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Variability + Entropy

Omid Rahmati, Ali Golkarian, Trent Biggs, Saskia Keesstra, Farnoush Mohammadi, Ioannis N Daliakopoulos
Land subsidence caused by land use change and overexploitation of groundwater is an example of mismanagement of natural resources, yet subsidence remains difficult to predict. In this study, the relationship between land subsidence features and geo-environmental factors is investigated by comparing two machine learning algorithms (MLA): maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and genetic algorithm rule-set production (GARP) algorithms in the Kashmar Region, Iran. Land subsidence features (N = 79) were mapped using field surveys...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Carla Caballero, Keith Davids, Ben Heller, Jonathan Wheat, Francisco J Moreno
BACKGROUND: Motor variability has been related to motor control playing a functional role in human adaptive behaviours. However, the direction of the relationship between variability and motor control can be unclear. The specific relations that exist between task constraints and movement (re)organization could explain some of this controversy. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study sought to understand whether manipulation of task constraints result in changes in the magnitude or structure of motor system variability observed in a basic walking task...
February 4, 2019: Gait & Posture
Carlos R García-Alonso, Nerea Almeda, José A Salinas-Pérez, Mencía R Gutiérrez-Colosía, José J Uriarte-Uriarte, Luis Salvador-Carulla
Evidence-informed strategic planning is a top priority in Mental Health (MH) due to the burden associated with this group of disorders and its societal costs. However, MH systems are highly complex, and decision support tools should follow a systems thinking approach that incorporates expert knowledge. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new Decision Support System (DSS) to improve knowledge on the health ecosystem, resource allocation and management in regional MH planning. The Efficient Decision Support-Mental Health (EDeS-MH) is a DSS that integrates an operational model to assess the Relative Technical Efficiency (RTE) of small health areas, a Monte-Carlo simulation engine (that carries out the Monte-Carlo simulation technique), a fuzzy inference engine prototype and basic statistics as well as system stability and entropy indicators...
2019: PloS One
Xiao Han, Yanlong Guo, Hong Gao, Jianmin Ma, Manjie Sang, Sheng Zhou, Tao Huang, Xiaoxuan Mao
Lung cancer as one of the major causes of cancer mortality has been demonstrated to be closely related to the ambient atmospheric environment, but little has been done in the synthetic evaluation of the linkage between cancer mortality and combined impact of ambient air pollution and meteorological conditions. The present study determined the environmental suitability for female lung cancer mortality associated with air contaminants and meteorological variables. A novel fuzzy matter-element method was applied to identify the spatial distribution and regions for the environmental suitability for the female lung cancer mortality across China in 2013...
February 12, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alexis Arce-Alvarez, Claudia Melipillán, David C Andrade, Camilo Toledo, Noah J Marcus, Rodrigo Del Rio
BACKGROUND: Hypertonia is characterized by increased resting muscle tone. Previous studies have shown that adult patients with hypertonia displayed autonomic imbalance. However, cardiac sympatho-vagal control in infants with hypertonia have not been explored. The main aim was to estimate cardiac autonomic control in infants with hypertonia using heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: Thirty infants (0-2 years old) were studied. Heart rate (HR) and R-R interval time series were obtained in 15 Control and 15 Hypertonia infants...
