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Cognitive dysfunction associated with hormones

Anna Tölli, Charlotte Höybye, Bo-Michael Bellander, Jörgen Borg
OBJECTIVE: To explore associations between pituitary dysfunction and clinical outcome at 12 months after traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 82 patients with traumatic brain injury and 45 with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, included at 1 neurointensive care unit. Baseline data comprised age, sex, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, S100B and pupil light reactions. Hormone data were collected in the neurointensive care unit and 3, 6 and 12 months...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Cecilia Follin, Daniel Svärd, Danielle van Westen, Isabella M Björkman-Burtscher, Pia C Sundgren, Sigridur Fjalldal, Jimmy Lätt, Markus Nilsson, Aki Johanson, Eva Marie Erfurth
BACKGROUND: Cranial radiotherapy (CRT) is a known risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) are MRI techniques that quantify microstructural changes in brain white matter (WM) and DKI is regarded as the more sensitive of them. Our aim was to more thoroughly understand the nature of cognitive deficits after cranial radiotherapy (CRT) in adulthood after childhood ALL...
February 12, 2019: Acta Oncologica
Ashley M Fortress, Pelin Avcu, Amy K Wagner, C Edward Dixon, Kevin C H Pang
An estimated 2.8 million traumatic brain injuries (TBI) occur within the United States each year. Approximately 40% of new TBI cases are female, however few studies have investigated the effects of TBI on female subjects. In addition to typical neurobehavioral sequelae observed after TBI, such as poor cognition, impaired behavior, and somatic symptoms, women with TBI report amenorrhea or irregular menstrual cycles suggestive of disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. HPG dysfunction following TBI has been linked to poor functional outcome in men and women, but the mechanisms by which this may occur or relate to behavior has not been fully developed or ascertained...
January 30, 2019: Experimental Neurology
Peter T Nelson, Zsombor Gal, Wang-Xia Wang, Dana M Niedowicz, Sergey C Artiushin, Samuel Wycoff, Angela Wei, Gregory A Jicha, David W Fardo
TDP-43 proteinopathy is very common among the elderly (affecting at least 25% in individuals over 85 years of age) and is associated with substantial cognitive impairment. Risk factors implicated in age-related TDP-43 proteinopathy include commonly inherited gene variants, comorbid Alzheimer's disease pathology, and thyroid hormone dysfunction. To test parameters that are associated with aging-related TDP-43 pathology, we performed exploratory analyses of pathologic, genetic, and biochemical data derived from research volunteers in the University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center autopsy cohort (n = 136 subjects)...
January 22, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Zuleyha Karaca, Aysa Hacioglu, Fahrettin Kelestimur
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of pituitary dysfunction is high following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and when occurs it may contribute to residual symptoms of aSAH such as decreased cognition and quality of life. Hypopituitarism following aSAH may have non-specific, subtle symptoms and potentially serious consequences if remained undiagnosed. METHODS: We reviewed the literature on epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic methods and management of neuroendocrine changes after aSAH as well as on the impact of pituitary dysfunction on outcome of the patient...
January 14, 2019: Pituitary
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEPituitary adenomas and the treatment required for the underlying neuropathology have frequently been associated with cognitive dysfunction. However, the mechanisms for these impairments remain the subject of much debate. The authors evaluated cognitive outcomes in patients treated with or without Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for an underlying pituitary adenoma.METHODSThis was a retrospective, institutional review board-approved, single-institution study. A total of 51 patients (23 male, 28 female) treated for pituitary adenoma were included in this neurocognitive study...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Si Zhang, Junhao Hu, Weijie Fan, Bo Liu, Li Wen, Guangxian Wang, Mingfu Gong, Chunyan Yang, Dong Zhang
Background : Early postmenopausal women frequently suffer from cognitive impairments and emotional disorders, such as lack of attention, poor memory, deficits in executive function and depression. However, the underlying mechanisms of these impairments remain unclear. Method : Forty-three early postmenopausal women and forty-four age-matched premenopausal controls underwent serum sex hormone analysis, neuropsychological testing and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Degree centrality (DC) analysis was performed to confirm the peak points of the functionally abnormal brain areas as the centers of the seeds...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Sherifa A Hamed
Uremic syndrome of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a term used to describe clinical, metabolic and hormonal abnormalities associated with progressive kidney failure. It is a rapidly growing public health problem worldwide. Nervous system complications occur in every patient with uremic syndrome of CKD. Areas covered: This review summarized central and peripheral nervous system complications of uremic syndrome of CKD and their pathogenic mechanisms. They include cognitive deterioration, encephalopathy, seizures, asterixis, myoclonus, restless leg syndrome, central pontine myelinosis, stroke, extrapyramidal movement disorders, neuropathies and myopathy...
