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Manfred P Lutz, John R Zalcberg, Michel Ducreux, Antoine Adenis, William Allum, Daniela Aust, Fatima Carneiro, Heike I Grabsch, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Florian Lordick, Markus Möhler, Stefan Mönig, Radka Obermannova, Guillaume Piessen, Angela Riddell, Christoph Röcken, Franco Roviello, Paul Magnus Schneider, Stefan Seewald, Elizabeth Smyth, Eric van Cutsem, Marcel Verheij, Anna Dorothea Wagner, Florian Otto
Multimodal primary treatment of localised adenocarcinoma of the stomach, the oesophagus and the oesophagogastric junction (AEG) was reviewed by a multidisciplinary expert panel in a moderated consensus session. Here, we report the key points of the discussion and the resulting recommendations. The exact definition of the tumour location and extent by white light endoscopy in conjunction with computed tomography scans is the backbone for any treatment decision. Their value is limited with respect to the infiltration depth, lymph node involvement and peritoneal involvement...
March 14, 2019: European Journal of Cancer
Richard Blythe, Azza Ismail, Aaizza Naqvi
Intravenous recombinant tissue-plasminogen-activator (rtPA) and mechanical-thrombectomy (MT) are currently the only approved treatments for acute ischemic stroke. Their effectiveness was demonstrated in several clinical trials, and is therefore standard of care. Pregnant women were not included in these studies and consequently the effectiveness and safety in this group are unclear. We present a rare case of a patient in the third-trimester of pregnancy that underwent MT. A 29-year-old woman of 39 weeks' gestation presented with left facial-paresis, hemiparesis, and neglect...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Timothy R G Cartlidge, Mhairi K Doris, Stephanie L Sellers, Tania A Pawade, Audrey C White, Renzo Pessotto, Jacek Kwiecinski, Alison Fletcher, Carlos Alcaide, Christophe Lucatelli, Cameron Densem, James H F Rudd, Edwin J R van Beek, Adriana Tavares, Renu Virmani, Daniel Berman, Jonathon A Leipsic, David E Newby, Marc R Dweck
BACKGROUND: Bioprosthetic aortic valve degeneration is increasingly common, often unheralded, and can have catastrophic consequences. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess whether 18 F-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) can detect bioprosthetic aortic valve degeneration and predict valve dysfunction. METHODS: Explanted degenerate bioprosthetic valves were examined ex vivo. Patients with bioprosthetic aortic valves were recruited into 2 cohorts with and without prosthetic valve dysfunction and underwent in vivo contrast-enhanced CT angiography, 18 F-fluoride PET, and serial echocardiography during 2 years of follow-up...
March 19, 2019: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Guang Li, Wenxiang Cong, James S Michaelson, Hong Liu, Lars Gjesteby, Ge Wang
X-ray imaging techniques, including x-ray radiography and computed tomography, have been in use for decades and proven effective and indispensable in diagnosis and therapy due to their fine resolution and fast acquisition speed. However, the innate disadvantage of x-ray is the poor soft tissue contrast. Small-angle scattering signals were shown to provide unique information about the abnormality of soft tissues that is complementary to the traditional attenuation image. Currently, there is no effective small-angle scattering detection system...
July 2018: IEEE Transactions on Radiation and Plasma Medical Sciences
Le Cao, Xiang Liu, Jianying Li, Wenbin Liang, Tingting Qu, Yanan Li, Xiaoqian Jia, Jianxin Guo
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the improved enhancement degree and uniformity in coronary CT angiography (CCTA) on a 16 cm wide-coverage CT with a new bolus tracking method enabled by free-breathing, in comparison with the conventional breath-holding method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 200 patients with suspected coronary heart disease were randomly divided into two groups for CCTA: Group A (n = 100, free-breathing) started CCTA with 2.2 seconds delay after the attenuation in aorta reached 250 HU; Group B (n = 100, breath-holding), used the standard protocol of 80 HU threshold and 8...
March 4, 2019: Academic Radiology
Weihua Liao, Peng Lei, Jinbin Pan, Cai Zhang, Xianting Sun, Xuejun Zhang, Chunshui Yu, Shao-Kai Sun
Clinically used iodinated computer tomography (CT) contrast agents suffer from low sensitivity, and the emerging lanthanide-chelates and CT imaging nanoagents raise great safety concerns. The fusion of high sensitivity and good biocompatibility is highly desired for the development of CT contrast agents. Herein, we propose a facile and green one-pot synthesis strategy for the fabrication of a small molecular CT contrast agent, Bi-diethylene triamine pentaacetate acid (DTPA) complex, for high-performance CT and spectral CT imaging...
