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Alexis J Breen, Clémence C Bonneaud, Susan D Healy, Lauren M Guillette
One source of public information may be the enduring products of others' behaviour, such as discarded tools or vacated nests. Here, we examined whether observation of a nest affects the material captive zebra finch males prefer when they construct their first nest. It does: for first-time nest construction, males that viewed only an empty cage preferred the colour of material each initially favoured but those males that had observed a pre-built nest of material of their non-preferred colour lost their material-colour preference altogether...
February 14, 2019: Animal Cognition
Adil Omer, Ester Engelman, Khushbir Bath, Alan V Krauthamer, Leszek Pisinski
Remote Cerebellar Hemorrhage is a rare entity that manifests spontaneously after supratentorial craniotomy and spinal surgeries. We present a 53-year-old male who was admitted due to subdural hematoma along the left frontoparietotemporal convexity. After treatment of the subdural hematoma with craniotomy and evacuation, he developed remote cerebellar hemorrhage 1 week later. Brain computed tomography demonstrated the zebra sign. Follow-up imaging showed complete recovery without any neurologic symptoms or signs...
March 2019: Radiology Case Reports
Daniel Normen Düring, Mariana Diales Rocha, Falk Dittrich, Manfred Gahr, Richard Hans Robert Hahnloser
Expansion microscopy and light sheet imaging (ExLSM) provide a viable alternative to existing tissue clearing and large volume imaging approaches. The analysis of intact volumes of brain tissue presents a distinct challenge in neuroscience. Recent advances in tissue clearing and light sheet microscopy have re-addressed this challenge and blossomed into a plethora of protocols with diverse advantages and disadvantages. While refractive index matching achieves near perfect transparency and allows for imaging at large depths, the resolution of cleared brains is usually limited to the micrometer range...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Emily Bennitt, Hattie L A Bartlam-Brooks, Tatjana Y Hubel, Alan M Wilson
Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are increasingly being used recreationally, commercially and for wildlife research, but very few studies have quantified terrestrial mammalian reactions to UAS approaches. We used two Vertical Take-off and Landing (VTOL) UAS to approach seven herbivore species in the Moremi Game Reserve, Botswana, after securing the relevant permissions. We recorded responses to 103 vertical and 120 horizontal approaches, the latter from three altitudes above ground level (AGL). We ran mixed logistic regressions to identify factors triggering (i) any response and (ii) an evasive response...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Dhillon B Zaver, Nathan T Douthit
The case describes a 25-year-old Caucasian female diagnosed with Alexander's disease (AxD) as an outpatient after extensive inpatient workup. Her presenting complaints included incontinence, clumsiness, seizures, dysphagia, and dysarthria. She was also found to have pancytopenia and dysautonomia. A full neurologic and hematologic workup yielded very little results, until a thorough literature search of her presenting complaints and radiologic findings pointed to adult-onset Alexander's Disease. Alexander's disease is a rare genetic leukodystrophy with a broad variety of presentations...
2019: Case Reports in Medicine
Marissa O'Callaghan, Aurelie Fabre, Michael Keane, Timothy J McDonnell
Our case series describes two siblings with complex fibrosing lung diseases. The first patient was initially given a diagnosis of sarcoidosis based on imaging and exclusion of alternative diagnoses. A number of years after diagnosis, he had rapid deterioration of his disease and following surgical lung biopsy, his lung fibrosis was re-classified as chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (cHP) with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. He subsequently underwent successful lung transplantation. The second patient presented with rapidly progressing exertional dyspnoea...
February 11, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Christian Lehsing, Florian Ruch, Felix M Kölsch, Georg N Dyszak, Christian Haag, Ilja T Feldstein, Steven W Savage, Alex R Bowers
PURPOSE: Interaction is the process of behavior adaption between two or more participants primarily based on what they visually perceive. It is an important aspect of traffic participation and supports a safe and efficient flow of traffic. However, prior driving simulator studies investigating the effects of vision impairment have typically used pre-programmed pedestrians that did not interact with the human driver. In the current study we used a linked pedestrian and driving simulator setting to increase the ecological validity of the experimental paradigm...
February 9, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Wales A Carter, John P Whiteman, Clara Cooper-Mullin, Seth D Newsome, Scott R McWilliams
Although tissue fatty acid (FA) composition has been linked to whole-animal performance (e.g., aerobic endurance, metabolic rate, postexercise recovery) in a wide range of animal taxa, we do not adequately understand the pace of changes in FA composition and its implications for the ecology of animals. Therefore, we used a C4 to C3 diet shift experiment and compound-specific δ13 C analysis to estimate the turnover rates of FAs in the polar and neutral fractions of flight muscle lipids (corresponding to membranes and lipid droplets) of exercised and sedentary zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
March 2019: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Sarah Golüke, Hans-Joachim Bischof, Jacob Engelmann, Barbara A Caspers, Uwe Mayer
Experiments from our research group have demonstrated that the olfactory sense of birds, which has been considered as unimportant for a long time, plays a prominent role as communication channel in social behaviour. Odour cues are used e.g. by zebra finch chicks to recognize the mother, by adult birds to distinguish their own eggs from others, or to recognize kin. While there is quite a lot of evidence for the importance of odour for social behaviour, it is not known as yet which brain areas may be involved in the processing of socially relevant odours...
February 7, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
A Steinmetz, A Bernhard, C Minkwitz, D Böttcher
Microsurgical procedures in zoo and wildlife animals are challenging because of the reduced perioperative sterility and postoperative care. This case report describes the positive result of the surgical treatment of a perforated corneal ulceration with prolapsed iris in an 18-year-old Grévy's zebra mare. The postoperative development and the results of the histomorphological examination 3.5 years after surgery are described.
