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Cannabis psychosis

Toni C Spinella, Sherry H Stewart, Sean P Barrett
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Given the increase in cannabis availability and use in North America, identification of risk factors for cannabis use and dependence is paramount. One factor that may be associated with various cannabis-related adverse outcomes is the context in which it is used. This secondary analysis study sought to examine the extent to which the social context of cannabis use is related to patterns of use and associated harms. DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and eighty-eight adult cannabis users were community-recruited in Halifax, Canada...
February 18, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Review
Eva M Mathews, Emily Jeffries, Chenen Hsieh, Glenn Jones, Julia D Buckner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Synthetic cannabinoid use is associated with severe problems, including psychosis, kidney failure, and death. Given that young adults are especially vulnerable to using synthetic cannabinoids, the current study sought to identify factors and consequences related to use within this population. METHODS: 1140 undergraduates completed an online survey of synthetic cannabinoid use, consequences, and related constructs. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime synthetic cannabinoid use was 7...
February 11, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Marco Colizzi, Nathalie Weltens, Philip McGuire, David Lythgoe, Steve Williams, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the association between cannabis use and acute or long-lasting psychosis are not completely understood. While some evidence suggests altered striatal dopamine may underlie the association, direct evidence that cannabis use affects either acute or chronic striatal dopamine is inconclusive. In contrast, pre-clinical research suggests that cannabis may affect dopamine via modulation of glutamate signaling. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used to investigate whether altered striatal glutamate, as measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, underlies the acute psychotomimetic effects of intravenously administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC; 1...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
Gabriella Gobbi, Tobias Atkin, Tomasz Zytynski, Shouao Wang, Sorayya Askari, Jill Boruff, Mark Ware, Naomi Marmorstein, Andrea Cipriani, Nandini Dendukuri, Nancy Mayo
Importance: Cannabis is the most commonly used drug of abuse by adolescents in the world. While the impact of adolescent cannabis use on the development of psychosis has been investigated in depth, little is known about the impact of cannabis use on mood and suicidality in young adulthood. Objective: To provide a summary estimate of the extent to which cannabis use during adolescence is associated with the risk of developing subsequent major depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior...
February 13, 2019: JAMA Psychiatry
Koby Cohen, Abraham Weizman, Aviv Weinstein
Cannabis is the most popular illicit drug in the Western world. Repeated cannabis use has been associated with short and long-term side effects including respiratory and cardiovascular disorders, cognitive alterations, psychosis, schizophrenia and mood disorders. However, casual relations between cannabis use and these adverse effects are missing. On the other hand, recent research proposed promising therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs for a wide range of medical conditions including neurological and psychiatric disorders...
January 31, 2019: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Javier Vázquez-Bourgon, Esther Setién-Suero, Fuencisla Pilar-Cuéllar, Rodrigo Romero-Jiménez, Víctor Ortiz-García de la Foz, Elena Castro, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
BACKGROUND: Cannabis smoking is highly prevalent among patients with psychotic disorders. Its use has been found to be related to clinical characteristics and the prognosis of the disorder. Recent evidence indicates a protective effect of cannabis on weight gain and related metabolic alterations. However, there are no previous studies on the long-term longitudinal effects of cannabis on first-episode drug-naïve patients, which would thereby avoid the confounding effects of chronicity and previous treatment exposure...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Samuel D Banister, Jonathon C Arnold, Mark Connor, Michelle Glass, Iain S McGregor
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, with an estimated 192 million users globally. The main psychoactive component of cannabis is (-)-trans-Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), a molecule with a diverse range of pharmacological actions. The unique and distinctive intoxication caused by Δ9 -THC primarily reflects partial agonist action at central cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 ) receptors. Δ9 -THC is an approved therapeutic treatment for a range of conditions, including chronic pain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and is being investigated in indications such as anorexia nervosa, agitation in dementia, and Tourette's syndrome...