December 2, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Steven Lehrer, Peter H Rheinstein, Kenneth E Rosenzweig
Background: Two large studies suggest that risk is not increased. But other studies have found increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and impaired cognition. Objective: To determine whether androgen deprivation therapy increases the risk of impaired cognition or Alzheimer's disease in men with prostate cancer. Methods: We used data from MedWatch, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program. Machine-readable data from MedWatch, including adverse drug reaction reports from manufacturers, are part of a public database...
June 30, 2018: JAD Reports
Consuelo Guerri, María Pascual
Evidence obtained in recent decades has demonstrated that the brain still matures in adolescence. Changes in neural connectivity occur in different regions, including cortical and subcortical structures, which undergo modifications in white and gray matter densities. These alterations concomitantly occur in some neurotransmitter systems and hormone secretion, which markedly influence the refinement of certain brain areas and neural circuits. The immaturity of the adolescent brain makes it more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drug abuse, whose use can trigger long-term behavioral dysfunction...
November 20, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Márcio Silveira Corrêa, Daiane Borba de Lima, Bruno Lima Giacobbo, Kelem Vedovelli, Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon, Elke Bromberg
Familial caregivers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients experience an emotional and physical burden which characterizes a chronic stress condition. The resulting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction favors an imbalance of neurotoxic/neuroprotective factors and causes cognitive impairments, increasing the caregivers' risk for cognitive decline and compromising their ability to provide adequate care of the patient. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the reversibility of the cognitive impairments of familial caregivers of AD patients during their caregiving-related chronic stress condition...
November 1, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Jay Jay Thaung Zaw, Peter Ranald Charles Howe, Rachel Heloise Xiwen Wong
Menopause is a critical period during which, without timely interventions, increased risks of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, osteoporosis, sexual dysfunction and premature cognitive decline will contribute to diminished quality-of-life in women. Hormone therapy (HT) used to be the standard of care for managing vasomotor symptoms and prevention of chronic diseases until publication of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002. Concerned about risks highlighted in WHI publications, many symptomatic women promptly ceased HT which resulted in increased vasomotor symptoms, osteoporosis-related-fractures and insomnia...
December 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Sabina Bhatta, Jeffrey A Blair, Gemma Casadesus
Pervasive age-related dysfunction in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is associated with cognitive impairments in aging as well as pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as the Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a major regulator of the HPG axis, the steroid hormone estrogen has been widely studied for its role in regulation of memory. Although estrogen modulates both cognition as well as cognition associated morphological components in a healthy state, the benefits of estrogen replacement therapy on cognition and disease seem to diminish with advancing age...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Sean Jacobs, Karis Moxley, Jacqueline S Womersley, Georgina Spies, Sian Mj Hemmings, Soraya Seedat
Purpose: Previous studies have independently provided evidence for the effects of HIV infection, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction and early life trauma on neurocognitive impairment (NCI). This study examined the interaction between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of two HPA axis genes, corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor 1 ( CRHR1 ; rs110402, rs242924, rs7209436, and rs4792888) and corticotrophin-releasing hormone-binding protein ( CRHBP ; rs32897, rs10062367, and rs1053989), childhood trauma, and HIV-associated NCI...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
C Gurvich, A Hudaib, E Gavrilidis, R Worsley, N Thomas, J Kulkarni
Cognitive impairments cause significant functional issues for people with schizophrenia, often emerging before the onset of hallucinations, delusions and other psychosis symptoms. Current pharmacological treatments do not target cognitive dysfunction. Several lines of evidence support the beneficial effects of estrogens on cognition. Raloxifene hydrochloride, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has been associated with cognitive improvements in healthy postmenopausal women and in schizophrenia, although findings are inconsistent...
