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Andreas Wartak, Florian Beer, Sylvia Desissaire, Bernhard Baumann, Michael Pircher, Christoph K Hitzenberger
We demonstrate the advantages of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for investigation of spontaneous retinal venous pulsation (SRVP). The pulsatile changes in venous vessel caliber are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using conventional intensity-based OCT as well as the functional extension Doppler OCT (DOCT). Single-channel and double-channel line scanning protocols of our multi-channel OCT prototype are employed to investigate venous pulsatile caliber oscillations as well as venous flow pulsatility in the eyes of healthy volunteers...
March 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Ranjan P Malhotra, Edward Meier, Gail Torkildsen, Paul J Gomes, Mark C Jasek
Purpose: The studies reported here aimed to assess the safety and tolerability of cetirizine ophthalmic solution 0.24%, a new topical ophthalmic medication approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis. Patients and methods: Three clinical studies evaluated cetirizine ophthalmic solution 0.24% administration: a Phase I prospective, single-center, open-label, pharmacokinetic (PK) study (N=11) evaluating single-dose administration and twice-daily (BID) administration for 1 week in healthy adults, and two Phase III, multi-center, randomized, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group studies evaluating the safety and tolerability in adult and pediatric populations (2-18 years of age) for up to 6 consecutive weeks...
2019: Clinical Ophthalmology
Yeji Kim, Daniel L Chao
Purpose: To investigate the utility of smartphone ophthalmology for medical students for learning fundoscopy compared with direct ophthalmoscopy. Methods: After 1 hour of didactic instruction on ophthalmoscopy, second-year medical students in a small group setting were randomized to start training with the direct ophthalmoscope vs smartphone ophthalmoscope and crossed over to the other instrument through the session. Main outcome measures: Ability to visualize the optic nerve and retinal blood vessels in an undilated pupil as well as a survey evaluating ease of use, confidence, and ability to visualize the optic nerve with the two instruments...
2019: Clinical Ophthalmology
Monalisa Patel, Dibyendu Mukherjee, Sina Farsiu, Breda Munoz, Arlin B Blood, Christopher G Wilson, Jennifer B Griffin
Introduction: Anterior lens capsule vascularity (ALCV) is resorbed in the developing fetus from 27 to 35 weeks gestation. In this pilot study, we evaluated the feasibility and validity of combining smartphone ophthalmoscope videos of ALCV and image analysis for gestational age estimation. Methods: ALCV videos were captured longitudinally in preterm neonates from delivery using a PanOptic® Ophthalmoscope with an iExaminer ® adapter (Welch-Allyn). ALCV video frames were manually selected and quantified using semi-automatic image analysis...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
M A Adeiza, A G Habib
Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is one of the most important opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients in developing countries before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. In Nigerian and African HIV populations, CMV retinitis is under-reported. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 250 HIV-infected adults ≥18 years were recruited by systematic random sampling from March to August 2013. Using a structured questionnaire, information was obtained on socio-demographic characteristics and symptoms of visual impairment...
March 2019: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Benjamin S Sajdak, Alexander E Salmon, Katie M Litts, Clive Wells, Kenneth P Allen, Alfredo Dubra, Dana K Merriman, Joseph Carroll
Cone photoreceptors of the 13-lined ground squirrel (13-LGS) undergo reversible structural changes during hibernation, including cone outer segment disc degeneration and inner segment mitochondria depletion. Here, we evaluated cone structure with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) before, during, and after hibernation. Also, intra-animal comparisons of cone structure were made at distinct physiological states (pre-hibernation, torpor, interbout euthermia, and post-hibernation) with AOSLO and transmission electron microscopy...
February 28, 2019: Vision Research
Reza Karkhaneh, Aliasghar Ahmadraji, Mohammad Riazi Esfahani, Ramak Roohipour, Afsar Farahani Dastjani, Marjan Imani, Alireza Khodabande, Nazanin Ebrahimiadib, Mehdi Nili Ahmadabadi
Purpose: To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of digital retinal image reading in the diagnosis of referral-warranted retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods: Infants referred to the ROP clinic underwent fundus examination through indirect ophthalmoscopy. Fundus photographs were acquired using RetCam (shuttle 2; Clarity medical systems, Pleasanton, CA, USA). Four retinal specialists who were blind to patients' information reviewed the RetCam fundus photographs...
