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Allergic diseases

Sonya Marcus, John M DelGaudio, Lauren T Roland, Sarah K Wise
A few chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) variants have demonstrated a strong association with environmental allergy, including allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) and central compartment atopic disease (CCAD). However, the overall relationship between CRS and allergy remains poorly defined. The goal of this review is to evaluate the relationship between CRS and allergy with a focus on specific CRS variants.
February 18, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Fadi W Adel, Eden Bernstein, Michael Tcheyan, Shane Ali, Heidi Worabo, Moshtagh Farokhi, Andrew E Muck
OBJECTIVE: The recent refugee crisis has resulted in the largest burden of displacement in history, with the US being the top resettlement country since 1975. Texas welcomed the second most US-bound refugees in 2016, with a large percentage arriving in San Antonio. Yet, the composition of the San Antonio refugees has not been described and their healthcare needs remain ill-defined. Through this study, we aim at elucidating their demographics and healthcare profiles, with the goal of devising recommendations to help guide refugee program development and guide other refugee resettlement programs...
2019: PloS One
Alok K Verma, Hemanth K Kandikattu, Murli Manohar, Anshi Shukla, Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Xiang Zhu, Anil Mishra
Baseline eosinophils reside in the gastrointestinal tract; however, in several allergic disorders, excessive eosinophils accumulate in the blood as well in the tissues. Recently, we showed in vitro that interleukin (IL)-18 matures and transforms IL-5 generated eosinophils into the pathogenic eosinophils that are detected in human allergic diseases. To examine the role of local induction of IL-18 in promoting eosinophil-associated intestinal disorders. We generated enterocyte IL-18 overexpressing mice using the rat intestinal fatty acid-binding promoter (Fabpi) and analyzed tissue IL-18 overexpression and eosinophilia by performing real-time PCR, ELISA, and anti-MBP immunostaining...
February 19, 2019: Immunology
B B Newbould, C M Pearson, M W Whitehouse
1. A strategy is described for evaluating drugs against different phases in the development of an auto allergic disease, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. It is based on a cell transfer technique whereby the disease is passively transferred with lymphoid cells from actively immunized donor rats to normal syngeneic rats = passive recipients. Drugs may be applied in vivo to either the cell donors or the cell recipients or to cells in vitro whilst in transit; their efficiency being determined by the severity of the passive disease (weight loss, paralysis) in the recipients...
February 16, 2019: Inflammopharmacology
Meng Wang, Zhaowei Gu, Jing Yang, He Zhao, Zhiwei Cao
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common allergic disease resulting from inappropriate Th2 cell-mediated immune responses to environmental antigens. As such, regulatory B cells and T helper cells play a critical role in the occurrence and development of allergic rhinitis. METHODS: Wild-type mice received ovalbumin (OVA) intranasal challenge for varied lengths of time, then the inflammatory state of their nasal mucosa was analyzed by histology. Changes to the proportion and function of TGF-β1+ Bregs, T helper cells and plasma cells was analyzed by flow cytometry, real-time PCR, ELISA and cytometric bead arrays...
February 15, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Qiyao Hu, Ryan P Gilley, Peter H Dube
Environmental allergens elicit complex immune responses in the lungs that can promote the development of asthma or exacerbate preexisting asthma in susceptible individuals. House dust mites are one of the most common indoor allergens and are a significant driver of allergic disease. Respiratory infections are known factors in acute exacerbations of asthma but the impact of allergen on the pathogen is not well understood. We investigated the pathogenesis of influenza A infection following exposure to house dust mites...
February 15, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Elena Goleva, Evgeny Berdyshev, Donald Ym Leung
Allergic diseases have in common a dysfunctional epithelial barrier, which allows the penetration of allergens and microbes, leading to the release of type 2 cytokines that drive allergic inflammation. The accessibility of skin, compared with lung or gastrointestinal tissue, has facilitated detailed investigations into mechanisms underlying epithelial barrier dysfunction in atopic dermatitis (AD). This Review describes the formation of the skin barrier and analyzes the link between altered skin barrier formation and the pathogenesis of AD...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Victoria Thörnqvist, Roelinde Middelveld, Hay Mar Wai, Natalia Ballardini, Evalill Nilsson, Jennie Strömquist, Staffan Ahlstedt, Lennart Jan Nilsson, Jennifer L P Protudjer
Background: Food allergy is negatively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL). Although differences exist between parents and children, less is known about age-specific differences amongst children. As such, we aimed to identify if age, as well as other factors, are associated with food allergy-specific HRQL in an objectively defined population of children. Methods: Overall, 63 children (boys: n = 36; 57.1%) with specialist-diagnosed food allergy to 1 + foods were included...