February 8, 2019: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Kathryn C Asalone, Megan M Nelson, John R Bracht
Subtractive genomics can be used in any research where the goal is to identify the sequence of a gene, protein, or general region that is embedded in a larger genomic context. Subtractive genomics enables a researcher to isolate a target sequence of interest (T) by comprehensive sequencing and subtracting out known genetic elements (reference, R). The method can be used to identify novel sequences such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, viruses, or germline restricted chromosomes, and is particularly useful when T cannot be easily isolated from R...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ronald J A Wanders, Frederic M Vaz, Sacha Ferdinandusse, André B P van Kuilenburg, Stephan Kemp, Clara D van Karnebeek, Hans R Waterham, Riekelt H Houtkooper
The laboratory diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism has been revolutionized in recent years, thanks to the amazing developments in the field of DNA sequencing including whole exome and whole genome sequencing (WES and WGS). Interpretation of the results coming from WES and/or WGS analysis is definitely not trivial especially since the biological relevance of many of the variants identified by WES and/or WGS, have not been tested experimentally and prediction programs like POLYPHEN-2 and SIFT are far from perfect...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Mary Caswell Stoddard, Daniel Osorio
Animal coloration patterns, from zebra stripes to bird egg speckles, are remarkably varied. With research on the perception, function, and evolution of animal patterns growing rapidly, we require a convenient framework for quantifying their diversity, particularly in the contexts of camouflage, mimicry, mate choice, and individual recognition. Ideally, patterns should be defined by their locations in a low-dimensional pattern space that represents their appearance to their natural receivers, much as color is represented by color spaces...
February 2019: American Naturalist
Chao Jiang, Fu-Yan Liu, Yan Jin, Yuan Yuan, Yu-Yang Zhao, Lu-Qi Huang
Hippocampus is a precious animal medicine in Chinese herbal medicines. Numerous seahorse species possessing similar morphology were used as commercial hippocampus in herbal markets. Clarifing the zoological of commercial hippocampus in herbal markets is a crucial issue, which contributed to establish authentication and quality control standard. This study investigated 1 156 dried seahorse samples collected from eight main herbal markets using CO Ⅰ fragment DNA sequencing coupling with morphological identification...
December 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Samantha Carouso-Peck, Michael H Goldstein
Learning of song in birds provides a powerful model for human speech development [1-3]. However, the degree to which songbirds and humans share social mechanisms of vocal learning is unknown. Although it has been demonstrated as a vocal learning mechanism in human infants [3-6], learning via active social feedback is considered rare and atypical among non-human animals [7]. We report here the first evidence that song learning in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), the most common model species of vocal learning and development, utilizes socially guided vocal learning...
January 25, 2019: Current Biology: CB
Michael Briga, Blanca Jimeno, Simon Verhulst
Whether lifespan scales to age-associated changes in health and disease is an urgent question in societies with increasing lifespan. Body mass is associated with organismal functioning in many species, and often changes with age. We here tested in zebra finches whether two factors that decreased lifespan, sex and poor environmental quality, accelerated the onset of body mass declines. We subjected 597 birds for nine years to experimentally manipulated foraging costs (harsh = H, benign = B) during development (small vs large brood size) and in adulthood (easy vs hard foraging conditions) in a 2 × 2 design...
January 31, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Jan Pluháček, Vladimíra Tučková, Sarah R B King, Radka Šárová
Overmarking occurs when one individual places its scent mark directly on top of the scent mark of another individual. Although it is almost ubiquitous among terrestrial mammals, we know little about the function of overmarking. In addition, almost all studies on mammalian overmarking behaviour dealt with adult individuals. Reports on this behaviour in juveniles are extremely rare, yet may elucidate the function of this behaviour. We tested four mutually non-exclusive hypotheses which might explain this behaviour in juveniles: (1) conceal the individual's scent identity, (2) announcement of association with other group members, especially the mother-i...
January 30, 2019: Animal Cognition
François Friocourt, Peter Kozulin, Morgane Belle, Rodrigo Suárez, Nicolas Di-Poï, Linda J Richards, Paolo Giacobini, Alain Chédotal
In Bilaterians, commissural neurons project their axons across the midline of the nervous system to target neurons on the opposite side. In mammals, midline crossing at the level of the hindbrain and spinal cord requires the Robo3 receptor which is transiently expressed by all commissural neurons. Unlike other Robo receptors, mammalian Robo3 receptors do not bind Slit ligands and promote midline crossing. Surprisingly, not much is known about Robo3 distribution and mechanism of action in other vertebrate species...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Zachary W Bell, Peter Lovell, Claudio V Mello, Ping K Yip, Julia M George, David F Clayton
Songbirds communicate through learned vocalizations, using a forebrain circuit with convergent similarity to vocal-control circuitry in humans. This circuit is incomplete in female zebra finches, hence only males sing. We show that the UTS2B gene, encoding Urotensin-Related Peptide (URP), is uniquely expressed in a key pre-motor vocal nucleus (HVC), and specifically marks the neurons that form a male-specific projection that encodes timing features of learned song. UTS2B-expressing cells appear early in males, prior to projection formation, but are not observed in the female nucleus...
January 28, 2019: Scientific Reports
E McKenna Kelly
The nonapeptides (oxytocin, vasopressin, and their non-mammalian homologs) regulate a number of social behaviors across vertebrates including monogamous pair bonds in mammals. Recent work on zebra finches has shown an important role for these neurohormones in establishing avian pair bonds as well. However, studies on the role of nonapeptides in maintaining pair bonds after pair formation are lacking. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of an oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA) on pair maintenance behaviors in the monogamous zebra finch...
January 25, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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