January 30, 2019: Pediatric Research
Hakan Kavur
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a zoonotic infectious disease caused mainly by Leishmania infantum Nicolle, 1908 (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatida) transmitted by dominant species Phlebotomus tobbi Adler & Theodor (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Adana, Turkey. CL has been reported to be detected commonly in low-socioeconomic status population scattered in rural areas. The environmental determinants are relatively poorly understood, especially in Adana despite the fact that Adana is endemic foci of CL. The subject of this study was the current and future probability model of P...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
S Bonilla-Bedoya, Anabel Estrella-Bastidas, Juan Ramón Molina, Miguel Ángel Herrera
The ecosystem services provided by tropical forests are affected by deforestation. Territorial management strategies aim to prevent and mitigate forest loss. Therefore, modeling potential land use changes is important for forest management, monitoring, and evaluation. This study determined whether there are relationships between forest vulnerability to deforestation (potential deforestation distribution) and the forest management policies applied in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Proxy and underlying variables were used to construct a statistical model, based on the principle of maximum entropy that could predict potential land use changes...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sharif A Mukul, Mohammed Alamgir, Md Shawkat I Sohel, Petina L Pert, John Herbohn, Stephen M Turton, Md Saiful I Khan, Shifath Ahmed Munim, A H M Ali Reza, William F Laurance
The Sundarbans, in southern coastal Bangladesh, is the world's largest surviving mangrove habitat and the last stronghold of tiger adapted to living in a mangrove ecosystem. Using MaxEnt (maximum entropy modeling), current distribution data, land-use/land cover and bioclimatic variables, we modeled the likely future distribution of the globally endangered Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. We used two climatic scenarios (i.e., RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide projections of suitable habitats of Bengal tigers in 2050 and 2070...
January 30, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Sarah Stegink, Alison M Elliott, Christopher Burton
BACKGROUND: Managing demand for urgent and unscheduled care is a major problem for health services globally. A particular issue is that some patients appear to make heavy use of services, including primary care out of hours. We hypothesised that greater variation (statistical complexity) in reasons for attending primary care out of hours services may be a useful marker of patients at high risk of ongoing heavy service use. METHODS: We analysed an anonymised dataset of contacts with the primary care out of hours care for Scotland in 2011...
February 8, 2019: BMC Health Services Research
Hideyoshi Yanagisawa, Oto Kawamata, Kazutaka Ueda
Acceptance of novelty depends on the receiver's emotional state. This paper proposes a novel mathematical model for predicting emotions elicited by the novelty of an event under different conditions. It models two emotion dimensions, arousal and valence, and considers different uncertainty levels. A state transition from before experiencing an event to afterwards is assumed, and a Bayesian model estimates a posterior distribution as being proportional to the product of a prior distribution and a likelihood function...
2019: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Richard Raubertas, Jeremy Beech, Wendy Watson, Steven Fox, Scott Tiesma, David B Gilberto, Ashleigh Bone, Patricia A Rebbeck, Liza T Gantert, Stacey Conarello, Walter Knapp, Tasha Gray, Larry Handt, Cai Li
Until recently, preclinical and clinical work on diabetes has focused on the understanding of blood glucose elevation and its detrimental metabolic sequelae. The advent of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology now allows real time monitoring of blood glucose levels as a time series, and thus the exploration of glucose dynamics at short time scales. Previous work has shown decreases in the complexity of glucose dynamics, as measured by multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis, in diabetes in humans, mice, and rats...
February 5, 2019: Scientific Reports
Muhammad Idrees Afridi, Muhammad Qasim, Abderrahim Wakif, Abid Hussanan
The primary objective of the present work is to study the effects of heat transfer and entropy production in a nanofluid flow over a curved surface. The influences of Lorentz force and magnetic heating caused by the applied uniform magnetic field and energy dissipation by virtue of frictional heating are considered in the problem formulation. The effects of variable thermal conductivity are also encountered in the present model. The dimensional governing equations are reduced to dimensionless form by introducing the similarity transformations...
February 2, 2019: Nanomaterials
John P Bois, Chris Scott, Panithaya Chareonthaitawee, Raymond J Gibbons, Martin Rodriguez-Porcel
BACKGROUND: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is commonly used to assess patients with cardiovascular disease. However, in certain scenarios, it may have limited specificity in the identification of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease (e.g., false positive), potentially resulting in additional unnecessary testing and treatment. Phase analysis (PA) is an emerging, highly reproducible quantitative technology that can differentiate normal myocardial activation (synchrony) from myocardial scar (dyssynchrony)...