2019: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Jean-Pierre Llanos, Christopher F Bell, Elizabeth Packnett, Ellen Thiel, Debra E Irwin, Beth Hahn, Hector Ortega
Purpose: Patients with severe asthma are eligible for asthma-specific biologics as add-on therapies, such as mepolizumab and omalizumab, when optimized controller therapies are unable to control their symptoms. However, few real-world data are available to describe the characteristics and associated economic burden of patients considered to be candidates for mepolizumab or omalizumab therapy. Methods: This retrospective cohort study investigated patients with asthma (≥12 years of age) identified at the time of first mepolizumab or omalizumab administration (index date) in the MarketScan™ Commercial Database...
2019: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
Sai-Wai Ho, Ching-Pin Lin, Min-Sho Ku
BACKGROUND: An association between allergic rhinitis (AR) and digestive diseases (DDs) has been reported; however, studies have only focused on the prevalence of DDs in populations of patients with AR. In individuals with specific DDs, the impact of AR on the frequency of clinical visits for each DD has not been studied. Moreover, the association between topical steroid usage for AR and DDs has not been investigated. METHODS: Data from 16 526 men and 18 438 women, aged 21 to 30 years, were collected from a national database...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
G Y Yu, X Hong, W Li, Y Y Zhang, Y Gao, Y Chen, Z Y Zhang, X Y Xie, Z G Li, Y Y Liu, J Z Su, W X Zhu, Z P Sun
Immunoglobulin G4-related sialadenitis (IgG4-RS) is a newly recognized immune-mediated disease and one of immunoglobulin G4-related diseases (IgG4-RD). Our multidisciplinary research group investigated the clinicopathological characteristics and diagnosis of IgG4-RS during the past 10 years. Clinically, it showed multiple bilateral enlargement of major salivary glands (including sublingual and accessory parotid glands) and lacrimal glands. The comorbid diseases of head and neck region including rhinosinusitis, allergic rhinitis, and lymphadenopathy were commonly seen, which could occur more early than enlargement of major salivary glands...
February 18, 2019: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Michael Huber, Andrew C B Cato, George K Ainooson, Marc Freichel, Volodymyr Tsvilovskyy, Rolf Jessberger, Eva Riedlinger, Christian P Sommerhoff, Stephan C Bischoff
Mast cells, best known for their detrimental role in allergic diseases, act in a diverse array of physiological and pathological functions, made possible by the plurality of mast cell types. Their various developmental avenues and their distinct sensitivity to (micro-) environmental conditions convey extensive heterogeneity, resulting in diverse functions. We briefly summarize this heterogeneity, elaborate on molecular determinants that allow mast cells to communicate with their environment to fulfill their tasks, discuss their protease repertoire stored in secretory lysosomes, and consider different aspects of mast cell signaling...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Zheng Gu, Yang Shen, Xin-Ye Tang, Xia Ke, Hong-Bing Yao, Su-Ling Hong, Hou-Yong Kang
OBJECTIVES: Asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) frequently occur as comorbid diseases of the upper airways. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FCRL3 and FCRL5 genes have recently been shown to be associated with various immune-related disorders. This study evaluated the association of FCRL3 and FCRL5 polymorphisms with asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) in a Han Chinese population. METHODS: Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FCRL3 and FCRL5 were genotyped in 300 asthmatic children, and 206 healthy unrelated individuals using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Francesco Borriello, Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Gilda Varricchi, Stefania Loffredo, Giuseppe Spadaro, Gianni Marone
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and inteleukin-3 (IL-3) have long been known as mediators of emergency myelopoiesis, but recent evidence has highlighted their critical role in modulating innate immune effector functions in mice and humans. This new wealth of knowledge has uncovered novel aspects of the pathogenesis of a range of disorders, including infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, allergic and cardiovascular diseases. Consequently, GM-CSF and IL-3 are now being investigated as therapeutic targets for some of these disorders, and some phase I/II clinical trials are already showing promising results...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maryam Hussain, Germán Bonilla-Rosso, Cheong Kc Kwong Chung, Lukas Bäriswyl, Maria Pena Rodriguez, Brian S Kim, Philipp Engel, Mario Noti
