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Beta glucan tumor

Yuina Ishimoto, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Daisuke Yamanaka, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Hisatomi Ito, Kentaro Igami, Toshitsugu Miyazaki, Naohito Ohno
Ganoderma lingzhi (reishi) (GL) is a widely used medicinal mushroom in the treatment of several diseases, including metabolic syndrome and cancer. We recently performed autodigestion of GL and found enhanced release of hypotensive peptides and immunomodulating beta-1,3-glucan. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of G. lingzhi and its autodigested product (AD-GL) against gut inflammation and endogenous sepsis induced in mice by the oral administration of indomethacin (IND). Gut inflammation was assessed by measuring the lengths of the intestines and colon, and sepsis was evaluated by the survival period...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Matthew P Alexander, Steven N Fiering, Gary R Ostroff, Robert A Cramer, David W Mullins
β-Glucan is a naturally occurring glucose polysaccharide with immunostimulatory activity in both infection and malignancy. β-Glucan's antitumor effects have been attributed to the enhancement of complement receptor 3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, as well as modulation of suppressive and stimulatory myeloid subsets, which in turn enhances antitumor T cell immunity. In the present study, we demonstrate antitumor efficacy of yeast-derived β-glucan particles (YGP) in a model of metastatic-like melanoma in the lung, through a mechanism that is independent of previously reported β-glucan-mediated antitumor pathways...
November 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Anna Choromanska, Sandra Lubinska, Anna Szewczyk, Jolanta Saczko, Julita Kulbacka
There are still not specified mechanisms how beta-glucan molecules are transported into cells. Supposing, beta-glucan toxicity against tumor cells may be related to the overexpression of the transporter responsible for the transport of glucose molecules in the cells. In this case, glucans - polymers composed of glucose units are much more up-taken by tumor than normal cells. Increased GLUT1 (Glucose Transporter Type 1) expression has been demonstrated earlier in malignant melanomas. GLUT1 expression promotes glucose uptake and cell growth in that cells...
October 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Cheng Wu, Qin Xu, Ru Wang, Linlin Qin, Xie Peng, Liang Hu, Yan Liu, Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu, Lianqiang Che
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary β-glucan (BG) on growth performance and blood parameters in weaned pigs administered with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Twenty four pigs [24 ± 2 days old; 6.60 ± 0.04 kg body weight (BW)] were randomly allocated into two groups (12 pigs per group) with diets supplemented with 0 or BG at 200 mg kg-1 diet (CON vs. BG). These pigs were fed for a 35-day trial. On day 36, six pigs each from CON and BG were intramuscularly administered LPS (50 μg kg-1), while another 6 pigs from CON were intramuscularly administered an equivalent amount of sterile saline...
June 20, 2018: Food & Function
Walburga Engel-Riedel, Jamie Lowe, Paulette Mattson, J Richard Trout, Richard D Huhn, Michele Gargano, Myra L Patchen, Richard Walsh, My My Trinh, Mariève Dupuis, Folker Schneller
BACKGROUND: BTH1677, a beta-glucan pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecule, drives an anti-cancer immune response in combination with oncology antibody therapies. This phase II study explored the efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PK), and safety of BTH1677 combined with bevacizumab/carboplatin/paclitaxel in patients with untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Patients were randomized to the BTH1677 arm (N = 61; intravenous [IV] BTH1677, 4 mg/kg, weekly; IV bevacizumab, 15 mg/kg, once each 3-week cycle [Q3W]; IV carboplatin, 6 mg/mL/min Calvert formula area-under-the-curve, Q3W; and IV paclitaxel, 200 mg/m2 , Q3W) or Control arm (N = 31; bevacizumab/carboplatin/paclitaxel as above)...
February 27, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
N Kareem, E Yates, M Skidmore, D Hoole
The rapid emergence of drug resistance, unfavourable immunosuppression and mounting evidence to suggest the deleterious accumulation of drug breakdown residues within animal tissues has driven a strong desire to move away from these current methods of disease control. Some natural products such as β-glucan, which are extracted from, for example, plants and fungi, are able to modulate the immune system and increase protection against diseases. However, these products are heterogeneous and their effects can be variable thus limiting their applicability and reliability...