March 2, 2019: Biomaterials
Piriya Kaeopookum, Dominik Summer, Joachim Pfister, Thomas Orasch, Beatrix E Lechner, Milos Petrik, Zbynek Novy, Barbara Matuszczak, Christine Rangger, Hubertus Haas, Clemens Decristoforo
PURPOSE: Aspergillus fumigatus produces the siderophore triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC) for iron acquisition which is essential for its virulence. Therefore, TAFC is a specific marker for invasive aspergillosis. We have shown previously that positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with [68 Ga]TAFC exhibited excellent targeting properties in an A. fumigatus rat infection model. In this study, we aimed to prepare TAFC analogs modifying fusarinine C (FSC) by acylation with different carbon chain lengths as well as with charged substituents and investigated the influence of introduced substituents on preservation of TAFC characteristics in vitro and in vivo...
March 5, 2019: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Dmitriy Petrov, Michael Spadola, Connor Berger, Gregory Glauser, Ahmad F Mahmoud, Bert O'Malley, Neil R Malhotra
Chordomas are rare, locally aggressive neoplasms that develop from remnants of the notochord. The typical approach to chordomas of the clivus and axial cervical spine often limits successful en bloc resection. In this case report, authors describe the first-documented transoral approach using both transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for exposure and the Sonopet bone scalpel under navigational guidance to achieve en bloc resection of a cervical chordoma. This 27-year-old man had no significant past medical history (Charlson Comorbidity Index 0)...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Yang Lei, Joseph Mark Harms, Tonghe Wang, Sibo Tian, Jun Zhou, Hui-Kuo Shu, Jim Zhong, Hui Mao, Walter J Curran, Tian Liu, Xiaofeng Yang
Target delineation for radiation therapy treatment planning often benefits from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in addition to x-ray computed tomography (CT) due to MRI's superior soft tissue contrast. MRI-based treatment planning could reduce systematic MR-CT co-registration errors, medical cost, radiation exposure, and simplify clinical workflow. However, MRI-only based treatment planning is not widely used to date because treatment-planning systems rely on the electron density information provided by CTs to calculate dose...
February 28, 2019: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Ashish Sharma, Rahul Janak Sinha, Vishwajeet Singh, Gaurav Garg, Samarth Agarwal, Siddharth Pandey
OBJECTIVE: Maintaining the optimum bone health is one of the important concerns in patients with prostate cancer, but it usually remains neglected. Failure to screen these patients is detrimental to both the length and the quality of life. The estimation of bone mineral density (BMD) and more recently the World Health Organization's fracture risk assessment (FRAX) algorithm in appropriate patients is recommended by several specialty organizations/associations at the time of instituting androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for metastatic and high-risk individuals...
February 20, 2019: Turkish Journal of Urology
M Wang, X Ma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Hua Jing, Michael Hettich, Simone Gaedicke, Elke Firat, Mark Bartholomä, Gabriele Niedermann
BACKGROUND: Immunogenic radiotherapy (RT) can act synergistically with immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs). However, alternatives are needed for non-responding patients and those with pre-existing or ICB-induced autoimmune symptoms. Combination of RT with IL-2 could be an alternative. But IL-2 has a short half-life, and, by binding to its high-affinity receptor, it strongly stimulates immunosuppressive CD4+ Tregs and seems to promote potentially life-threatening vascular leakage. IL-2/anti-IL-2 complexes (IL-2c), which bind to the low-affinity receptor, have been reported to circumvent these disadvantages but they have not yet been thoroughly tested in conjunction with radiotherapy...
February 26, 2019: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Weihua Mao, Chang Liu, Stephen J Gardner, Farzan Siddiqui, Karen C Snyder, Akila Kumarasiri, Bo Zhao, Joshua Kim, Ning Winston Wen, Benjamin Movsas, Indrin J Chetty
PURPOSE: We have quantitatively evaluated the image quality of a new commercially available iterative cone-beam computed tomography reconstruction algorithm over standard cone-beam computed tomography image reconstruction results. METHODS: This iterative cone-beam computed tomography reconstruction pipeline uses a finite element solver (AcurosCTS)-based scatter correction and a statistical (iterative) reconstruction in addition to a standard kernel-based correction followed by filtered back-projection-based Feldkamp-Davis-Kress cone-beam computed tomography reconstruction...
