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Changes in the lung with aging

Karen Sugden, Eilis J Hannon, Louise Arseneault, Daniel W Belsky, Jonathan M Broadbent, David L Corcoran, Robert J Hancox, Renate M Houts, Terrie E Moffitt, Richie Poulton, Joseph A Prinz, W Murray Thomson, Benjamin S Williams, Chloe C Y Wong, Jonathan Mill, Avshalom Caspi
Large-scale epigenome-wide association meta-analyses have identified multiple 'signatures'' of smoking. Drawing on these findings, we describe the construction of a polyepigenetic DNA methylation score that indexes smoking behavior and that can be utilized for multiple purposes in population health research. To validate the score, we use data from two birth cohort studies: The Dunedin Longitudinal Study, followed to age-38 years, and the Environmental Risk Study, followed to age-18 years. Longitudinal data show that changes in DNA methylation accumulate with increased exposure to tobacco smoking and attenuate with quitting...
February 15, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
Harold W Lee, Ella Baker, Kevin M Lee, Aaron Michael Persinger, William Hawkins, Melissa Puppa
Many forms of cancer are associated with loss of lean body mass, commonly attributed to decreased protein synthesis and stimulation of proteolytic pathways within the skeletal muscle. Leucine has been shown to improve protein synthesis, insulin signaling, and mitochondrial biogenesis, key signaling pathways influenced by tumor signaling. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of leucine supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis and protein turnover in tumor bearing mice. Twenty male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n=5): Chow, leucine (Leu), Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) implant, LLC+Leu...
February 15, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Sung Woo Moon, Ji Soo Choi, Sang Hoon Lee, Kyung Soo Jung, Ji Ye Jung, Young Ae Kang, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Joon Chang, Song Yee Kim
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia can contribute to negative outcomes in patients with various lung diseases. However, whether sarcopenia affects prognosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has not been reported. Simple measures of muscle mass, derived from chest computed tomography (CT), are increasingly being used to identify patients with sarcopenia. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle mass could be a predictor of prognosis in IPF patients. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 180 patients diagnosed with IPF between January 2010 and December 2015 at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea...
February 15, 2019: Respiratory Research
Eun Hye Lee, Eun Young Kim, Sang Hoon Lee, Yun Ho Roh, Ah Young Leem, Joo Han Song, Song Yee Kim, Kyung Soo Chung, Ji Ye Jung, Young Ae Kang, Young Sam Kim, Joon Chang, Moo Suk Park
Solid malignancies are associated with the development of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for PJP among patients with lung cancer. This retrospective case-control study compared patients who had lung cancer with PJP (n = 112) or without PJP (n = 336) matched according to age, sex, histopathology, and stage. PJP definition was based on (i) positive PCR or direct immunofluorescence results for pneumocystis, (ii) clinical symptoms and radiological abnormalities that were consistent with a pneumonic process, and (iii) received targeted PJP treatment...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Claudia Flexeder, Jan-Paul Zock, Deborah Jarvis, Giuseppe Verlato, Mario Olivieri, Geza Benke, Michael J Abramson, Torben Sigsgaard, Cecilie Svanes, Kjell Torén, Dennis Nowak, Rain Jõgi, Jesús Martinez-Moratalla, Pascal Demoly, Christer Janson, Thorarinn Gislason, Roberto Bono, Mathias Holm, Karl A Franklin, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Valérie Siroux, Bénédicte Leynaert, Sandra Dorado Arenas, Angelo Guido Corsico, Antonio Pereira-Vega, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Isabel Urrutia Landa, Holger Schulz, Joachim Heinrich
BACKGROUND: Early life exposure to tobacco smoke has been extensively studied but the role of second-hand smoke (SHS) for new-onset respiratory symptoms and lung function decline in adulthood has not been widely investigated in longitudinal studies. Our aim is to investigate the associations of exposure to SHS in adults with respiratory symptoms, respiratory conditions and lung function over 20 years. METHODS: We used information from 3011 adults from 26 centres in 12 countries who participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Surveys I-III and were never or former smokers at all three surveys...
February 14, 2019: Respiratory Research
Rebecca Philipp, Anja Mehnert, Chris Lo, Volkmar Müller, Martin Reck, Sigrun Vehling
OBJECTIVE: Death acceptance may indicate positive adaptation in cancer patients. Little is known about what characterizes patients with different levels of death acceptance or its impact on psychological distress. We aimed to broaden the understanding of death acceptance by exploring associated demographic, medical and psychological characteristics. METHODS: At baseline, we studied 307 mixed cancer patients attending the University Cancer Center Hamburg and a specialized lung cancer center (age M=59...
