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Immunologic diseases

Tao Qin, Zhe Ren, Lei Yi, Xiaopan Liu, Yang Luo, Yao Long, Song Peng, Jian Li, Yufang Ma, Yi Wu, Yifan Huang
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the immunological activities of EPS-1 in the non-specific immune response and specific immune response of chickens. In vitro, the results showed that EPS-1 could increase the proliferation and cytokine secretion (IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α) of spleen lymphocytes, expression of key surface molecules (MHC II, CD11c, CD40 and CD86) and cytokine secretion (TNF-α and IL-10) of matured chBM-DCs, phagocytic rate of matured chBM-DCs, and enhance the maturation and stimulating capacity of chBM-DCs...
February 20, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
David Baker, Gareth Pryce, Samuel S Herrod, Klaus Schmierer
Oral cladribine is a novel treatment for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). This appears to be a semi-selective immune-reconstitution therapy that induces long-term therapy from short treatment cycles. It has a relatively good safety profile that currently does not require extensive monitoring associated with some continuous immunosuppressive and relatively non-selective immune reconstitution therapies. The efficacy and safety of cladribine relates to its particular physicochemical properties, the function of the lymphocyte subsets that are selectively targeted by the drug and the repopulation kinetics of these subsets...
February 14, 2019: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Jing Liu, Tianxiang Li, Hui Wu, Haoze Shi, Jinmei Bai, Wei Zhao, Donghui Jiang, Xiufeng Jiang
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and high salt content in modern diet has been particularly implicated in systemic hypertension, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Gut dysbiosis, associated with increased risk of systemic immunological imbalance, plays a causal role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain (LGG) on the development of hypertension induced by OSA and high salt diet. In this study, hypertension was modeled in rats by feeding a high salt diet (HSD) for 6 wk and exposuring to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during the sleep cycle...
February 18, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Neelakshi Mungra, Sandra Jordaan, Precious Hlongwane, Krupa Naran, Shivan Chetty, Stefan Barth
Patient-specific targeted therapy represents the holy grail of anti-cancer therapeutics, allowing potent tumor depletion without detrimental off-target toxicities. Disease-specific monoclonal antibodies have been employed to bind to oncogenic cell-surface receptors, representing the earliest form of immunotherapy. Targeted drug delivery was first achieved by means of antibody-drug conjugates, which exploit the differential expression of tumor-associated antigens as a guiding mechanism for the specific delivery of chemically-conjugated chemotherapeutic agents to diseased target cells...
January 25, 2019: Oncotarget
Kathryn Lurain, Mark N Polizzotto, Karen Aleman, Manisha Bhutani, Kathleen M Wyvill, Priscila H Gonçalves, Ramya Ramaswami, Vickie Ann Marshall, Wendell Miley, Seth M Steinberg, Richard F Little, Wyndham Wilson, Armando C Filie, Stefania Pittaluga, Elaine S Jaffe, Denise Whitby, Robert Yarchoan, Thomas S Uldrick
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive HIV-associated lymphoma with a relatively poor prognosis in the era of effective HIV therapy. Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent, and approximately 80% of tumors are Epstein Barr virus (EBV) co-infected. A better understanding of how KSHV-related immune dysregulation contributes to the natural history of PEL will improve outcomes. We identified 20 PEL patients diagnosed 2000-2013, including 19 treated with modified infusional etoposide, vincristine, and doxorubicin with cyclophosphamide and prednisone (EPOCH) and compared their clinical, virologic, and immunologic features with 20 patients with HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (HIV-DLBCL) and 19 patients with symptomatic interleukin (IL)-6 related KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman disease (KSHV-MCD)...
February 19, 2019: Blood
Shona Horter, Sarah Bernays, Zanele Thabede, Velibanti Dlamini, Bernhard Kerschberger, Munyaradzi Pasipamire, Barbara Rusch, Alison Wringe
"Treat-all" programmes aim to improve clinical outcomes and to reduce HIV transmission through regular HIV testing and immediate offer of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for those diagnosed HIV-positive, irrespective of immunological status and symptoms of disease. Global narratives on the benefits of Treat-all anticipate reduced HIV-related stigma and increased "normalisation" of HIV with Treat-all implementation, whereby HIV is remoulded as a manageable, chronic condition where stigmatising symptoms can be concealed...
