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A Dhareula, A Goyal, K Gauba, S K Bhatia, A Kapur, S Bhandari
PURPOSE: Definitive restorative management of young permanent molars affected with severe MIH is still elusive with a dearth of conservative restorative options. The present trial compared the 36 months clinical and radiographic performance of minimally invasive cast metal and indirect resin onlays for rehabilitation of permanent first molars affected with severe MIH. METHODS: In this parallel group open label randomised trial, 42 vital molars affected with severe MIH in 30 children, aged 8-13 years were randomly allocated using stratified permuted block randomization to receive either a cast metal onlay or an indirect composite onlay (n = 21 each)...
March 19, 2019: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Kelly C Young-Wolff, Varada Sarovar, Stacy A Sterling, Amy Leibowitz, Brigid McCaw, Charles B Hare, Michael J Silverberg, Derek D Satre
While persons with HIV (PWH) have benefited from significant advances in treatment and resulting longevity, mental health problems remain elevated in this population. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are common among PWH and may negatively affect mental health and HIV-related outcomes. We examined the association between ACEs, depression and anxiety symptoms, substance use, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and HIV-clinical indicators in a sample of 584 PWH at risk for unhealthy alcohol use enrolled in a primary care-based alcohol intervention study...
March 19, 2019: AIDS Care
Alaina N English, Jennifer A Bellingtier, Shevaun D Neupert
Positive subjective perceptions of aging predict various well-being, physical health, mental health, and longevity outcomes. Thus, it is important to consider what factors contribute to their formation. Socioeconomic status (SES) has been hypothesized to be one such factor, but past research has been mixed. We propose that subjective assessments of SES may better predict subjective perceptions of aging than traditional objective measures (e.g., income and education). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of objective and subjective indicators of SES on subjective perceptions of aging...
March 2019: European Journal of Ageing
A U Trendelenburg, A C Scheuren, P Potter, R Müller, I Bellantuono
The proportion of the population over the age of 65 is growing the most rapidly due to the longevity revolution. Frailty is prevalent in this age group and strongly associated with disability and hospitalization, having a significant impact on the costs of health and social care. New effective interventions to delay or reverse frailty are urgently required. Geroprotectors are a new class of drugs, which target fundamental mechanisms of ageing and show promise in delaying the onset of or boosting resilience in frail older people...
March 15, 2019: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Yujuan Xiong, Lin Wang, Wenyi Jiang, Lihua Pang, Weihua Liu, Aiqun Li, Yun Zhong, Wenchao Ou, Benrong Liu, Shi-Ming Liu
BACKGROUND: Myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Functional deletion or mutation in MEF2A predisposes individuals to cardiovascular disease mainly caused by vascular endothelial dysfunction. However, the effect of the inhibition of MEF2A expression on human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) is unclear. In this study, expression of MEF2A was inhibited by specific small interference RNA (siRNA), and changes in mRNA profiles in response to MEF2A knockdown were analyzed using an Agilent human mRNA array...
March 18, 2019: BMC Molecular Biology
Paolo Abondio, Marco Sazzini, Paolo Garagnani, Alessio Boattini, Daniela Monti, Claudio Franceschi, Donata Luiselli, Cristina Giuliani
Human longevity is a complex phenotype resulting from the combinations of context-dependent gene-environment interactions that require analysis as a dynamic process in a cohesive ecological and evolutionary framework. Genome-wide association (GWAS) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) studies on centenarians pointed toward the inclusion of the apolipoprotein E ( APOE ) polymorphisms ε2 and ε4, as implicated in the attainment of extreme longevity, which refers to their effect in age-related Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
March 15, 2019: Genes
O Schussler, N Lila, T Perneger, P Mootoosamy, J Grau, A Francois, D M Smadja, Y Lecarpentier, M Ruel, A Carpentier
BACKGROUND: Pigs/bovines share with humans some of the antigens present on cardiac valves. Two such antigens are: the major xenogenic Ag, "Gal" present in all pig/bovine very close to human B-antigen of ABO-blood-group system; the minor Ag, pig histo-blood-group AH-antigen identical to human AH-antigen and present by some animals. We hypothesize that these antigens may modify the immunogenicity of the bioprosthesis and also its longevity. ABO distribution may vary between patients with low (<6 years) and high (≥15 years) bioprostheses longevity...
