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Persistent Inflammation

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877304/circulating-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-is-associated-with-immune-activation-during-hiv-infection
#1
Vikram Mehraj, Rayoun Ramendra, Stephane Isnard, Franck P Dupuy, Rosalie Ponte, Jun Chen, Ido Kema, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Cecilia Costiniuk, Bertrand Lebouché, Réjean Thomas, Pierre Coté, Roger Leblanc, Jean-Guy Baril, Madeleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Cécile Tremblay, Petronela Ancuta, Nicole F Bernard, Donald C Sheppard, Jean-Pierre Routy
BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation from the gut to circulation contributes to immune activation during HIV infection and is usually assessed by measuring plasma levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Gut fungal colonization increases during HIV infection and elevated systemic levels of the fungal polysaccharide (13)--D-Glucan (DG) have been reported in people living with HIV (PLWH). We assessed plasma DG in 146 early and chronic PLWH and investigated its contribution to systemic immune activation...
March 16, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873934/-streptococcus-pneumoniae-invasion-and-inflammation
#2
Allister J Loughran, Carlos J Orihuela, Elaine I Tuomanen
Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumoccus) is the leading cause of otitis media, community-acquired pneumonia, and bacterial meningitis. The success of the pneumococcus stems from its ability to persist in the population as a commensal and avoid killing by immune system. This chapter first reviews the molecular mechanisms that allow the pneumococcus to colonize and spread from one anatomical site to the next. Then, it discusses the mechanisms of inflammation and cytotoxicity during emerging and classical pneumococcal infections...
March 2019: Microbiology Spectrum
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873416/targeting-residual-inflammatory-risk-a-shifting-paradigm-for-atherosclerotic-disease
#3
REVIEW
Aaron W Aday, Paul M Ridker
As biologic, epidemiologic, and clinical trial data have demonstrated, inflammation is a key driver of atherosclerosis. Circulating biomarkers of inflammation, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events independent of cholesterol and other traditional risk factors. Randomized trials have shown that statins reduce hsCRP, and the magnitude of hsCRP reduction is proportional to the reduction in cardiovascular risk...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873038/stress-related-shift-toward-inflammaging-in-cosmonauts-after-long-duration-space-flight
#4
Judith-Irina Buchheim, Sandra Matzel, Marina Rykova, Galina Vassilieva, Sergey Ponomarev, Igor Nichiporuk, Marion Hörl, Dominique Moser, Katharina Biere, Matthias Feuerecker, Gustav Schelling, Detlef Thieme, Ines Kaufmann, Manfred Thiel, Alexander Choukèr
Space flight exerts a specific conglomerate of stressors on humans that can modulate the immune system. The mechanism remains to be elucidated and the consequences for cosmonauts in the long term are unclear. Most of the current research stems from short-term spaceflights as well as pre- and post-flight analyses due to operational limitations. Immune function of 12 cosmonauts participating in a long-duration (>140 days) spaceflight mission was monitored pre-, post-, and on two time-points in-flight. While the classical markers for stress such as cortisol in saliva where not significantly altered, blood concentrations of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) were found to be highly increased in-flight indicating a biological stress response...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872675/virus-triggered-spinal-cord-demyelination-is-followed-by-a-peripheral-neuropathy-resembling-features-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#5
Eva Leitzen, Barbara B Raddatz, Wen Jin, Sandra Goebbels, Klaus-Armin Nave, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Florian Hansmann
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induces a demyelinating disease in the spinal cord (SC) of susceptible but not in resistant (B6) mouse strains. The aim of the present study was to induce SC demyelination and a peripheral neuropathy in resistant mice by switching the infection site from cerebrum to SC. B6 mice were intraspinally inoculated with TMEV. Infected mice showed clinical signs starting at 7 days post infection (dpi). Histopathology revealed a mononuclear myelitis, centred on the injection site at 3 dpi with subsequent antero- and retrograde spread, accompanied by demyelination and axonal damage within the SC...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872365/interleukin-17-interleukin-21-and-interferon-g-producing-t-cells-specific-for-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-i-in-atherosclerosis-inflammation-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-with-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#6
Marisa Benagiano, Maria Orietta Borghi, Jacopo Romagnoli, Michael Mahler, Chiara Della Bella, Alessia Grassi, Nagaja Capitani, Giacomo Emmi, Arianna Troilo, Elena Silvestri, Lorenzo Emmi, Heba Alnwaisri, Jacopo Bitetti, Simona Tapinassi, Domenico Prisco, Cosima Tatiana Baldari, Pier Luigi Meroni, Mario Milco D'Elios
Systemic lupus erythematosus is frequently associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. Patients with lupus-antiphospholipid syndrome are characterized by recurrent arterial/venous thrombosis, miscarriages, and persistent presence of autoantibodies against phospholipid-binding proteins, such as β2-Glycoprotein I. We investigated the cytokine production induced by β2-Glycoprotein I in activated T cells that infiltrate in vivo atherosclerotic lesions of lupus-antiphospholipid syndrome patients. We examined the helper function of β2-Glycoprotein I-specific T cells for the tissue factor production, as well as their cytolytic potential and their helper function for antibody production...
