (VF) in HIV perinatally infected youth on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of HIV-infected youth with low-level viremia (LLV), defined as an HIV VL between the lower limits of detection (20-75 copies/mL) and 1000 copies/mL...
May 19, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29760177/epigenetic-promoter-dna-methylation-of-mir-124-promotes-hiv-1-tat-mediated-microglial-activation-via-mecp2-stat3-axis
#17
Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Ming-Lei Guo, Guoku Hu, Shannon Callen, Shilpa Buch
The present study demonstrates HIV-1 Tat-mediated epigenetic downregulation of microglial miR-124 and its association with microglial activation. Exposure of mouse primary microglia isolated from newborn pups of either sex to HIV-1 Tat resulted in decreased expression of primary miR-124-1, primary miR-124-2 as well as the mature miR-124. In parallel, HIV-1 Tat exposure to mouse primary microglial cells resulted in increased expression of DNA methylation enzymes, such as DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B, which were also accompanied by increased global DNA methylation...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29725333/follicular-dendritic-cells-of-lymph-nodes-as-human-immunodeficiency-virus-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoirs-and-insights-on-cervical-lymph-node
#18
REVIEW
Rajnish S Dave, Pooja Jain, Siddappa N Byrareddy
A hallmark feature of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) within the lymph nodes (LNs) is their ability to retain antigens and virions for a prolonged duration. FDCs in the cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) are particularly relevant in elucidating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) draining LNs of the central nervous system. The FDC viral reservoir in both peripheral LN and CLN, like the other HIV reservoirs, contribute to both low-level viremia and viral resurgence upon cessation or failure of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29683841/monotypic-low-level-hiv-viremias-during-antiretroviral-therapy-are-associated-with-disproportionate-production-of-x4-virions-and-systemic-immune-activation
#19
Marta E Bull, Caroline Mitchell, Jaime Soria, Sheila Styrchak, Corey Williams-Wietzikoski, Jillian Legard, Jennifer McKernan-Mullin, Kelli Kraft, Frankline Onchiri, Joshua Stern, Sarah Holte, Kevin J Ryan, Edward P Acosta, Alberto La Rosa, Robert W Coombs, Eduardo Ticona, Lisa M Frenkel
OBJECTIVE: During effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), low-level plasma viremias (LLV) (HIV RNA >30-1000 copies/ml) can be detected intermittently. We hypothesized that systemic inflammation is associated with LLV either as the cause or result of the production of virions from clonally expanded cells. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of HIV-infected ART-naive Peruvians enrolled prior to ART and followed for 2 years. Plasma HIV RNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) HIV DNA concentrations were quantified pre-ART from individuals whose plasma HIV RNA was ART-suppressed...
July 17, 2018: AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29628513/hot-news-impact-of-low-level-viremia-on-treatment-outcomes-during-art-is-it-time-to-revise-the-definition-of-virological-failure
#20
Eva Poveda, Manuel Crespo
The level of HIV-RNA in plasma (HIV viral load) is the main marker used to monitor the virological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients. The threshold used to define virological suppression has historically been dictated by the limits of detection of the commercial assays used to quantify the plasma viral load. Thus, as more sensitive assays have proliferated and become more widely available, the definition has shifted from < 400 cop/mL with the first generation assays, to < 50 cop/mL, to < 20 cop/mL currently...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
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