March 13, 2019: EBioMedicine
Patrick Maisonneuve
Pancreatic cancer, although infrequent, has a very poor prognosis, making it currently the fourth common causes of cancer mortality in most developed countries including the European Union (EU). Its incidence varies across regions, which suggests that lifestyle factors play an important role in its etiology, although part of the variation could be ascribed to difference in diagnostic and coding practices. Because pancreatic cancer is strongly age-dependent, increasing population longevity and ageing will lead to an increase of the global burden of pancreatic cancer...
March 13, 2019: La Presse Médicale
G A Shilovsky, T S Putyatina, V V Ashapkin, A A Rozina, V A Lyubetsky, E P Minina, I B Bychkovskaia, A V Markov, V P Skulachev
Social insects with identical genotype that form castes with radically different lifespans are a promising model system for studying the mechanisms underlying longevity. The main direction of progressive evolution of social insects, in particular, ants, is the development of the social way of life inextricably linked with the increase in the colony size. Only in a large colony, it is possible to have a developed polyethism, create large food reserves, and actively regulate the nest microclimate. The lifespan of ants hugely varies among genetically similar queens, workers (unproductive females), and males...
December 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Jessica A Belser, Terrence M Tumpey, Taronna R Maines
The relative importance of influenza virus transmission via aerosols is not fully understood, but experimental data suggests that aerosol transmission may represent a critical mode of influenza virus spread among humans. Decades ago, prototypical laboratory strains of influenza were shown to persist in aerosols; however, there is a paucity of data available covering currently circulating influenza viruses, which differ significantly from their predecessors. In this study, we evaluated the longevity of influenza viruses in aerosols generated in the laboratory...
March 15, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Tatjana Maravić, Allegra Comba, Sandra Ribeiro Cunha, Valeria Angeloni, Milena Cadenaro, Erika Visinitini, Chiara Ottavia Navarra, Stefano Salgarello, Lorenzo Breschi, Annalisa Mazzoni
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate, by the means of microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test, gelatin and in situ zymography, the influence of 0.2% CHX contained within a commercially available adhesive on long-term bond strength and endogenous enzymatic activity. METHODS: Non-carious teeth were subjected to μTBS test (N = 15 for each group) and stressed until failure. μTBS was evaluated immediately and after 12-month storage in artificial saliva at 37 °C...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Dentistry
Eric D Laing, Spencer L Sterling, Dawn L Weir, Chelsi R Beauregard, Ina L Smith, Sasha E Larsen, Lin-Fa Wang, Andrew L Snow, Brian C Schaefer, Christopher C Broder
Bats are increasingly implicated as hosts of highly pathogenic viruses. The underlying virus⁻host interactions and cellular mechanisms that promote co-existence remain ill-defined, but physiological traits such as flight and longevity are proposed to drive these adaptations. Autophagy is a cellular homeostatic process that regulates ageing, metabolism, and intrinsic immune defense. We quantified basal and stimulated autophagic responses in black flying fox cells, and demonstrated that although black flying fox cells are susceptible to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infection, viral replication is dampened in these bat cells...
March 14, 2019: Viruses
Jonas Mengel-From, Anne Marie Svane, Cino Pertoldi, Torsten Nygård Kristensen, Volker Loeschcke, Axel Skytthe, Kaare Christensen, Rune Lindahl-Jacobsen, Jacob Hjelmborg, Lene Christiansen
Aging is a multifactorial trait caused by early as well as late life circumstances. A society trend that parents deliberately delay having children is of concern to health professionals, e.g. since advanced parental age at conception increases disease risk profiles in offspring. We here aim to study if advanced parental age at conception affects mitochondria DNA content, a cross species biomarker of general health, in adult human twin offspring and in a model organism. We find no deteriorated mitochondria DNA content at advanced parental age at conception, but human mitochondria DNA content was higher in females than males, and the difference was two fold higher at advanced maternal age at conception...