March 14, 2019: Haematologica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872089/hiv-1-tat-mediated-microglial-inflammation-involves-a-novel-mirna-34a-nlrc5-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-axis
#7
Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Venkata Sunil Bendi, Shilpa Buch
While the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has dramatically increased the lifespan of people living with HIV-1 paradoxically, the prevalence of NeuroHIV in people treated with cART is on the rise. It has been well documented that despite the effectiveness of cART in suppressing viremia, CNS continues to harbor viral reservoirs with persistent low-level virus replication. This, in turn, leads to the presence and accumulation of early viral protein - HIV-1 Tat, that is a well-established cytotoxic agent...
March 11, 2019: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30871779/reduction-of-mitochondrial-3-oxoacyl-acp-synthase-oxsm-by-hyperglycemia-is-associated-with-deficiency-of-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-synthetic-pathway-in-kidney-of-diabetic-mice
#8
Ting Gao, Shengnan Qian, Shuang Shen, Xiaoying Zhang, Junli Liu, Weiping Jia, Zhong Chen, Jianping Ye
LA (alpha-Lipoic acid) deficiency represents a risk factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications as synthetic LA is routinely used in the treatment of the complications in patients. The mechanism underlying LA deficiency remains elusive in the diabetic conditions. In the present study, we investigated the synthetic pathway of LA in both type 1 and 2 diabetic mice. LA deficiency was observed with a reduction in lipoylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the kidney of streptozocin-induced diabetic mice...
March 11, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30871699/intercepting-the-lipid-induced-integrated-stress-response-reduces-atherosclerosis
#9
Umut I Onat, Asli D Yildirim, Özlem Tufanli, Ismail Çimen, Begüm Kocatürk, Zehra Veli, Syed M Hamid, Kenichi Shimada, Shuang Chen, Jon Sin, Prediman K Shah, Roberta A Gottlieb, Moshe Arditi, Ebru Erbay
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic cells can respond to diverse stimuli by converging at serine-51 phosphorylation on eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) and activate the integrated stress response (ISR). This is a key step in translational control and must be tightly regulated; however, persistent eIF2α phosphorylation is observed in mouse and human atheroma. OBJECTIVES: Potent ISR inhibitors that modulate neurodegenerative disorders have been identified. Here, the authors evaluated the potential benefits of intercepting ISR in a chronic metabolic and inflammatory disease, atherosclerosis...
March 19, 2019: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30871575/exosome-microrna-signatures-in-patients-with-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-undergoing-plasma-exchange
#10
Sujay Ramanathan, Sabrina R Douglas, Guillermo M Alexander, Botros B Shenoda, James E Barrett, Enrique Aradillas, Ahmet Sacan, Seena K Ajit
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (PE) or plasmapheresis is an extracorporeal procedure employed to treat immunological disorders. Exosomes, nanosized vesicles of endosomal origin, mediate intercellular communication by transferring cargo proteins and nucleic acids and regulate many pathophysiological processes. Exosomal miRNAs are potential biomarkers due to their stability and dysregulation in diseases including complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a chronic pain disorder with persistent inflammation...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30870622/commensal-candida-albicans-positively-calibrates-systemic-th17-immunological-responses
#11
Tzu-Yu Shao, W X Gladys Ang, Tony T Jiang, Felicia Scaggs Huang, Heidi Andersen, Jeremy M Kinder, Giang Pham, Ashley R Burg, Brandy Ruff, Tammy Gonzalez, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, David B Haslam, Sing Sing Way
Mucosal barriers are densely colonized by pathobiont microbes such as Candida albicans, capable of invasive disseminated infection. However, systemic infections occur infrequently in healthy individuals, suggesting that pathobiont commensalism may elicit host benefits. We show that intestinal colonization with C. albicans drives systemic expansion of fungal-specific Th17 CD4+ T cells and IL-17 responsiveness by circulating neutrophils, which synergistically protect against C. albicans invasive infection...
March 13, 2019: Cell Host & Microbe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867461/piscine-orthoreovirus-demonstrates-high-infectivity-but-low-virulence-in-atlantic-salmon-of-pacific-canada
#12
Mark P Polinski, Gary D Marty, Heindrich N Snyman, Kyle A Garver
Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon and sometimes associated with disease - most notably, Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI). However, PRV is also widespread in non-diseased fish, particularly in Pacific Canada, where few cases of severe heart inflammation have been documented. To better understand the mechanisms behind PRV-associated disease, this study investigated the infection dynamics of PRV from Pacific Canada and the potential for experimental passage of putatively associated heart inflammation in Pacific-adapted Mowi-McConnell Atlantic salmon...