February 14, 2019: Psycho-oncology
Manpreet K Virk, Justin C Hotz, Wendy Wong, Robinder G Khemani, Christopher J L Newth, Patrick A Ross
Objective: To determine if increasing positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) leads to a change in cardiac index in children with Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome ranging from mild to severe. Design: Prospective interventional study. Setting: Multidisciplinary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in a University teaching hospital. Patients: Fifteen intubated children (5 females, 10 males) with a median age of 72 months (IQR 11, 132) and a median weight of 19.3 kg (IQR 7.5, 53.6) with a severity of Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome that ranged from mild to severe with a median lung injury score of 2...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Xuan Zeng, Weiwei Su, Yuying Zheng, Yudong He, Yan He, Hongyu Rao, Wei Peng, Hongliang Yao
Aging is an inevitable biological process characterized by the loss of functional capacity and associated with changes in all phases of pharmacokinetic processes. Naringin, a dietary flavanone glycoside, has been proved to be beneficial for the treatment of multiple age-associated chronic diseases. To date, the pharmacokinetic processes of naringin in aged individuals are still unknown. Thus, a rapid resolution liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (RRLC-QQQ-MS/MS) method was established for the determination of naringin and its metabolite naringenin in rat plasma, urine, feces, and tissue homogenate...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Wen-Ya Li, Ting-Ting Zhao, Hui-Mian Xu, Zhen-Ning Wang, Ying-Ying Xu, Yunan Han, Yong-Xi Song, Jian-Hua Wu, Hao Xu, Song-Cheng Yin, Xing-Yu Liu, Zhi-Feng Miao
BACKGROUND: The brain is a common site for metastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between the mutational of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and overall survival (OS) in NSCLC patients with brain metastases. METHODS: Searches were performed in PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library to identify studies evaluating the association of EGFR mutation with OS in NSCLC patients through September 2017...
February 13, 2019: BMC Cancer
Siyang Zeng, Andrea Tham, Bruce Bos, Joan Jin, Mehrdad Arjomandi
BACKGROUND: Abnormal lung volumes that represent air trapping are common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, their clinical significance in those without spirometrically defined COPD (normal forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1 ] to forced vital capacity [FVC] ratio) is unclear. METHODS: Using the Veterans Administration Informatics and Computing Infrastructure (VINCI) database, we identified 7,479 patients at risk for COPD (smokers > 40 years of age without restrictive lung disease) who had preserved spirometry (FEV1 /FVC and FEV1  ≥ lower limit of normal) and also had concomitant lung volume measurements by plethysmography across 37 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in the United States between 1985 and 2017, and examined their subsequent health records for clinical diagnoses of COPD, respiratory exacerbations, healthcare utilization, spirometry, and mortality...
December 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Nan He, Bradley H Rosen, Jaimie S Gray, Idil A Evans, Marina Zieger, Ziying Yan, Florie Borel, Bo Liang, Xingshen Sun, Shashanna R Moll, Michael H Brodsky, Christian Mueller, John F Engelhardt
RATIONALE: The most prevalent genetic cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency, a disorder that has yet to be widely modeled in animals because of species-specific differences between rodents and humans. OBJECTIVES: To address these challenges, we engineered two A1AT ferret models using zygote gene editing to test the hypothesis that unopposed protease activity within the lung leads to emphysema and bronchitis. METHODS: Guide RNAs targeting exon 2 (for knockout) and exon 5 (for Z-allele mutation, Pi*Z) of the ferret A1AT gene were injected into ferret zygotes with Cas9 mRNA...
December 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Dominik Majewski, Katarzyna A Majewska, Barbara Kuznar-Kaminska, Marta Runowska, Tomasz Piorunek, Halina Batura-Gabryel, Mariusz Puszczewicz
Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease characterized by tissue fibrosis leading to interstitial lung disease. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been of interest as a potential diagnostic marker and also as a drug target in systemic sclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess the serum content of TGF-β1 in patients with systemic sclerosis and to assess its potential role in tissue fibrosis. The study included 30 patients, 5 men and 25 women, of the mean age of 46.9 ± 12.8 years, diagnosed with systemic sclerosis...