February 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Mercedes Atienza, Jacob Ziontz, Jose L Cantero
Aging is characterized by a progressive increase in proinflammatory status. This state, known as inflammaging, has been associated with cognitive decline in normal and pathological aging. However, this relationship has been inconsistently reported, likely because it is conditioned by other factors also affected by the aging process. Sleep and adiposity are two factors in particular that show significant alterations with aging and have been related to both cognitive decline and inflammaging. Given the consequences this state also has for brain integrity and cognition, we discuss here evidence supporting the potential mediating role of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in the complex relationship between impaired sleep, dysfunctional adiposity, and cognitive decline through the common pathway of neuroinflammation...
December 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Cara L Wellman, Kelly M Moench
BACKGROUND: Stress is associated with cognitive and emotional dysfunction, and increases risk for a variety of psychological disorders, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Prefrontal cortex is critical for executive function and emotion regulation, is a target for stress hormones, and is implicated in many stress-influenced psychological disorders. Extinction of conditioned fear provides an excellent model system for examining how stress-induced changes in corticolimbic structure and function are related to stress-induced changes in neural function and behavior, as the neural circuitry underlying this behavior is well characterized...
September 17, 2018: Psychopharmacology
João Vaz-Silva, Patrícia Gomes, Qi Jin, Mei Zhu, Viktoriya Zhuravleva, Sebastian Quintremil, Torcato Meira, Joana Silva, Chrysoula Dioli, Carina Soares-Cunha, Nikolaos P Daskalakis, Nuno Sousa, Ioannis Sotiropoulos, Clarissa L Waites
Emerging studies implicate Tau as an essential mediator of neuronal atrophy and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet the factors that precipitate Tau dysfunction in AD are poorly understood. Chronic environmental stress and elevated glucocorticoids (GC), the major stress hormones, are associated with increased risk of AD and have been shown to trigger intracellular Tau accumulation and downstream Tau-dependent neuronal dysfunction. However, the mechanisms through which stress and GC disrupt Tau clearance and degradation in neurons remain unclear...
October 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
Jessie S Carr, Luke W Bonham, Alicia K Morgans, Charles J Ryan, Jennifer S Yokoyama, Ethan G Geier
Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevalence varies by sex, suggesting that sex chromosomes, sex hormones and/or their signaling could potentially modulate AD risk and progression. Low testosterone levels are reported in men with AD. Further, variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene has been associated with AD risk and cognitive impairment. We assessed measures of plasma testosterone levels as a biomarker of AD in male participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. Baseline testosterone levels were significantly different between clinical diagnosis groups [cognitively normal controls, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or AD], with the lowest testosterone levels in men with AD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Álvaro de Oliveira Franco, Rodrigo Tzovenos Starosta, Matheus Roriz-Cruz
One of the mechanisms proposed for chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related cognitive impairment is the accumulation of uremic toxins due to the deterioration of the renal clearance function. Cognition can be categorized into five major domains according to its information processing functions: memory, attention, language, visual-spatial, and executive. We performed a review using the terms 'uric acid', 'indoxyl sulfate', 'p-cresyl sulfate', 'homocysteine', 'interleukins' and 'parathyroid hormone'. These are the compounds that were found to be strongly associated with cognitive impairment in CKD in the literature...
August 9, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
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