January 31, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Elena Daprati, Angela Sirigu, Michel Desmurget, Eugenio Martinelli, Daniele Nico
Faced with a novel task some people enthusiastically embark in it and work with determination, while others soon lose interest and progressively reduce their efforts. Although cognitive neuroscience has explored the behavioural and neural features of apathy, the why's and how's of positive engagement are only starting to be understood. Stemming from the observation that the left hemisphere is commonly associated to a proactive ('do something') disposition, we run a preliminary study exploring the possibility that individual variability in eagerness to engage in cognitive tasks could reflect a preferred left- or right-hemisphere functioning mode...
January 31, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Rahul Soni, Manivannan Muniyandi
Context: Reliable quantitative measure of meditation is still elusive. Although electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) are known as quantitative measures of meditation, effects of meditation on EEG and HRV may well take long time as these measures are involuntarily controlled. Effect of mediation on respiration is well known; however, quantitative measures of respiration during meditation have not been studied. Aims: Breath rate variability (BRV) as an alternate measure of meditation even over a short duration is proposed...
January 2019: International Journal of Yoga
Ângelo Brito, Paulo Roriz, Pedro Silva, Ricardo Duarte, Júlio Garganta
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of different pitch surfaces (artificial turf, natural turf and dirt field) on positioning and displacement of young soccer players (age: 13.4 ± 0.5 yrs; body height: 161.82 ± 7.52 cm; body mass: 50.79 ± 7.22 kg and playing experience: 3.5 ± 1.4 yrs). Data were collected using GPS units which allowed to calculate spatial distribution variability, assessed by measuring entropy of individual distribution maps (ShannEn). Ellipsoidal areas (m2) representing players' displacement on the pitch, centred on the average players' positional coordinates, were also calculated, with axes corresponding to the standard deviations of the displacement in the longitudinal and lateral directions...
December 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Zhongwu Wang, Xin Huang, Jinlong Zhu, Binghui Ge, Kerong Deng, Xiaotong Wu, Tianyuan Xiao, Tian Jiang, Zewei Quan, Y Charles Cao
Nanocube (NC) assemblies display complex superlattice behaviors, which require a systematic understanding of their nucle-ation and growth as well transformation towards construction of a consistent superlattice phase diagram. This work made use of Fe3O4 NCs with controlled environments, and assembled NCs into three dimensional (3D) superlattices of simple cubic (sc), body-centered cubic (bcc) and face-centered cubic (fcc), acute and obtuse rhombohedral (rh) polymorphs and 2D su-perlattices of square and hexagon...
January 28, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Abdelkader Labidi, Asier M Salaberria, Susana C M Fernandes, Jalel Labidi, Manef Abderrabba
Dyes are classified as one of the major pollutants of water. They have negative impacts not only on environment but also on human health. In fact, wastewater that contains these harmful substances requires many types of treatments. Therefore, alternative methods and adsorption agents are needed. Herein, we propose to evaluate the decolorization of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) as two models of soluble dyes from water using chitin and chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide. Furthermore, the applicability of these biomacromolecules as alternative adsorption agents, their sticking probability and desorption were also examined...
January 24, 2019: Materials
Francisco J Rescalvo, María A Ripoll, Elisabet Suarez, Antolino Gallego
The purchase price of any forest plantation depends on the quality of its raw wood, and specifically, variables such as density, orientation of the fibers, bending strength, and bending MoE (Modulus of Elasticity). The elastic waves propagation velocity has become one of the most popular parameters to evaluate the wood in standing trees. This study had two objectives: (1) Show how this velocity is clearly affected by the clone, the location of the crop, and the measurement season of poplar crops; and (2) apply the Akaike information criterion to determinate the arrival time of the waves, on the basis of the entropy of the signals recorded by the piezoelectric sensors placed on the trunk of the tree...
January 24, 2019: Materials
Xufeng Fei, George Christakos, Rui Xiao, Zhouqiao Ren, Yue Liu, Xiaonan Lv
Soil heavy metal pollution can be a serious threat to human health and the environment. The accurate mapping of the spatial distribution of soil heavy metal pollutant concentrations enables the detection of high pollution areas and facilitates pollution source apportionment and control. To make full use of auxiliary soil properties information and show that they can improve mapping, a synthesis of the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) theory and the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model is proposed and implemented in the study of the Shanghai City soils (China)...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
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