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skin microbiome and skin microbiota

M Pellicciotta, R Rigoni, E L Falcone, S M Holland, A Villa, B Cassani
Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are inherited disorders of the immune system, associated with a considerable increase in susceptibility to infections. PIDs can also predispose to malignancy, inflammation and autoimmunity. There is increasing awareness that some aspects of the immune dysregulation in PIDs may be linked to intestinal microbiota. Indeed, the gut microbiota and its metabolites have been shown to influence immune functions and immune homeostasis both locally and systemically. Recent studies have indicated that genetic defects causing PIDs lead to perturbations in the conventional mechanisms underlying homeostasis in the gut, resulting in poor immune surveillance at the intestinal barrier, which associates with altered intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Autoimmunity
Zhenjiang Zech Xu, Amnon Amir, Jon Sanders, Qiyun Zhu, James T Morton, Molly C Bletz, Anupriya Tripathi, Shi Huang, Daniel McDonald, Lingjing Jiang, Rob Knight
Microbiome analyses can be challenging because microbial strains are numerous, and often, confounding factors in the data set are also numerous. Many tools reduce, summarize, and visualize these high-dimensional data to provide insight at the community level. However, they lose the detailed information about each taxon and can be misleading (for example, the well-known horseshoe effect in ordination plots). Thus, multiple methods at different levels of resolution are required to capture the full range of microbial patterns...
January 2019: MSystems
S Prast-Nielsen, A-M Tobin, K Adamzik, A Powles, L Hugerth, C Sweeney, B Kirby, L Engstrand, L Fry
Human skin is populated by diverse bacteria and there is increasing evidence that resident bacteria play a key role initiating immune responses in cutaneous diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and hidradenitis suppurativa. Bacteria are present at all layers of the skin but many studies have relied on swabs to profile the skin microbiota. As the pathogenesis of many skin conditions is dermal, we wished to compare the microbiota obtained in swabs (surface) and biopsies (dermis). Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing we established the microbial profiles of skin swabs and skin biopsies in sixteen subjects...
January 28, 2019: British Journal of Dermatology
Wouter B van der Sluis, Mark-Bram Bouman, Margriet G Mullender, Malieka C Degen, Paul H M Savelkoul, Wilhelmus J H J Meijerink, Nanne K H de Boer, Adriaan A van Bodegraven, Andries E Budding
OBJECTIVES: The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in intestinal health. After colonic diversion from the fecal stream, luminal nutrients for bacteria are expected to be depleted, inducing changes in microbial composition. In this study, we describe microbial changes in the healthy colon following surgical fecal stream diversion, studied in the surgically constructed sigmoid-derived neovagina. METHODS: At various postoperative times after sigmoid vaginoplasty, rectal, neovaginal, and skin microbial swabs were obtained for microbial analysis by interspacer profiling, a PCR-based bacterial profiling technique...
January 17, 2019: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Rosa Del Campo, Laura Martínez-García, Ana María Sánchez-Díaz, Fernando Baquero
Numerous studies have demonstrated that adequate hand hygiene among hospital staff is the best measure to prevent hand-to-hand bacterial transmission. The skin microbiome is conditioned by the individual physiological characteristics and anatomical microenvironments. Furthermore, it is important to separate the autochthonous resident microbiota from the transitory microbiota that we can acquire after interactions with contaminated surfaces. Two players participate in the hand-to-hand bacterial transmission process: the bacteria and the person...
January 2019: Microbiology Spectrum
Rebecca Vongsa, Doug Hoffman, Kristin Shepard, David Koenig
BACKGROUND: Obesity is known to modulate human health in a number of ways including altering the microbiome of the gut. Very few studies have examined the how obesity may affect the microbiomes of sites distant to the gut. We hypothesized that vulva and abdominal skin may be especially susceptible to body mass index (BMI)-induced alterations in biophysical properties and the microbiome due increased maceration and skin folds at those sites. The aim of this study was to determine if high BMI (≥30) was associated with alterations in the biophysical properties and microbiomes of vulva and abdominal skin...
January 17, 2019: BMC Microbiology
Rok Kostanjšek, Ylenia Prodan, Blaž Stres, Peter Trontelj
The European cave salamander Proteus anguinus is a charismatic amphibian endemic to the concealed and inaccessible subterranean waters of the Dinaric Karst. Despite its exceptional conservation importance not much is known about its ecology and interactions with the groundwater microbiome. The cutaneous microbiota of amphibians is an important driver of metabolic capabilities and immunity, and thus a key factor of their wellbeing and survival. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing based on seven variable regions to examine the bacteriome of the skin of five distinct evolutionary lineages of P...
