Read by QxMD icon Read

Pupil disorders

A V Rukmini, Milton C Chew, Maxwell T Finkelstein, Eray Atalay, Mani Baskaran, Monisha E Nongpiur, Joshua J Gooley, Tin Aung, Dan Milea, Raymond P Najjar
Chromatic pupillometry is an emerging modality in the assessment of retinal and optic nerve disorders. Herein, we evaluate the effect of low and moderate refractive errors on pupillary responses to blue- and red-light stimuli in a healthy older population. This study included 139 participants (≥50 years) grouped by refractive error: moderate myopes (>-6.0D and ≤-3.0D, n = 24), low myopes (>-3.0D and <-0.5D, n = 30), emmetropes (≥-0.5D and ≤0.5D, n = 31) and hyperopes (>0.5D and <6...
March 20, 2019: Scientific Reports
Duncan Street, Arul Sivaguru, Sreekanth Sreekantam, Susan P Mollan
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease is a rare, multisystem, autoimmune disorder with numerous clinical manifestations, mediated through a T-helper 1 response against melanocytes in the eye, inner ear, central nervous system, hair and skin. We describe a 20-year-old British-Honduran man with recent worsening headache and photophobia, vomiting and visual blurring. On examination, his pupils reacted sluggishly and visual acuities were bilaterally reduced. Optical coherence tomography showed gross retinal swelling and neurosensory detachments...
March 19, 2019: Practical Neurology
Nash Unsworth, Matthew K Robison, Ashley L Miller
Individual differences in baseline oculometrics (baseline pupil diameter, spontaneous eye blink rate, fixation stability), and their relation with cognitive abilities, personality traits, and self-report assessments were examined. Participants performed a baseline eye measure in which they were instructed to stare at a fixation point onscreen for 5 min. Following the baseline eye measure, participants completed a questionnaire asking what they were thinking about during the baseline eye measure. Participants also completed various cognitive ability measures assessing working memory capacity, attention control, and off-task thinking...
March 19, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Gerolf Renner, Anne Schroeder, Dieter Irblich
Discriminative Validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - IV (WIS) in a Social-Pediatric Sample This study presents data on the discriminative validity of the Wechsler Scale of Intelligence for Children - IV (WIS) for clinical diagnoses, different types of schooling, and variables related to migration. The sample comprises 631 children aged 6 to 13 who were tested with the WIS core tests in German centers of social pediatrics (Sozialpädiatrische Zentren) which offer interdisciplinary assessment and intervention for children and youth with developmental disorders, disabilities, and psychological problems...
March 2019: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Hamed Esfandiari, Shabnam Ansari, Hossein Mohammad-Rabei, Marilyn B Mets
Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic connective tissue disorder that results from mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene located on chromosome band 15q15-21. Fibrillin, a glycoprotein, is widely expressed throughout the body and contributes to the elasticity and force-bearing capacity of connective tissue. In the eye, fibrillin is a key constituent of the ciliary zonules, which suspend the crystalline lens in place. The zonular defect leads to ectopia lentis, which is a hallmark of Marfan ocular abnormalities and occurs in 60% to 80% of cases...
January 2019: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
I E Shtina, S L Valina, A M Yambulatov, O Yu Ustinovа
Taking into account the fact that factors of intra-school environment are of great importance when forming health of pupils, this study aimed to investigate the main kinds of metabolism among pupils of secondary educational institutions depending on the organization of educational process and food services. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The observing group comprised of 137 students of Secondary School focusing on physico-mathematical sciences at the age of 12.9±1.3 years; the comparison group consisted of 131 students of Secondary School at the age of 12...
