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Human Eye movement

Jsrg Saran, Jagadish R Padubidri
The concept of brain death has been a very intriguing topic and has taken many forms over the years. Brain stem death is a complex state of inactivity defined by the loss of reflexes of the pathways that pass through the brain stem, the 'shaft' of the brain which links the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum where there is apnoea, loss of eye movement and pain sensation. There are many criteria, based on which a person can be said to be brain dead. The best recognised of these are the Harvard, Minnesota and Philadelphia criteria...
February 20, 2019: Medico-legal Journal
Alyssa Cairns, Lynn Marie Trotti, Richard Bogan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to enhance our understanding of clinical trends in sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) propensity on the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Demographic variables of interest included early childhood/advanced age, gender, race, and REM-suppressant use. METHODS: Nocturnal sleep studies and 5-nap MSLTs were retrieved from a large repository of deidentified studies from various US sleep clinics between 2007 and 2015. Studies were signal processed, human-edited, and underwent rigorous quality assurance for inclusion...
December 30, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Caterina Magri, Sara Fabbri, Alfonso Caramazza, Angelika Lingnau
A network of frontal and parietal regions is known to be recruited during the planning and execution of arm and eye movements. While movements of the two effectors are typically coupled with each other, it remains unresolved how information is shared between them. Here we aimed to identify regions containing neuronal populations that show directional tuning for both arm and eye movements. In two separate fMRI experiments, the same participants were scanned while performing a center-out arm or eye movement task...
February 12, 2019: NeuroImage
Kai Kaspar, Sarah Lucia Weber, Anne-Kathrin Wilbers
Global investments in online advertising rise quickly but internet users often avoid looking at ads due to established banner blindness. Demographic targeting is expected to overcome this tendency by attracting users' attention to more self-relevant ad content. However, little is known about the effect of demographically targeted versus non-targeted ads on users' actual attention allocation during exposure to webpages. The present study aimed to further fill this empirical gap by clarifying whether demographic targeting attracts visual attention and to exploratively examine whether it also affects brand attitude and website evaluation, as suggested by previous studies...
2019: PloS One
Min Hao, Guangyuan Liu, Anu Gokhale, Ya Xu, Rui Chen
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology can be used to detect human emotions based on the power of material discrimination from their faces. In this paper, HSI is used to remotely sense and distinguish blood chromophores in facial tissues and acquire an evaluation indicator (tissue oxygen saturation, StO2 ) using an optical absorption model. This study explored facial analysis while people were showing spontaneous expressions of happiness during social interaction. Happiness, as a psychological emotion, has been shown to be strongly linked to other activities such as physiological reaction and facial expression...
2019: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
F Crevecoeur, M Gevers
Compensating for sensorimotor noise and for temporal delays has been identified as a major function of the nervous system. However, the aspects have often been described separately in the frameworks of optimal cue combination or motor prediction during movement planning. But control-theoretic models suggest that these two operations are performed simultaneously, and mounting evidence supports that motor commands are based on sensory predictions rather than sensory states. In this letter, we study the benefit of state estimation for predictive sensorimotor control...
February 14, 2019: Neural Computation
Ben Deen, Rebecca Saxe
Facial motion is a primary source of social information about other humans. Prior fMRI studies have identified regions of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) that respond specifically to perceived face movements (termed fSTS), but little is known about the nature of motion representations in these regions. Here we use fMRI and multivoxel pattern analysis to characterize the representational content of the fSTS. Participants viewed a set of specific eye and mouth movements, as well as combined eye and mouth movements...
February 13, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
W Joseph MacInnes, Amelia R Hunt, Alasdair D F Clarke, Michael D Dodd
The early eye tracking studies of Yarbus provided descriptive evidence that an observer's task influences patterns of eye movements, leading to the tantalizing prospect that an observer's intentions could be inferred from their saccade behavior. We investigate the predictive value of task and eye movement properties by creating a computational cognitive model of saccade selection based on instructed task and internal cognitive state using a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN). Understanding how humans generate saccades under different conditions and cognitive sets links recent work on salience models of low-level vision with higher level cognitive goals...
October 2018: Cognitive Computation
Giulio Bernardi, Monica Betta, Emiliano Ricciardi, Pietro Pietrini, Giulio Tononi, Francesca Siclari
Although the EEG slow wave of sleep is typically considered to be a hallmark of Non Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep, recent work in mice has shown that slow waves can also occur in REM sleep. Here we investigated the presence and cortical distribution of negative delta (1-4 Hz) waves in human REM sleep by analyzing high-density EEG sleep recordings obtained in 28 healthy subjects. We identified two clusters of delta waves with distinctive properties: 1) a fronto-central cluster characterized by ∼2.5-3.0 Hz, relatively large, notched delta waves (so-called 'sawtooth waves') that tended to occur in bursts, were associated with increased gamma activity and rapid eye movements, and upon source modeling, displayed an occipito-temporal and a fronto-central component; and 2) a medial-occipital cluster characterized by more isolated, slower (<2 Hz) and smaller waves that were not associated with rapid eye movements, displayed a negative correlation with gamma activity and were also found in NREM sleep...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jolande Fooken, Miriam Spering
Neural activity in brain areas involved in the planning and execution of eye movements predicts the outcome of an upcoming perceptual decision. Many real-world decisions, such as whether to swing at a baseball pitch, are accompanied by characteristic eye-movement behavior. Here we ask whether human eye-movement kinematics can sensitively predict decision outcomes in a go/no-go task requiring rapid interceptive hand movements. Observers (n = 45) viewed a moving target that passed through or missed a designated strike box...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Vision
Lars O M Rothkegel, Heiko H Schütt, Hans A Trukenbrod, Felix A Wichmann, Ralf Engbert
When searching a target in a natural scene, it has been shown that both the target's visual properties and similarity to the background influence whether and how fast humans are able to find it. So far, it was unclear whether searchers adjust the dynamics of their eye movements (e.g., fixation durations, saccade amplitudes) to the target they search for. In our experiment, participants searched natural scenes for six artificial targets with different spatial frequency content throughout eight consecutive sessions...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Agostino Gibaldi, Martin S Banks
Humans and many animals make frequent saccades requiring coordinated movements of the eyes. When landing on the new fixation point, the eyes must converge accurately or double images will be perceived. We asked whether the visual system uses statistical regularities in the natural environment to aid eye alignment at the end of saccades. We measured the distribution of naturally occurring disparities in different parts of the visual field. The central tendency of the distributions was crossed (nearer than fixation) in the lower field and uncrossed (farther) in the upper field in male and female participants...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Pietro Emanuele Napoli, Matteo Nioi, Ernesto d'Aloja, Maurizio Fossarello
The aim of the study was to define and characterize the optical behavior of the tear film during visual fixation in humans on en-face optical coherence tomography (OCT). We included 20 healthy participants, 60% female, aged from 25 to 42 years (33.05 ± 4.97 [mean ± SD]) and ten patients with severe dry eye, 50% female, aged from 26 to 42 years (33.7 ± 5.31). To perform high-resolution tear film imaging, participants were asked to gaze at the internal fixation point in the spectral-domain anterior segment OCT device, and meanwhile scanning session was executed at the following time-points after blinking: at the 2nd , 3rd , 4th , 5th , and 6th second...