March 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Waseem Anani, Michael R Shurin
Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) represent only a minor fraction of circulating blood cells but play an important role in tumor formation and progression. They are a heterogeneous group of cells that influence the tumor microenvironment by depletion of amino acids, oxidative stress, decreased trafficking of antitumor effector cells, and increased regulatory T and regulatory dendritic cell responses. Investigational treatment strategies targeting MDSCs have attempted to inhibit MDSC development and expansion (stem cell factor blockade, modulate of cell signaling, and target MDSC migration and recruitment), inhibit MDSC function (nitric oxide inhibition and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species inhibition), differentiate MDSCs into more mature cells (Vitamins A and D, all-trans retinoic acid, interleukin-2, toll-like receptor 9 inhibitors, taxanes, beta-glucan particles, tumor-derived exosome inhibition, and very small size proteoliposomes), and destroy MDSCs (cytotoxic agents, ephrin A2 degradation, anti-interleukin 13, and histamine blockers)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kenji Ina, Ryuichi Furuta, Takae Kataoka, Satoshi Kayukawa, Hiroko Ina, Masahiko Yoneda
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Systemic chemotherapy is the main treatment option for advanced gastric cancer when the tumor is inoperable. Despite recent advances in chemotherapeutic agents, the prognosis of unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer remains extremely poor. In Japan, combination therapy including S-1 and cisplatin is the standard first-line treatment for advanced gastric cancer; however, the five-year survival rate remains very low. Lentinan, the backbone of beta-(1,3)-glucan with beta-(1,6) branches, an active ingredient purified from Shiitake mushrooms, has been approved as a biological response modifier for the treatment of gastric cancer...
April 7, 2016: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Anna Choromanska, Julita Kulbacka, Joanna Harasym, Remigiusz Oledzki, Anna Szewczyk, Jolanta Saczko
Beta-glucans are widely used in treatment, cosmetics, and the food industry. Glucans play a significant role in activation of the immune and antioxidant system and inhibiting tumor proliferation. In the current study the antitumor activities of new high and low molecular weight beta-glucan derived from oats were investigated in two human lung cancer cell line (A549, H69AR) and normal keratinocytes (HaCaT). The effect of high and low molecular weight beta-glucan from oat was evaluated by cellular viability assessment, lipid peroxidation and manganese superoxide dismutase evaluation and cytoskeleton visualisation...
July 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Carmen Monasterio, Annette Schmitt-Gräff, Matthias Pohl, Thomas Truschel, Klaus Warnatz, Wolfgang Kreisel, Robert Thimme, Peter Hasselblatt
Vedolizumab (VDZ) inhibits α4β7 integrins and is used to target intestinal immune responses in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, which is considered to be relatively safe. Here we report on a fatal complication following VDZ administration. A 64-year-old female patient with ulcerative colitis (UC) refractory to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors was treated with VDZ. One week after the second VDZ infusion, she was admitted to hospital with severe diarrhea and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)...
October 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
M Thomas, P Sadjadian, J Kollmeier, J Lowe, P Mattson, J R Trout, M Gargano, M L Patchen, R Walsh, M Beliveau, J F Marier, N Bose, K Gorden, F Schneller
Introduction BTH1677, a 1,3-1,6 beta-glucan immunomodulator, stimulates a coordinated anti-cancer immune response in combination with anti-tumor antibody therapies. This phase II study explored the efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PK), and safety of BTH1677 combined with cetuximab/carboplatin/paclitaxel in untreated stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods Patients were randomized 2:1 to the BTH1677 arm (N=60; BTH1677, 4 mg/kg, weekly; cetuximab, initial dose 400 mg/m2 and subsequent doses 250 mg/m2 , weekly; carboplatin, 6 mg/mL/min AUC (area-under-the-curve) by Calvert formula, once each 3-week cycle [Q3W]); and paclitaxel, 200 mg/m2 , Q3W) or Control arm (N=30; cetuximab/carboplatin/paclitaxel as above)...
June 2017: Investigational New Drugs
Agata Przekora, Grazyna Ginalska
The role of TNF-α in bone healing process is still unclear and controversial. Although it is commonly believed that TNF-α inhibits osteogenic differentiation, there are few reports that identified a crucial role of TNF-α in enhancing bone regeneration process. The aim of this study was to prove that novel chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/HA scaffold (chit/glu/HA) may promote osteogenic differentiation via TNF-α-mediated mechanism and an autocrine stimulation of osteoblasts. It was demonstrated that normal human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB 1...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Bo-Hye Nam, Ji Young Moon, Eun Hee Park, Hee Jeong Kong, Young-Ok Kim, Dong-Gyun Kim, Woo-Jin Kim, Chul Min An, Jung-Kil Seo
Antimicrobial peptides are a pivotal component of the invertebrate innate immune system. In this study, we identified a lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) gene from the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (HDH), which is involved in the pattern recognition mechanism and plays avital role in the defense mechanism of invertebrates immune system. The HDH-LGBP cDNA consisted of a 1263-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 420 amino acids, with a 20-amino-acid signal sequence...