March 15, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Erika J Wolf, Filomene G Morrison, Danielle R Sullivan, Mark W Logue, Rachel E Guetta, Annjanette Stone, Steven A Schichman, Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Mark W Miller
BACKGROUND: Longevity gene klotho (KL) is associated with age-related phenotypes but has not been evaluated against a direct human biomarker of cellular aging. We examined KL and psychiatric stress, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is thought to potentiate accelerated aging, in association with biomarkers of cellular aging. METHODS: 309 white, non-Hispanic genotyped veterans with measures of epigenetic age (DNA methylation age), telomere length (n = 252), inflammation (C-reactive protein), psychiatric symptoms, metabolic function, and white matter neural integrity (diffusion tensor imaging; n = 185)...
March 11, 2019: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Xiaozhen Lv, Wenyuan Li, Yuan Ma, Huashuai Chen, Yi Zeng, Xin Yu, Albert Hofman, Huali Wang
BACKGROUND: Whether cognitive decline is related to a higher risk of death independent of the initial cognitive function is inconclusive. Evidence of the association between cognitive decline and mortality among Chinese older people is limited. We aimed to examine whether cognitive decline, assessed by the rate of decrease in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, was associated with mortality independent of initial cognitive function (baseline MMSE score) among Chinese older people...
March 15, 2019: BMC Medicine
Maria Chiara Fastame, Maria Pietronilla Penna, Paul Kenneth Hitchcott
A body of research documented that the study of mental health of the oldest individuals may contribute to understand the psychological characteristics of longevity. This study had two related aims. First, to fully characterize the psychological health of Sardinian elders in the very late adult span. Second, to determine the psychological health of long-lived individuals (i.e., centenarians) from this population. Three gender-matched age groups (octogenarian, nonagenarian, centenarian) of cognitively healthy, community dwelling adults were recruited in Sardinia, an Italian island characterized by higher levels of longevity...
March 13, 2019: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Giulia Accardi, Stefano Aprile, Giuseppina Candore, Calogero Caruso, Rosanna Cusimano, Laura Cristaldi, Danilo Di Bona, Giovanni Duro, Damiano Galimberti, Caterina Maria Gambino, Mattia Emanuela Ligotti, Walter Mazzucco, Sonya Vasto, Anna Aiello
BACKGROUND: It is well known that long living individuals are a model of successful ageing and that the identification of both genetic variants and environmental factors that predispose to long and health life is of tremendous interest for translational medicine. METHODS: We present the preliminary findings obtained from an ongoing study on longevity conducted on a sample of Sicilian long lived individuals. RESULTS: We review the characteristics of longevity in Sicily, taking into account life style, environment, genetics, hematochemical values, body composition and immunophenotype...
March 12, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Maria Conte, Morena Martucci, Marco Sandri, Claudio Franceschi, Stefano Salvioli
Human aging is characterized by dramatic changes in body mass composition that include a general increase of the total fat mass. Within the fat mass, a change in the proportions of adipose tissues also occurs with aging, affecting body metabolism, and playing a central role in many chronic diseases, including insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and type II diabetes. In mammals, fat accumulates as white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissue, which differ both in morphology and function. While WAT is involved in lipid storage and immuno-endocrine responses, BAT is aimed at generating heat...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Kayvan Zainabadi
With an aging population and limited treatment options, osteoporosis currently represents a significant public health challenge. Recent animal studies indicate that longevity-associated SIRT1 may serve as an attractive pharmacological target for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone related disorders. Pre-clinical studies demonstrate that mice treated with SIRT1 agonists show protection against age-related, post-menopausal, and disuse models of osteoporosis. Conversely, SIRT1 knockout models display low bone mass phenotypes associated with increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation...
March 9, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
James A Kuo, Tyler Hamby, Maham N Munawar, Eldad Erez, Vincent K H Tam
OBJECTIVE: Various options exist for right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction in congenital heart disease. The Freestyle porcine aortic root may be used but its longevity is not well defined. DESIGN: We performed a retrospective review of all non-Ross RVOT reconstructions using the Freestyle root in our institution. Survival and reintervention, either by surgery, transcatheter valve implantation, balloon valvuloplasty, or bare metal stent placement, were recorded...
March 12, 2019: Congenital Heart Disease
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