January 2019: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
Morten Jørgensen, Mona Meral Savran, Christos Christakopoulos, Toke Bek, Jakob Grauslund, Peter Bjerre Toft, Focke Ziemssen, Lars Konge, Torben Lykke Sørensen, Yousif Subhi
PURPOSE: Direct ophthalmoscopy can reveal systemic, neurologic and ophthalmic conditions, but is poorly mastered among young physicians. A theoretical test is needed to measure effect of educational interventions. We developed and gathered validity evidence for a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ)-based theoretical test in direct ophthalmoscopy. METHODS: The MCQ was developed by interviewing experts. Then, validity evidence was evaluated using Messick's validity framework...
February 28, 2019: Acta Ophthalmologica
Toke Bek
The clinical presentation of the most frequent vision threatening retinal diseases is dominated by lesions indicating that disturbances in retinal blood flow are involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. The present review describes the experience from a translational strategy pursued to investigate retinal vascular diseases with diabetic retinopathy as the main object. The normal regulation of retinal blood flow is investigated in porcine retinal vessels in vitro and ex vivo. Subsequently, the in vitro findings are translated to clinical studies in normal persons in vivo, and it is investigated whether the mechanisms are disturbed in retinal vascular disease...
February 22, 2019: Acta Ophthalmologica
Chad A Thompson, Eric Barnes
Headaches are a typical presentation to a military medical department or emergency room. Having a broad differential diagnosis and utilizing a thorough physical exam can assist providers in honing down the list of pathology and in identifying potentially life-threatening causes of cephalgia such as intracranial tumors. In this case, a 27-year-old man presented with progressive headaches along with vision changes for the preceding 2-3 months. On initial physical exam, he was found to have bilateral papilledema using a panoptic ophthalmoscope, confirmed after sending the patient to optometry...
February 22, 2019: Military Medicine
Raimondo Forte, Maher Saleh, Florent Aptel, Christophe Chiquet
PURPOSE: To assess the status of the cone photoreceptors using adaptive optics flood illumination ophthalmoscopy in patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy and to study their relationship with optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. METHODS: Seventeen patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy were studied using standard automated perimetry, color vision testing, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral domain OCT, enhanced depth imaging OCT, and adaptive optics flood illumination ophthalmoscopy (rtx1, Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France) in a 90 × 90-μm area at 1...
February 14, 2019: Retina
Mohamed Al-Abri, Ahmed Al-Hinai, Sana Al Zuhaibi, Anuradha Ganesh, Alyaqdhan Al Ghafri, Khalid Al-Thihli
Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD) is an autosomal dominant macular dystrophy caused by heterozygous mutations in the bestrophin1 gene. Patients with this condition typically have an abnormal electrooculogram. We report a case of a 16-year-old male who presented with gradual progressive vision loss in the right eye. Ophthalmic assessment included funduscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescein angiography, electro-oculography, electroretinography, and genetic testing. Visual acuity was 20/500 and 20/20 in the right and left eyes, respectively...
January 2019: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
Hiroyuki Nakashizuka, Hiroyuki Shimada, Takayuki Hattori, Koji Tanaka, Yorihisa Kitagawa, Kei Shinoda
Purpose: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of intravitreal injection (IVI) of 1.25% povidone iodine (PI) followed by vitrectomy using 0.025% PI irrigation for treating endophthalmitis. Methods: Prospective case series study. Nine eyes of 8 patients with postoperative or endogenous endophthalmitis treated at the Nihon University Hospital between April 2015 and October 2017 were studied. First, IVI of 0.1 mL/1.25%PI was conducted, followed by anterior chamber irrigation and vitrectomy using 0...
January 2019: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Jian Li, Yolanda Wong Ying Yip, Jialin Ren, Wing Ki Hui, Jing Na He, Qiu Xiao Yu, Kai On Chu, Tsz Kin Ng, Sun On Chan, Chi Pui Pang, Wai Kit Chu
Autoimmune uveitis is a sight-threatening disease mainly caused by dysregulation of immunity. We investigated the therapeutic effects of green tea extract (GTE) and its major component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), on a murine model of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Oral administration of GTE, EGCG, dexamethasone, or water, which started 5 days before the induction, was fed every two days to each group. On day 21 post induction, the eyes were examined by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and electroretinography (ERG) prior to sacrificing the animals for histological assessments and gene expression studies...