February 5, 2019: Scientific Reports
Masayuki Watanabe, Ken-Ichi Okada, Yuta Hamasaki, Mari Funamoto, Yasushi Kobayashi, Michael MacAskill, Tim Anderson
Human cognitive behavior is predictive rather than reflexive because of volitional action preparation. Recent studies have shown that the covert process of volitional action preparation can be decoded from overt fixational eye movements of fixational/microsaccades and pupil dilation. Ocular drift, the slowest fixational eye movements, is also under the active neural control, but its relationship with cognitive behavior is unknown. Here, we examined whether ocular drift also reflects volitional action preparation...
February 5, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Emiko Shishido, Shiori Ogawa, Seiko Miyata, Maeri Yamamoto, Toshiya Inada, Norio Ozaki
Studies of eye movement have become an essential tool of basic neuroscience research. Measures of eye movement have been applied to higher brain functions such as cognition, social behavior, and higher-level decision-making. With the development of eye trackers, a growing body of research has described eye movements in relation to mental disorders, reporting that the basic oculomotor properties of patients with mental disorders differ from those of healthy controls. Using discrimination analysis, several independent research groups have used eye movements to differentiate patients with schizophrenia from a mixed population of patients and controls...
February 2, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology reports
Véronique Latreille, Malo Gaubert, Jonathan Dubé, Jean-Marc Lina, Jean-François Gagnon, Julie Carrier
Accumulating evidence demonstrates a direct relationship between impaired neural integrity and disrupted sleep physiology in normal and pathological aging. However, previous work has focus almost exclusively on nonrapid eye movement sleep electroencephalography as a proxy of cortical integrity with aging. Whether this relationship holds true for rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalography is unknown. Our results show that age-related reduction in low-frequency delta activity during both rapid eye movement and nonrapid eye movement sleep was statistically mediated by the thinning of the medial frontal and anterior cingulate cortices...
January 6, 2019: Neurobiology of Aging
Hiroshi Kunimura, Masakazu Matsuoka, Naoki Hamada, Koichi Hiraoka
Humans make an effort to stabilize the body when a stable eye position is required to improve visibility. Perceiving the position of one visual object relative to another appearing close is relatively difficult compared with perceiving those objects appearing at a distance. Thus, humans must make an effort to stabilize their body to improve visibility when they attempt to perceive the position of one object relative to another appearing close. This process may enhance the response to postural perturbation. The present study tested this hypothesis...
February 6, 2019: Neuroreport
Fei Chen, Lan Wang, Gang Peng, Nan Yan, Xiaojie Pan
The deficit in speech sound production in some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) adds to their communication barriers. The 3-D virtual environments have been implemented to improve their communication abilities. However, there were no previous studies on the use of a 3-D virtual pronunciation tutor designed specifically to train pronunciation for children with ASD. To fill this research gap, the current study developed and evaluated a 3-D virtual tutor which served as a multimodal and real-data-driven speech production tutor to present both places and manners of Mandarin articulation...
2019: PloS One
Nicola Michielli, U Rajendra Acharya, Filippo Molinari
Automated evaluation of a subject's neurocognitive performance (NCP) is a relevant topic in neurological and clinical studies. NCP represents the mental/cognitive human capacity in performing a specific task. It is difficult to develop the study protocols as the subject's NCP changes in a known predictable way. Sleep is time-varying NCP and can be used to develop novel NCP techniques. Accurate analysis and interpretation of human sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) signals is needed for proper NCP assessment...
January 19, 2019: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Caroline A Wilson, Joel I Berger, Jessica de Boer, Magdalena Sereda, Alan R Palmer, Deborah A Hall, Mark N Wallace
A common method for measuring changes in temporal processing sensitivity in both humans and animals makes use of GaP-induced Inhibition of the Acoustic Startle (GPIAS). It is also the basis of a common method for detecting tinnitus in rodents. However, the link to tinnitus has not been properly established because GPIAS has not yet been used to objectively demonstrate tinnitus in humans. In guinea pigs, the Preyer (ear flick) myogenic reflex is an established method for measuring the acoustic startle for the GPIAS test, while in humans, it is the eye-blink reflex...
January 17, 2019: Hearing Research
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