February 14, 2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sandra Nora Gonzalez-Diaz, Rosalaura Virginia Villarreal-Gonzalez, Cindy Elizabeth De Lira-Quezada, Rosa Ivett Guzman-Avilan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a chronic heterogeneous respiratory disease which is characterized by airflow limitation and variable respiratory symptoms. Asthma in patients more than 65 years of age has an important negative impact on quality of life. The pathophysiology and treatment of asthma in older patients are not as well identified as in younger groups of ages. In this review we intend to outline characteristics found in elderly adults which distinguish them from other age groups of patients with asthma...
February 8, 2019: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Liang Xue, Hong Fan, Woda Shi, Di Ge, Yi Zhang, Qun Wang, Yunfeng Yuan
Background: Three-dimensional (3D) simulation of pulmonary vessels and the space between the lesion and adjacent tissues may improve the safety and accuracy of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for lung. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3D simulation on the outcome of VATS segmentectomy for ground glass opacity (GGO) in lung. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 68 cases of small (≤2 cm) GGO, which were diagnosed as cT1aN0M0 lung cancer, from May 1, 2016 to February 28, 2017 in our institute...
December 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Benjamin Stoecklin, Shannon J Simpson, J Jane Pillow
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), also known as Chronic Lung Disease (CLD), is a chronic respiratory condition of prematurity with potential life-long consequences for respiratory well-being. BPD was first described by Northway in 1967, when the mean gestation of preterm infants with BPD was 34 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). Survival of preterm infants at lower gestational ages has increased steadily since 1967 associated with marked improvements in respiratory management of respiratory distress syndrome...
December 19, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Tetsuro Kamo, Sadatomo Tasaka, Takeshi Suzuki, Takanori Asakura, Shoji Suzuki, Kazuma Yagi, Ho Namkoong, Makoto Ishii, Hiroshi Morisaki, Tomoko Betsuyaku
BACKGROUND: In the Berlin definition, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is stratified into three stages according to oxygenation severity at the onset. The relevance between ARDS severity and prognosis varies among published reports and has not been verified, especially in Asian patients. METHODS: In this study, we examined the associations between the Berlin definition criteria and prognosis and clinical parameters, including high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scores of fibroproliferative changes of the lungs...
February 11, 2019: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Rohan Gupta, Idoroenyi Amanam, Syed Rahmanuddin, Isa Mambetsariev, Yingyu Wang, Charity Huang, Karen Reckamp, Lalit Vora, Ravi Salgia
INTRODUCTION: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements are observed in about 4% to 8% non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ALK+ tumors have been associated with increased pleural and pericardial disease. Our primary objective was to determine the uncommon sites of metastasis of ALK+ NSCLC. Secondary objectives included study of coexisting mutations and factors impacting survival of ALK+ NSCLC. METHODS: All patients with metastatic ALK+ NSCLC at the City of Hope Cancer Center in Duarte, California from 2010 to 2017 were selected for retrospective chart review...
February 5, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Mari Saito, Yutaka Kikuchi, Alan Kawarai Lefor
Background: Long-term management of bronchial asthma based on the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) value alone is not conclusive yet. Therefore, we combined FeNO testing and spirometry, a commonly used test in routine practice, to evaluate acute exacerbation and respiratory function in children with bronchial asthma. Objective: We combined FeNO testing and spirometry, commonly used in routine practice, to evaluate acute exacerbations and respiratory function in children with bronchial asthma...
January 2019: Asia Pacific Allergy
German R Carstens, Bianca B A Paulino, Edgard H Katayama, Luis F Amato-Lourenço, Guilherme H Fonseca, Rogerio Souza, Vera D Aiello, Thais Mauad
Pulmonary complications are frequent in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), but few studies have described lung pathology in SCD. We studied the lung tissue of 30 deceased SCD patients (1994-2012). Demographics, genotype, clinical characteristics, cause of death and associated conditions are presented. We quantified the presence of pulmonary arterial changes, thrombosis and venous thickening. Alveolar capillary abnormalities were demonstrated using CD34 expression and confocal microscopy. Autopsy and echocardiography reports were reviewed to classify heart abnormalities...
February 10, 2019: British Journal of Haematology
Giselle K Perez, Ilana F Gareen, JoRean Sicks, Christopher Lathan, Alaina Carr, Pallavi Kumar, Colin Ponzani, Kelly Hyland, Elyse R Park
Previous work suggests that, compared to white adults, black adults have lower perceived risk for smoking-related diseases (SRDs), which may influence cessation behavior and health outcomes; however, racial differences in SRD risk perceptions among high-risk patients (i.e., a group that exhibits elevated risk for SRDs) following lung screening remain unknown. This paper thus examined differences in risk perceptions for lung cancer and other SRDs among black and white National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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