2019: Voprosy Pitaniia
Elena Makovac, Sabrina Fagioli, David R Watson, Frances Meeten, Jonathan Smallwood, Hugo D Critchley, Cristina Ottaviani
In Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), fluctuations in ongoing thoughts (i.e., mind-wandering) often take the form of rigid and intrusive perseverative cognition, such as worry. Here, we sought to characterise the neural correlates of mind-wandering and perseverative cognition, alongside autonomic nervous system indices of central arousal, notably pupil dilation. We implemented a protocol incorporating the dynamic delivery of thought-probes within a functional neuroimaging task. Sixteen individuals with GAD and sixteen matched healthy controls (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging with concomitant pupillometry...
February 21, 2019: NeuroImage
Shahram Barfi, Vahdat Poortahmasebi, Haleh Ofoghi, Mohammad Farahmand, Saeid Ghorbani, Mehdi Norouzi, Leila Ghalichi, Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri
BACKGROUND: Responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccine among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has not been evaluated worldwide. We aimed to determine the anti-HBs antibody duration in autistic and healthy children few years after primary vaccination and evaluate their immunological memory against hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine with booster dose administration. METHODS: One hundred seven and 147 HBsAg-negative children from ASD and normal population were recruited, respectively...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Johnny M Downs, Tamsin Ford, Robert Stewart, Sophie Epstein, Hitesh Shetty, Ryan Little, Amelia Jewell, Matthew Broadbent, Jessica Deighton, Tarek Mostafa, Ruth Gilbert, Matthew Hotopf, Richard Hayes
OBJECTIVES: Creation of linked mental health, social and education records for research to support evidence-based practice for regional mental health services. SETTING: The Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) system was used to extract personal identifiers who accessed psychiatric services between September 2007 and August 2013. PARTICIPANTS: A clinical cohort of 35 509 children and young people (aged 4-17 years). DESIGN: Multiple government and ethical committees approved the link of clinical mental health service data to Department for Education (DfE) data on education and social care services...
January 29, 2019: BMJ Open
David Hessl, Danielle Harvey, Stephanie Sansone, Crystal Crestodina, Jamie Chin, Reshma Joshi, Randi J Hagerman, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis
BACKGROUND: Numerous preclinical studies have supported the theory that enhanced activation of mGluR5 signaling, due to the absence or reduction of the FMR1 protein, contributes to cognitive and behavioral deficits in patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However multiple phase 2 controlled trials in patients with FXS have failed to demonstrate efficacy of compounds that negatively modulate mGluR5, including two phase 2b randomized controlled trials (RCT) of mavoglurant (AFQ056, Novartis Pharma AG), when the primary measures of interest were behavioral ratings...
2019: PloS One
Tianbi Li, Jean Decety, Xiaoyi Hu, Jiao Li, Jinling Lin, Li Yi
We examined explicit and implicit processes in response to third-party moral transgressions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty 4- to 7-year-old children with ASD and 19 typically developing controls evaluated dynamic visual stimuli depicting intentional or accidental harm to persons or damage to objects. Moral evaluations, eye fixations, and pupil dilations toward the stimuli were collected. Results indicate a preserved capacity to understand the mental states of perpetrators and an implicit moral sensitivity to the third-party harms in children with ASD...
January 8, 2019: Child Development
Devesh Kumawat, Tanveer Alam, Pranita Sahay, Rohan Chawla
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and Scheimpflug imaging features in cases of anterior megalophthalmos (AM). METHODS: Retrospective record review was performed for patients with AM who presented between June 2017 and May 2018. Clinical history, slit lamp examination, Scheimpflug imaging indices (Pentacam-HR, Oculus, GmbH), dilated fundus examination and treatment records were reviewed. RESULTS: The study included eight eyes of four male patients (mean age 6...
January 7, 2019: Eye
Jeanette M Metzger, Marina E Emborg
Parkinson disease has traditionally been classified as a movement disorder, despite patients' accounts of diverse symptoms stemming from impairments in numerous body systems. Today, Parkinson disease is increasingly recognized by clinicians and scientists as a complex neurodegenerative disorder featuring both motor and nonmotor manifestations concomitant with pathology throughout all major branches of the nervous system. Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, or dysautonomia, is a common feature of Parkinson disease...