BACKGROUND: Diet-induced obesity and food allergies rise in tandem, but a potential cause-and-effect relationship between these diseases of affluence remains to be tested. OBJECTIVE: To test the role of high dietary fat intake, diet-induced obesity and associated changes in gut microbial community structure on food allergy pathogenesis. METHODS: Mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks prior to food allergen sensitization on an atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion followed by intra-gastric allergen challenge to induce experimental food allergy...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Daniela Impellizzieri, Frederike Ridder, Miro E Raeber, Cecilie Egholm, Janine Woytschak, Antonios G A Kolios, Daniel F Legler, Onur Boyman
BACKGROUND: Type 2 immunity serves to resist parasitic helminths, venoms and toxins, but the role and regulation of neutrophils during type 2 immune responses is controversial. Helminth models suggested a contribution of neutrophils to type 2 immunity, whereas neutrophils are associated with increased disease severity during type 2 inflammatory disorders such as asthma. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the prototypic type 2 cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 on human neutrophils...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Simon G Royce, WeiYi Mao, Rebecca Lim, Kilian Kelly, Chrishan S Samuel
The airway remodeling (AWR) associated with chronic allergic airways disease (AAD)/asthma contributes to irreversible airway obstruction. This study compared and combined the antiremodeling and other effects of induced pluripotent stem cell and mesenchymoangioblast-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MCA-MSCs) with the corticosteroid dexamethasone (Dex) in experimental chronic AAD/asthma. Female BALB/c mice subjected to 11 wk of ovalbumin (Ova)-induced chronic AAD were intranasally administered MCA-MSCs (1 × 106 cells/mouse; once weekly on wk 10 and 11), Dex (0...
February 15, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Raphaël P Piarroux, Thomas Romain, Aurélie Martin, Damien Vainqueur, Joana Vitte, Laurence Lachaud, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Frédéric Gabriel, Judith Fillaux, Stéphane Ranque
Aspergillus sp. fungi cause various diseases in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. The most frequent Aspergillus disorders include chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), a life-threatening disease that affects at least 3 million people worldwide, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), which affects approximately 4.8 million severe asthmatic patients globally. Diagnosis of such diseases involves IgG serological testing; however, the currently available anti- Aspergillus IgG detection assays are inappropriate for resource-poor laboratory settings, as they are expensive, rely on automated procedures, and require stable electrical power...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Diego A Rojas, Pablo A Iturra, Andrea Méndez, Carolina A Ponce, Rebeca Bustamante, Miriam Gallo, Pamela Bórquez, Sergio L Vargas
Airway mucus responses to subclinical infections may explain variations in progression of chronic lung diseases and differences in clinical expression of respiratory infections across individuals. Pneumocystis associates to more severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma, respiratory distress of premature newborns, and is a consistent subclinical infection between 2 and 5 months of age when hospitalizations for respiratory cause and infant mortality are higher. This atypical fungus associates to increased mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), a central effector of Th2-type allergic inflammation, in infant lungs...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
M Demirci, H B Tokman, H K Uysal, S Demiryas, A Karakullukcu, S Saribas, H Cokugras, B S Kocazeybek
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The amounts of Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in gut microbiota are reduced in patients with allergic diseases compared to healthy controls. We aimed to quantify levels of A. muciniphila and F. prausnitzii amounts using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the gut microbiota of children with allergic asthma and in healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 92 children between the ages of three and eight who were diagnosed with asthma and 88 healthy children were included in the study and bacterial DNA was isolated from the stool samples using the stool DNA isolation Kit...
February 11, 2019: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
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