March 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867043/divergent-roles-of-prostacyclin-and-pge-2-in-human-tendinopathy
#13
Filip Bergqvist, Andrew J Carr, Kim Wheway, Bridget Watkins, Udo Oppermann, Per-Johan Jakobsson, Stephanie G Dakin
BACKGROUND: Tendon disease is a significant global healthcare burden whereby patients experience pain and disability; however, the mechanisms that underlie inflammation and pain are poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the role of prostaglandins as important mediators of inflammation and pain in tissues and cells derived from patients with tendinopathy. METHODS: We studied supraspinatus and Achilles tendon biopsies from symptomatic patients with tendinopathy or rupture...
March 13, 2019: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30865052/brief-report-higher-levels-of-angiopoietin-1-are-associated-with-early-and-sustained-viral-suppression-in-children-living-with-vertically-acquired-hiv
#14
Vishrut Gulhati, Jeremy Soo, Doris G Ransy, Jason Brophy, Fatima Kakkar, Ari Bitnun, Lindy Samson, Stanley Read, Hugo Soudeyns, Michael T Hawkes
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation, platelet dysfunction, and endothelial activation persist in people living with HIV despite sustained virologic suppression (SVS) with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and may lead to complications such as atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is a key regulator of angiogenesis and endothelial activation and has been studied as an objective biomarker in disease states such as atherosclerosis, sepsis, and severe malaria...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30862590/arachnoiditis-ossificans-a-rare-etiology-of-oil-based-spinal-myelography-and-review-of-literature
#15
Shelly Wang, Christopher S Ahuja, Sunit Das
OBJECTIVE: Arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) is a rare entity characterized by the presence of calcified plaques formed by the metaplasia of arachnoid cells. We report a case of symptomatic AO, with associated syringomyelia and tethered spinal cord, as a late sequela of oil-based myelography. A review of literature, and description of the pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, imaging characteristics, classification, and management options of this rare entity, are also discussed. METHODS: A literature review was performed using MEDLINE (Jan 1946 - Oct 2017) and Embase (Jan 1957 - Oct 2017) to identify all English-language literature, including case reports and reviews, that described AO...
March 9, 2019: World Neurosurgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30862466/brain-interrupted-early-life-traumatic-brain-injury-and-addiction-vulnerability
#16
REVIEW
Lee Anne Cannella, Hannah McGary, Servio H Ramirez
Recent reports provide evidence for increased risk of substance use disorders (SUD) among patients with a history of early-life traumatic brain injury (TBI). Preclinical research utilizing animal models of TBI have identified injury-induced inflammation, blood-brain barrier permeability, and changes to synapses and neuronal networks within regions of the brain associated with the perception of reward. Importantly, these reward pathway networks are underdeveloped during childhood and adolescence, and early-life TBI pathology may interrupt ongoing maturation...
March 9, 2019: Experimental Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30859336/the-role-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-patients-with-chronic-sinusitis-and-nasal-polyposis
#17
REVIEW
Thad W Vickery, Vijay R Ramakrishnan, Jeffrey D Suh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is correlated with the development of persistent severe inflammatory disease of the upper airway including chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). The presence of S. aureus is associated with atopic disease including allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis and is associated with poor outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Several different strains of S. aureus generate different toxins and gene products that can account for organism pathogenicity...
March 11, 2019: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30858697/update-in-treatment-of-uveitic-macular-edema
#18
REVIEW
Spyridon Koronis, Panagiotis Stavrakas, Miltiadis Balidis, Nikolaos Kozeis, Paris G Tranos
Macular edema (ME) represents the most common cause for visual loss among uveitis patients. The management of uveitic macular edema (UME) may be challenging, due to its often recalcitrant nature. Corticosteroids remain the mainstay of treatment, through their capability of effectively controlling inflammation and the associated ME. Topical steroids may be effective in milder cases of UME, particularly in edema associated with anterior uveitis. Posterior sub-Tenon and orbital floor steroids, as well as intravitreal steroids often induce rapid regression of UME, although this may be followed by recurrence of the pathology...
2019: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30855645/association-of-growth-differentiation-factor-15-with-other-key-biomarkers-functional-parameters-and-mortality-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#19
Dietrich Rothenbacher, Dhayana Dallmeier, Hannes Christow, Wolfgang Koenig, Michael Denkinger, Jochen Klenk
BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) has been associated with many adverse age-related outcomes and other age-related disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate if baseline levels of GDF-15 are associated with total mortality in community living, older adults during eight years of follow-up after simultaneous consideration of key biomarkers and functional parameters. METHODS: prospective cohort study including 1,470 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years or older...
March 11, 2019: Age and Ageing
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30854974/contribution-of-the-microbiota-to-intestinal-homeostasis-and-its-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-infection
#20
Jorge A Luján T, Maria T Rugeles, Natalia A Taborda
During HIV infection, massive destruction of CD4+ T cells ensues, preferentially depleting the Th17 subset at the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), leading to the loss of mucosal integrity and an increase in cell permeability. This process favors microbial translocation between the intestinal lumen and the circulatory system, contributing to the persistent immune activation and chronic inflammation characteristic of HIV infection. Thus, the gut microbiota plays an integral role in maintaining the structure and function of the mucosal barrier, a critical factor for immune homeostasis...
March 10, 2019: Current HIV Research
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