January 2, 2019: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
C M Warren, K D Tona, L Ouwerkerk, J van Paridon, F Poletiek, Henk van Steenbergen, J A Bosch, S Nieuwenhuis
BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) is a new, non-invasive technique being investigated as an intervention for a variety of clinical disorders, including epilepsy and depression. It is thought to exert its therapeutic effect by increasing central norepinephrine (NE) activity, but the evidence supporting this notion is limited. OBJECTIVE: In order to test for an impact of tVNS on psychophysiological and hormonal indices of noradrenergic function, we applied tVNS in concert with assessment of salivary alpha amylase (SAA) and cortisol, pupil size, and electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings...
December 14, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Scott M Rowley
CASE STUDY RS, a 36-year-old female, presented to the emergency department (ED) of a large academic medical center upon the advice of her primary care provider because of 3 weeks of progressive mental status changes, weakness, and decreased oral intake. According to her husband, RS was diagnosed with stage IIIA large cell lung cancer 8 months earlier and was treated with concurrent chemotherapy (carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab) and radiation therapy that was completed 4 months prior to admission. No other specific information about her treatment or outside health records was available...
March 2018: Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology
Chiara La Morgia, Valerio Carelli, Michele Carbonelli
Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are intrinsically photosensitive RGCs that mediate many relevant non-image forming functions of the eye, including the pupillary light reflex, through the projections to the olivary pretectal nucleus. In particular, the post-illumination pupil response (PIPR), as evaluated by chromatic pupillometry, can be used as a reliable marker of mRGC function in vivo . In the last years, pupillometry has become a promising tool to assess mRGC dysfunction in various neurological and neuro-ophthalmological conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Stephen H Tsang, Tarun Sharma
Rod monochromatism (achromatopsia) is a congenital cone photoreceptor disorder, which is rare, affecting about 1 in 30,000 individuals. These patients have normal rod function but no detectable cone function; therefore, everything they see is in shades of gray (total color blindness). Patients usually present in infancy with nystagmus and photophobia. Vision is usually about 20/200 or worse; patients have a hyperopic refractive error. Some patients show paradoxical pupillary response; that is, the pupils dilate in bright light...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Daniel T Burley, Nicola S Gray, Robert J Snowden
Psychopathy is a form of personality disorder associated with a deficit in emotional processing. However, there is debate whether this deficit applies to all emotions or exists only for negative emotions. The pupil dilates rapidly in response to emotional stimuli, allowing a time-sensitive index of emotional processing. Across 3 experiments using (a) visual images of real-world scenes, (b) auditory sound clips, and (c) videos of dynamic facial expressions, we measured emotional modulation of the pupil response to both negative and positive stimuli...
December 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
Joanne C Van Slooten, Sara Jahfari, Tomas Knapen, Jan Theeuwes
Cognition can reveal itself in the pupil, as latent cognitive processes map onto specific pupil responses. For instance, the pupil dilates when we make decisions and these pupil size fluctuations reflect decision-making computations during and after a choice. Surprisingly little is known, however, about how pupil responses relate to decisions driven by the learned value of stimuli. This understanding is important, as most real-life decisions are guided by the outcomes of earlier choices. The goal of this study was to investigate which cognitive processes the pupil reflects during value-based decision-making...
November 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Alessandra Buja, Luigi Gallimberti, Sonia Chindamo, Camilla Lion, Alberto Terraneo, Michele Rivera, Elena Marini, Luis Javier Gomez-Perez, Emanuele Scafato, Vincenzo Baldo
BACKGROUND: Substance use and abuse by young adolescents has become a serious issue for public health services, and several socio-environmental factors can influence how vulnerable a young adolescent may be to their appeal. The present study was devised to examine whether substance use in early adolescence is associated with problematic social networking site usage (PSNSU). METHODS: In the academic year 2013-2014, secondary schools in Padua (north-eastern Italy) were involved in a survey called "Pinocchio"...
November 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"