January 11, 2019: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Aina Gotoh, Miriam Nozomi Ojima, Takane Katayama
The human body houses a variety of microbial ecosystems, such as the microbiotas on the skin, in the oral cavity and in the digestive tract. The gut microbiota is one such ecosystem that contains trillions of bacteria, and it is well established that it can significantly influence host health and diseases. With the advancement in bioinformatics tools, numerous comparative studies based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences, metabolomics, pathological and epidemical analyses have revealed the correlative relationship between the abundance of certain taxa and disease states or amount of certain causative bioactive compounds...
January 13, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
E Untersmayr, H J Bax, C Bergmann, R Bianchini, W Cozen, H J Gould, K Hartmann, D H Josephs, F Levi-Schaffer, M L Penichet, L O'Mahony, A Poli, F Redegeld, F Roth-Walter, M C Turner, L Vangelista, S N Karagiannis, E Jensen-Jarolim
The microbiota can play important roles in the development of human immunity and the establishment of immune homeostasis. Lifestyle factors including diet, hygiene, and exposure to viruses or bacteria, and medical interventions with antibiotics or anti-ulcer medications, regulate phylogenetic variability and the quality of cross-talk between innate and adaptive immune cells via mucosal and skin epithelia. More recently, microbiota and their composition have been linked to protective effects for health. Imbalance, however, has been linked to immune-related diseases such as allergy and cancer, characterized by impaired, or exaggerated immune tolerance, respectively...
January 12, 2019: Allergy
Carina Dehner, Rebecca Fine, Martin A Kriegel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The resident bacterial communities and the host immune system have coevolved for millennia. However, recent changes in modern societies have disrupted this coevolutionary homeostasis and contributed to a rise in immune-mediated conditions. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recently elucidated mechanisms of how certain taxa within the bacterial microbiome propagate autoimmunity. RECENT FINDINGS: Interactions between the bacterial microbiome with innate and adaptive immune cells propagate autoreactivity, chronic inflammation, and tissue damage in susceptible hosts...
January 7, 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Jakub Mrázek, Chahrazed Mekadim, Petra Kučerová, Roman Švejstil, Hana Salmonová, Jitka Vlasáková, Renata Tarasová, Jana Čížková, Monika Červinková
Melanoma is the least common form of skin tumor, but it is potentially the most dangerous and responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. We suggest that the skin microbiome might be changed during the progression of melanoma. The aim of this study is to compare the composition of the skin microbiota between different locations (skin and melanoma) of a MeLiM (Melanoma-bearing Libechov Minipig) pig model (exophytic melanoma). Ninety samples were used for PCR-DGGE analysis with primers specifically targeting the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene...
December 15, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Deliang Liu, Lei Lin, Yixuan Lin, Yuping Zhong, Shaobao Zhang, Wen Liu, Baorong Zou, Qiongfeng Liao, Zhiyong Xie
Zengye decoction (ZYD), a traditional Chinese medicinal formula, has been used in the treatment of various chronic diseases, such as constipation and skin dryness syndrome. Clinically, the specific mechanisms and targets of ZYD for treating disease remain unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of ZYD on the gut microbiota and host metabolites in aged constipated rats and the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the host. Rats were divided randomly into three groups, the control group (n = 10), recovery group (n = 10) and ZYD group (n = 10)...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Anton Lavrinienko, Eugene Tukalenko, Tapio Mappes, Phillip C Watts
BACKGROUND: Animal skin and gut microbiomes are important components of host fitness. However, the processes that shape the microbiomes of wildlife are poorly understood, particularly with regard to exposure to environmental contaminants. We used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to quantify how exposure to radionuclides impacts the skin and gut microbiota of a small mammal, the bank vole Myodes glareolus, inhabiting areas within and outside the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), Ukraine. RESULTS: Skin microbiomes of male bank voles were more diverse than females...
November 26, 2018: Microbiome
Jerome Ozkan, Mark Willcox, Bernd Wemheuer, Geoff Wilcsek, Minas Coroneo, Torsten Thomas
PURPOSE: The human eye is composed of numerous microhabitats. The aim of this study was to understand the communality and differences in the microbiomes of various regions of the eye. METHODS: Four ocular sites from different subject groups were assessed including the eyelid margin tissue from patients with lid abnormalities (n = 20), fornix and limbus conjunctival tissue from patients with pterygia (n = 23), ocular (conjunctival) surface swabs (n = 45) and facial skin swabs (n = 16)...