December 14, 2016: Marine Drugs
Noriko Miyamoto, Shinichi Mochizuki, Shota Fujii, Kenta Yoshida, Kazuo Sakurai
Cancer vaccine has the ability to directly eradicate tumor cells by creating and activating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). To achieve efficient CTL activity and to induce Th1 responses, it is essential to administer an appropriate adjuvant as well as an antigen. CpG-ODN is known as a ligand of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and strongly induces Th1 responses. In our previous study, we developed a CpG-ODN delivery system by use of the formation of complexes between ODN and a β-glucan SPG, denoted as CpG/SPG, and demonstrated that CpG/SPG induces high Th1 responses...
February 15, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Miriam Sari, Reinhard Hambitzer, Jan I Lelley, Katharina Toepler, Nicole Teusch, Anna Nickisch-Hartfiel
β-glucans from Basidiomycetes like Grifola frondosa (the maitake mushroom) are well known for their health benefits. Polysaccharide preparations from medicinal mushrooms such as G. frondosa have been successfully tested in a vast number of studies. Many mushroom extracts have been developed and today are merchandized for use medicinally and commercially. Studies could show that, in particular, chemical structural features such as the molecular size of β-glucans significantly influence their bioactivity. Thus it is highly important to explore the composition and structural properties of β-glucans extracted from medicinal mushrooms and their effects on human tumor cell viability...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Li Mo, Yafei Chen, Wenjian Li, Shuai Guo, Xuzhao Wang, Hailong An, Yong Zhan
(1→3)-β-d-Glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a typical polysaccharide with various biological effects and is considered a candidate for the prevention and treatment of cancer in vitro. Research into the function of (1→3)-β-d-glucan in tumor-bearing animals in vivo, however, is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of (1→3)-β-d-glucan from S. cerevisiae on S180 tumor-bearing mice and on the immunity of the tumor-bearing host. The molecular mechanisms underlying the observed effects were investigated...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ryan R Simon, Trung D Vo, Robert Levine
Euglena gracilis is a microalga capable of synthesizing various nutrients of interest in human and animal nutrition. When cultivated aerobically in the dark, Euglena synthesize paramylon, a storage polysaccharide comprised of high molecular weight beta-1,3-D-glucose polymers organized in cytoplasmic granules. Beta-glucans have been shown to have immune modulation effects, including anti-microbial, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidant properties, and metabolic effects, such as regulation of cholesterol and blood sugar levels...
October 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Sabrin H Albeituni, Chuanlin Ding, Min Liu, Xiaoling Hu, Fengling Luo, Goetz Kloecker, Michael Bousamra, Huang-ge Zhang, Jun Yan
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that promote tumor progression. In this study, we demonstrated that activation of a C-type lectin receptor, dectin-1, in MDSC differentially modulates the function of different MDSC subsets. Yeast-derived whole β-glucan particles (WGP; a ligand to engage and activate dectin-1, oral treatment in vivo) significantly decreased tumor weight and splenomegaly in tumor-bearing mice with reduced accumulation of polymorphonuclear MDSC but not monocytic MDSC (M-MDSC), and decreased polymorphonuclear MDSC suppression in vitro through the induction of respiratory burst and apoptosis...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Yongling Ning, Dongqin Xu, Xiaohang Zhang, Yu Bai, Jun Ding, Tongbao Feng, Shizhong Wang, Ning Xu, Keqing Qian, Yong Wang, Chunjian Qi
Tumors can induce the generation and accumulation of immunosuppressive cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in a tumor microenvironment, contributing to tumor escape from immunological attack. Although dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines can initiate antitumor immune responses, tumor-educated dendritic cells (TEDCs) involved in the tolerance induction have attracted much attention recently. In this study, we investigated the effect of β-glucan on TEDCs and found that β-glucan treatment could promote the maturation and migration of TEDCs and that the suppressive function of TEDCs was significantly decreased...
June 1, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Dongqin Xu, Xiaohang Zhang, Yong Wang, Yongling Ning, Jun Ding, Keqing Qian, Chunjian Qi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of β-glucan on the maturation and migration of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). METHODS: BMDCs were isolated from mouse bone marrow cells in vitro and induced by β-glucan for maturation. The expressions of cell surface markers were detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The cytokines (IL-6, IL-12p40, tumor necrosis factor α) in the supernatants were measured by ELISA, and the expressions of intracellular CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1), CCR2, CCR5, CCR7 were determined by real-time quantitative PCR...
January 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
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