January 28, 2019: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Umut Kırlı, Tolga Binbay, Marjan Drukker, Jim van Os, Köksal Alptekin, Bülent Kayahan, Hayriye Elbi
BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences (PEs) are not exclusive to psychotic disorders and highly correlated with mood episodes. In this representative general population-based study, longitudinal bidirectional associations between the extended psychosis phenotype and mood episodes were investigated, accounting for other possible causes. METHODS: Households were contacted in a multistage clustered probability sampling frame covering 11 districts and 302 neighbourhoods at baseline (n = 4011) and at 6-year follow-up (n = 2185)...
January 22, 2019: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Sarah A Sullivan, William Hamilton, Kate Tilling, Theresa Redaniel, Paul Moran, Glyn Lewis
Importance: Primary care is an important part of the care pathway for patients with psychosis; therefore, primary care physicians need to be able to accurately identify those at clinical high risk of psychosis. The difficulty of this task is increased because clinical high-risk symptoms are frequently nonspecific to psychosis. Objective: To determine whether the consultation patterns for a prespecified set of symptoms can be used to identify primary care patients who later developed a psychotic illness...
November 2, 2018: JAMA network open
Maya R Jacobson, Jeremy J Watts, Isabelle Boileau, Junchao Tong, Romina Mizrahi
Cannabis, the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, produces psychoactive effects through its component cannabinoids, which act on the endocannabinoid system. Research on how cannabinoid exposure affects the endocannabinoid system is limited. Substantial evidence indicates cannabis use as a risk factor for psychosis, and the mechanism(s) by which this is occurring is/are currently unknown. Here, we conduct the first review of the effects of exogenous cannabinoids on the endocannabinoid system in humans with and without psychotic disorders...
January 8, 2019: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Chao Dong, Zheng Tian, Kai Zhang, Lijia Chang, Youge Qu, Yaoyu Pu, Qian Ren, Yuko Fujita, Yuta Ohgi, Takashi Futamura, Kenji Hashimoto
Although epidemiological data suggest that repeated use of cannabis during adolescence may increase the risk for psychosis, its precise molecular mechanisms remain undetermined. In this study, we examined whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB signaling plays a role in the risk for psychosis after exposure of cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonist during adolescence. Repeated administration of the CB receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (2 mg/kg/day) during adolescence (P35 - P45) significantly increased methamphetamine (METH: 1 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion in adulthood (P70 - P74) compared with vehicle-treated mice...
February 2019: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Sophia E R Bogaty, Jacob J Crouse, Ian B Hickie, Daniel F Hermens
INTRODUCTION: Evidence suggests that patients with psychosis who have a history of cannabis use, but currently abstain, demonstrate superior cognitive performance than patients who have never used cannabis. The present study aimed to determine the neurocognitive profiles of patients who are in adolescence or early adulthood, when both illness- and drug-onset typically occur. METHODS: Subjects were 24 cannabis-using and 79 cannabis-naïve psychosis patients between 16 and 25 years of age...
January 9, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Enrico Capuzzi, Elena Pini, Maria Rosaria Malerba, Francesca Cova, Annamaria Lax, Sara Mauri, Alessandra Ornaghi, Milena Provenzi, Paola Rubelli, Maria Ripalta Sergio, Emanuele Truisi, Massimo Clerici
BACKGROUND: Prison mental health care is a significant topic which has been already studied and described in literature, particularly because of important implications both in the prison and in the health care system. It's not uncommon that inmates suffering from mental disorders are referred to high security forensic services (HSFS) but, to date, studies assessing factors associated with relevant referrals to these services are missing. So, the aim of our study is to investigate socio-demographic, criminological, psychopathological and toxicological variables among those who were referred to HSFS as compared to their non-referred counterpart...
January 2019: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Olesya Ajnakina, Anthony S David, Robin M Murray
At Risk Mental State (ARMS) clinics are specialised mental health services for young, help-seeking people, thought to be at ultra-high risk of developing psychosis. Their stated purpose is to reduce transitions from the ARMS state to clinical psychotic disorder. Reports of ARMS clinics provide 'evidence-based recommendations' or 'guidance' for the treatment of such individuals, and claim that such clinics prevent the development of psychosis. However, we note that in an area with a very well-developed ARMS clinic (South London), only a very small proportion (4%) of patients with first episode psychosis had previously been seen at this clinic with symptoms of the ARMS...