February 19, 2019: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Manabu Kadoya, Hidenori Koyama
Behavioral and psychosocial factors related to development of cardiovascular disease have been gaining increased attention. Notably, sleep is considered to be one of the most important behavioral factors involved in progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, with autonomic nervous function a potential mechanism. Several studies have shown associations of sleep and autonomic dysfunction with major surrogate markers of atherosclerosis, such as carotid intima-media thickness and arterial stiffness...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jingli Lu, Yan Liang, Junjie Zhao, Haiyang Meng, Xiaojian Zhang
IL-33/ST2 signal is important for the generation of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)+ regulatory (Treg) cells, which contribute to immune homeostasis in the context of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether targeting IL-33/ST2 signal could establish immunological tolerance and prevent type 1 diabetes (T1D) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Female NOD mice treated with IL-33 for 4 weeks decreased the incidence and delayed the onset of autoimmune diabetes, whereas IL-33 did not revert blood glucose concentration and disease development in mice with new-onset diabetes...
February 16, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Norbert Müller
Infection and inflammation resulting from a malfunctioning of the immune system have been discussed as pathological factors in psychosis for more than 130 years. The first immune-modulating therapeutic approaches for psychosis were developed more than 100 years ago, but the breakthrough of antipsychotic treatment in the 1950s shifted the emphasis of research to catecholaminergic neurotransmission. In the 1990s, however, the unsatisfactory therapeutic effects of antipsychotics, and the fact that the pathological mechanisms of psychosis were still unknown, reignited the scientific interest in other topics, including inflammation...
February 19, 2019: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Mai Kawazoe, Kaichi Kaneko, Zento Yamada, Shotaro Masuoka, Satoshi Mizutani, Soichi Yamada, Kotaro Shikano, Hiroshi Sato, Makoto Kaburaki, Sei Muraoka, Shinichi Kawai, Toshihiro Nanki
OBJECTIVES: To assess the renal and non-renal efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in Japanese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study to assess the renal and non-renal efficacies of MMF in Japanese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed 14 patients with lupus nephritis (LN) who were given MMF, and 13 patients who received monthly intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY) as induction therapy, and a further 19 patients without LN who were treated with MMF, and 13 patients who took tacrolimus (TAC) to reduce glucocorticoid dosages...
February 18, 2019: Clinical Rheumatology
C Lehmann, J Malin, I Suárez, G Fätkenheuer
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic disease with a favourable prognosis if adequate antiretroviral therapy (ART) is applied. Therefore, each patient with HIV infection should be treated irrespectively of clinical symptoms or of immunological status. A combination of three active drugs that have to be taken life-long has been standard for many years. The regimen contains two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors plus either an integrase inhibitor, a boosted protease inhibitor, or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor...
February 18, 2019: Der Internist
Kay Tanita, Akihiro Hoshino, Ken-Ichi Imadome, Takahiro Kamiya, Kento Inoue, Tsubasa Okano, Tzu-Wen Yeh, Masakatsu Yanagimachi, Akira Shiraishi, Masataka Ishimura, Tilmann Schober, Meino Rohlfs, Masatoshi Takagi, Kohsuke Imai, Hidetoshi Takada, Shouichi Ohga, Christoph Klein, Tomohiro Morio, Hirokazu Kanegane
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV) is an EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease characterized by repeated or sustainable infectious mononucleosis (IM)-like symptoms. EBV is usually detected in B cells in patients who have IM or Burkitt's lymphoma and even in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, which is confirmed to have vulnerability to EBV infection. In contrast, EBV infects T cells (CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and γδT) or NK cells mono- or oligoclonally in CAEBV patients...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Meltem Savran Karadeniz, Hayriye Senturk Ciftci, Tzevat Tefik, Tayfun Oktar, Ismet Nane, Aydin Turkmen, Fatma Oguz, Kamil Mehmet Tugrul
OBJECTIVES: Renal transplant is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Ischemiareperfusion damage is a major cause of early renal dysfunction during the perioperative period. Ischemic hypoxic damage increases local inflammation, leading to secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Anesthetic conditioning is a widely described strategy to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, we compared the effects of desflurane and sevoflurane on serum proinflammatory cytokines and urine chemokines in living-donor kidney transplant recipients...