February 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
Filipe Espinheira Gomes, Stephen Parry, Eric Ledbetter
OBJECTIVE: To describe and to establish normative data for the feline optic nerve and peripapillary retina using SD-OCT (Spectralis® HRA+OCT2). METHODS: Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and rebound tonometry were performed in seven male-intact (0.65 ± 0.02 years;4.34 ± 0.33 kg) and seven female-spayed (0.74 ± 0.03 years; 3.13 ± 0.28 kg) cats. All eyes were pharmacologically dilated with 1% tropicamide prior to indirect ophthalmoscopy examination. Animals were then placed under general anesthesia...
February 18, 2019: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Daniel J Wahl, Ringo Ng, Myeong Jin Ju, Yifan Jian, Marinko V Sarunic
Vision researchers often use small animals due to the availability of many transgenic strains that model human diseases or express biomarkers. Adaptive optics (AO) enables non-invasive single-cell imaging in a living animal but often results in high system complexity. Sensorless AO (SAO) can provide depth-resolved aberration correction with low system complexity. We present a multi-modal sensorless AO en face retina imaging system that includes optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT-angiography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), and fluorescence detection...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Mayank Goswami, Xinlei Wang, Pengfei Zhang, Wenwu Xiao, Sarah J Karlen, Yuanpei Li, Robert J Zawadzki, Marie E Burns, Kit S Lam, Edward N Pugh
In cancer research there is a fundamental need for animal models that allow the in vivo longitudinal visualization and quantification of tumor development, nanotherapeutic delivery, the tumor microenvironment including blood vessels, macrophages, fibroblasts, immune cells, and extracellular matrix, and the tissue response to treatment. To address this need, we developed a novel mouse ocular xenograft model. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing human glioblastoma cells (between 500 and 10,000) were implanted into the subretinal space of immunodeficient mice (56 eyes)...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Sarah Walters, Christina Schwarz, Robin Sharma, Ethan A Rossi, William S Fischer, David A DiLoreto, Jennifer Strazzeri, Dasha Nelidova, Botond Roska, Jennifer J Hunter, David R Williams, William H Merigan
Progress is needed in developing animal models of photoreceptor degeneration and evaluating such models with longitudinal, noninvasive techniques. We employ confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-resolution retinal imaging to noninvasively observe the retina of non-human primates with induced photoreceptor degeneration. Photoreceptors were imaged at the single-cell scale in three modalities of adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy: traditional confocal reflectance, indicative of waveguiding; a non-confocal offset aperture technique visualizing scattered light; and two-photon excited fluorescence, the time-varying signal of which, at 730 nm excitation, is representative of visual cycle function...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Azusa Ito, Satoru Tsuda, Hiroshi Kunikata, Asano Toshihumi, Kota Sato, Toru Nakazawa
The evaluation of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is a key part of retinal disease care. Previously, we used a Sytox Orange (SO)-based real-time imaging method to assess the RGCs in mice that underwent optic nerve crush. Here, we used N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) injury in rats to confirm our model and assess the effect of neuroprotective agents on RGCs. The rats received NMDA injury and the intravitreal injection of SO, a cell-impermeant dyeing compound that targets nucleic acid. After ten minutes, non-invasive confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy visualized damaged or dying cells...
February 9, 2019: Brain Research
Max Loidl, Achim Schneider, Oliver Keis, Wolfgang Öchsner, Claudia Grab-Kroll, Gerhard K Lang, Jürgen Kampmeier
BACKGROUND: At the Medical Faculty of the University of Ulm, the learning objectives of ophthalmology are taught to students in a one-week block course in the fourth year of study. According to the National Competency-based Learning Objective Catalogue Medicine (NKLM), one of these learning objectives is the clinical examination of the eye, including the eye fundus examination. In order to best train this expertise as defined in the NKLM, a novel, augmented reality-based training simulator (Eyesi Indirect, VRmagic Holding AG, Mannheim, Germany) was integrated into the teaching at the University Eye Hospital Ulm...
February 8, 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
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