December 26, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Luccas S Coutinho, Hianna Honorato, Cinthia H Higuchi, Daniel A Cavalcante, Sintia Belangeiro, Mariane Noto, Rodrigo A Bressan, Quirino Cordeiro, Cristiano Noto, Ary Gadelha
Introduction: Cannabis use increases the risk of developing psychosis, and subjects with psychosis are more likely to use cannabis. However, studies on the influence of cannabis on psychotic dimensions, response to treatment, and functional outcomes showed conflicting results. Such heterogeneity may be due the inclusion of patients who were already under treatment, and lack of specificity in evaluations. We investigated whether cannabis use yields distinct symptom profiles and functionality in a cohort of antipsychotic-naïve patients at first episode of psychosis (FEP)...
June 2019: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Hanna J Szkudlarek, Sagar J Desai, Justine Renard, Brian Pereira, Christopher Norris, Christina E L Jobson, Nagalingam Rajakumar, Brian L Allman, Steven R Laviolette
The use of cannabis for therapeutic and recreational purposes is growing exponentially. Nevertheless, substantial questions remain concerning the potential cognitive and affective side-effects associated with cannabis exposure. In particular, the effects of specific marijuana-derived phytocannabinoids on neural regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are of concern, given the role of the PFC in both executive cognitive function and affective processing. The main biologically active phytocannabinoids, ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), interact with multiple neurotransmitter systems important for these processes directly within the PFC...
November 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Eliza Jacobs-Brichford, Kirk F Manson, Jamie D Roitman
Cannabis is one of the most commonly used drugs among adolescents, with initial use beginning between the ages of 12 to 17. Although often perceived as a 'soft drug', both short- and long-term use have been associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including cognitive impairment, increased risk of substance abuse, and heightened risk of psychosis or schizophrenia in individuals with a predisposition. Further, the severity of these impairments is closely linked to initiation of use, i.e. earlier use increases risk...
February 1, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Stephanie M Perez, Jennifer J Donegan, Angela M Boley, David D Aguilar, Andrea Giuffrida, Daniel J Lodge
Adolescent cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for schizophrenia; however, it is neither necessary nor sufficient. Previous studies examining this association have focused primarily on the role of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) with relatively little known about a key regulatory protein, the cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1 (CNRIP1). CNRIP1 is an intracellular protein that interacts with the C-terminal tail of CB1R and regulates its intrinsic activity. Previous studies have demonstrated aberrant CNRIP1 DNA promoter methylation in post-mortem in human patients with schizophrenia, and we have recently reported decreased methylation of the CNRIP1 DNA promoter in the ventral hippocampus (vHipp) of a rodent model of schizophrenia susceptibility...
December 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
James G Scott, Lori Matuschka, Solja Niemelä, Jouko Miettunen, Brett Emmerson, Antti Mustonen
There has been emerging evidence of an association between tobacco smoking and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). Two meta-analyses have reported that people who smoke tobacco have an ~2-fold increased risk of incident schizophrenia or psychosis, even after adjusting for confounding factors. This study aimed to critically appraise the research which has examined the association between tobacco smoking and SSD against the Bradford Hill criteria for causality, to determine the strength of the evidence for a causal relationship...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Anna Waterreus, Patsy Di Prinzio, Mathew T Martin-Iverson, Vera A Morgan
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows cannabis use is associated with lower rates of metabolic dysregulation. Despite cannabis impacting each sex differently, few studies have examined the metabolic profile of male and female cannabis users separately. Our aim was to investigate sex differences in the impact of cannabis use on metabolic syndrome in adults with psychotic illness. METHOD: Data from 1078 men and 735 women interviewed in the second Australian national survey of psychosis were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to model separately, for each sex, the influence of no, occasional and frequent past-year cannabis use on metabolic syndrome, adjusting for potential covariates including antipsychotic medication, smoking, and physical activity...
November 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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