January 2019: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Niccoló Vendramin, Dhamotharan Kannimuthu, Anne Berit Olsen, Argelia Cuenca, Lena Hammerlund Teige, Øystein Wessel, Tine Moesgaard Iburg, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Espen Rimstad, Niels Jørgen Olesen
Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) mediated diseases have emerged throughout salmonid aquaculture. Three PRV subtypes are currently reported as causative agents of or in association with diseases in different salmonid species. PRV-1 causes heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and is associated with jaundice syndrome in farmed chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). PRV-2 causes erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS) in coho salmon in Japan. PRV-3 has recently been associated with a disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) characterized by anaemia, heart and red muscle pathology; to jaundice syndrome in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)...
February 18, 2019: Veterinary Research
Shang-Gin Wu, Wenjing Pan, Hongna Liu, Miranda L Byrne-Steele, Brittany Brown, Mollye Depinet, Xiaohong Hou, Jian Han, Song Li
BACKGROUND: Immunology research, particularly next generation sequencing (NGS) of the immune T-cell receptor β (TCRβ) repertoire, has advanced progression in several fields, including treatment of various cancers and autoimmune diseases. This study aimed to identify the TCR repertoires from dry blood spots (DBS), a method that will help collecting real-world data for biomarker applications. METHODS: Finger-prick blood was collected onto a Whatman filter card...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Translational Medicine
Erik De Clercq
AMD3100 (plerixafor, Mozobil®) was first identified as an anti-HIV agent specifically active against the T4-lymphotropic HIV strains, as it selectively blocked the CXCR4 receptor. Through interference with the interaction of CXCR4 with its natural ligand, SDF-1 (also named CXCL12), it also mobilized the CD34+ stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood stream. In December 2008, AMD3100 was formally approved by the US FDA for autologous transplantation in patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma or multiple myeloma...
January 2019: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
Markus G Seidel, Gerhard Kindle, Benjamin Gathmann, Isabella Quinti, Matthew Buckland, Joris van Montfrans, Raphael Scheible, Stephan Rusch, Lukas M Gasteiger, Bodo Grimbacher, Nizar Mahlaoui, Stephan Ehl
Patient registries are instrumental for clinical research in rare diseases. They help to achieve a sufficient sample size for epidemiological and clinical research and to assess the feasibility of clinical trials. The European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry currently comprises information on >25,000 patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI). The prerequisite of a patient to be included into the ESID registry is an IEI either defined by a defect in a gene included in the disease classification of the international union of immunological societies (IUIS), or verified by applying clinical criteria...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Yuan-Yuan Qi, Xu-Jie Zhou, Hong Zhang
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease, in which immune defects can occur at multiple points of the cascading auto-aggressive immune reactions, resulting in a striking heterogeneity of clinical presentations. The clinical manifestations of such autoimmune response can be severe:-common manifestations symptoms include rash and renal inflammation progressing to kidney failure. Autophagy, the cellular "self-digestion" process, is a key factor in the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Immunology
Pedro Zapater, Susana Almenara, Ana Gutiérrez, Laura Sempere, Marifé García, Raquel Laveda, Antonio Martínez, Michael Scharl, José I Cameo, Raquel Linares, José M González-Navajas, Reiner Wiest, Gerhard Rogler, Rubén Francés
BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) responding to anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) show great variability in serum drug levels, even within the therapeutic range. We aimed at exploring the role of inflammatory, genetic, and bacterial variables in relation to anti-TNF through levels in CD patients. METHODS: Consecutive CD patients receiving stable doses of infliximab or adalimumab were included. Clinical and analytical parameters were recorded. Cytokine response, bacterial DNA translocation, and several immune-related genes' genotypes were evaluated, along with serum through anti-TNF drug levels...
February 19, 2019: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Nitya Beriwal, Tashi Namgyal, Pema Sangay, Asmaa Monther Al Quraan
The anti-oxidant effects of melatonin and the immune-pineal axis are well established. However, how they play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is not well elucidated. A better understanding of this neuro-immuno-endocrinological link can help in the development of novel therapies with higher efficacy to alleviate symptomatology, slow disease progression and improve the quality of life. Recent studies have shown that the immune-pineal axis acts as an immunological buffer, neurohormonal switch and it also intricately links the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (like Multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease) and inflammation at a molecular level...
January 2019: Heliyon
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