November 13, 2018: Ocular Surface
Eun-Sook Lee, Eun-Ji Song, Young-Do Nam, So-Young Lee
Probiotics are the most useful tools for balancing the gut microbiota and thereby influencing human health and disease. Probiotics have a range of effects, from those on nutritional status to medical conditions throughout the body from the gut to non-intestinal body sites such as the brain and skin. Research interest in probiotics with nutritive claims (categorized as nutribiotics) has evolved into interest in therapeutic and pharmacological probiotics with health claims (pharmabiotics). The concept of pharmabiotics emerged only two decades ago, and the new categorization of probiotics to nutribiotics and pharmabiotics was recently suggested, which are under the different regulation depending on that they are food or drug...
November 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Fiona B Tamburini, Tessa M Andermann, Ekaterina Tkachenko, Fiona Senchyna, Niaz Banaei, Ami S Bhatt
A comprehensive evaluation of every patient with a bloodstream infection includes an attempt to identify the infectious source. Pathogens can originate from various places, such as the gut microbiota, skin and the external environment. Identifying the definitive origin of an infection would enable precise interventions focused on management of the source1,2 . Unfortunately, hospital infection control practices are often informed by assumptions about the source of various specific pathogens; if these assumptions are incorrect, they lead to interventions that do not decrease pathogen exposure3 ...
October 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
David L A Wood, Nancy Lachner, Jean-Marie Tan, Stephanie Tang, Nicola Angel, Antonia Laino, Richard Linedale, Kim-Anh Lê Cao, Mark Morrison, Ian H Frazer, H Peter Soyer, Philip Hugenholtz
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second-most-common cancer in Australia. The majority of SCCs progress from premalignant actinic keratosis (AK) lesions that form on chronically sun-exposed skin. The role of skin microbiota in this progression is not well understood; therefore, we performed a longitudinal microbiome analysis of AKs and SCCs using a cohort of 13 SCC-prone immunocompetent men. The majority of variability in microbial profiles was attributable to subject, followed by time and lesion type...
October 9, 2018: MBio
Alan M O'Neill, Richard L Gallo
Acne is one of the most common skin diseases worldwide and results in major health care costs and significant morbidity to severely affected individuals. However, the pathophysiology of this disorder is not well understood. Host-microbiome interactions that affect both innate and adaptive immune homeostasis appear to be a central factor in this disease, with recent observations suggesting that the composition and activities of the microbiota in acne is perturbed. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Cutibacterium acnes (C...
October 2, 2018: Microbiome
Nathan K Archer, Jay-Hyun Jo, Steven K Lee, Dongwon Kim, Barbara Smith, Roger V Ortines, Yu Wang, Mark C Marchitto, Advaitaa Ravipati, Shuting S Cai, Carly A Dillen, Haiyun Liu, Robert J Miller, Alyssa G Ashbaugh, Angad S Uppal, Michiko K Oyoshi, Nidhi Malhotra, Sabine Hoff, Luis A Garza, Heidi H Kong, Julia A Segre, Raif S Geha, Lloyd S Miller
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with epidermal barrier defects, dysbiosis, and skin injury caused by scratching. In particular, the barrier-defective epidermis in patients with AD with loss-of-function filaggrin mutations has increased IL-1α and IL-1β levels, but the mechanisms by which IL-1α, IL-1β, or both are induced and whether they contribute to the aberrant skin inflammation in patients with AD is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the mechanisms through which skin injury, dysbiosis, and increased epidermal IL-1α and IL-1β levels contribute to development of skin inflammation in a mouse model of injury-induced skin inflammation in filaggrin-deficient mice without the matted mutation (ft/ft mice)...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Sylvia Brugman, Wakako Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Saskia Braber, Gert Folkerts, Corné M J Pieterse, Peter A H M Bakker
During recent years the impact of microbial communities on the health of their host (being plants, fish, and terrestrial animals including humans) has received increasing attention. The microbiota provides the host with nutrients, induces host immune development and metabolism, and protects the host against invading pathogens (1-6). Through millions of years of co-evolution bacteria and hosts have developed intimate relationships. Microbial colonization shapes the host immune system that in turn can shape the microbial composition (7-9)...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
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