January 1, 2019: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Timur Alexeev, Brian Kavanagh, Moyed Miften, Cem Altunbas
PURPOSE: Two-dimensional antiscatter grids (2DASG) for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new area of research to reduce scatter intensity, and consequently improve CBCT image quality. One of the challenges in implementation of 2DASGs is their septa shadows that are impinged on the projections. If these artifacts are not corrected, they may lead to ring artifacts in CBCT images. In this work, we present a novel method to suppress ring artifacts in at panel detector based CBCT images...
February 25, 2019: Medical Physics
Liuhui Su, Qiong Wu, Longfei Tan, Zhongbing Huang, Changhui Fu, Xiangling Ren, Na Xia, Zengzhen Chen, Xiaoyan Ma, Xudong Lan, Qiang Zhang, Xianwei Meng
Zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) is specifically promising for drug carrier due to its excellent intrinsic properties. However, the high toxicity of ZIF-8 nanoparticles severely limits its further research and clinical application. In the work, the biocompatibility of ZIF-8 nanoparticles are greatly improved by coating ZrO2 onto the surface. The survival rate of cells and mice in the ZIF-8@ZrO2 nanocomposites group is significantly increased compared with the undecorated ZIF-8 nanoparticles group. Doxorubicin (DOX) as a chemotherapeutic drug is deposited during the ZIF-8 growth by a facile one-pot method...
February 25, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tyler A Finamore, Tyler E Curtis, James V Tedesco, Kathryn Grandfield, Ryan K Roeder
Biodegradable materials, such as collagen scaffolds, are used extensively in clinical medicine for tissue regeneration and/or as an implantable drug delivery vehicle. However, available methods to study biomaterial degradation are typically invasive, destructive, and/or non-volumetric. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate a new method for nondestructive, longitudinal, and volumetric measurement of collagen scaffold degradation. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were covalently conjugated to collagen fibrils during scaffold preparation to enable contrast-enhanced imaging of collagen scaffolds...
February 22, 2019: Nanoscale
Gaétan Denizet, Paul Calame, Thomas Lihoreau, François Kleinclauss, Sébastien Aubry
The kidneys are among the most commonly transplanted organs in the world. Transplant patients, as a consequence of their kidney disease and other risk factors which make it difficult for the surgeon to perform vascular anastomosis during kidney transplantation, often have numerous arterial calcifications. The preoperative assessment for transplantation includes an abdominal and pelvic CT scan without contrast that allows for the mapping of atheromatous calcification. However, non-contrast enhanced CT is not optimal and the surgeon is obliged to palpate the arteries during the operation to choose the anatomical site of the vascular anastomosis...
January 2019: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Nobutaka Ikeda, Shuji Kubota, Toru Okazaki, Raisuke Iijima, Hidehiko Hara, Yukio Hiroi, Masato Nakamura
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate risk factors of complications of balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) and (2) assess the mechanism of the complications. BACKGROUND: BPA represents a promising treatment option in patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). However, the complication ratio differs across reports, and the causes remain controversial. METHODS: All complications found by angiography and non-contrasted computerized tomography (CT) immediately after BPA were recorded...
February 17, 2019: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Cornelia Brendle, Norbert Stefan, Irina Stef, Sabine Ripkens, Martin Soekler, Christian la Fougère, Konstantin Nikolaou, Christina Pfannenberg
Increased activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in adults is thought to prevent obesity. Therefore, regulators of BAT activity might serve as anti-obesity therapy in future, but are not investigated thoroughly up to now. In our study, we assessed retrospectively the association of BAT activity with several external factors and diverse chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressive agents in a collective of 702 patients. The patients underwent at least two clinically indicated PET/CT examinations in the course of different oncological and inflammatory diseases...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Benjamin J Cooper, Ricky T O'Brien, Chun-Chien Shieh, Paul J Keall
Four dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D CBCT) improves patient positioning and the accuracy of radiation therapy for patients with mobile tumours. Generally, 4D CBCT requires many hundreds of x-ray projections to measure target trajectories and the imaging frequency is not adapted to the patient's respiratory signal resulting in over-sampling. In contrast, respiratory triggered 4D CBCT (RT 4D CBCT) is an acquisition technique that has been experimentally implemented and has shown to reduce the number of x-ray projections and thus 4D CBCT dose with minimal impact on image quality...
February 12, 2019: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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