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Allergen components

Zhi-Juan Xie, Kai Guan, Jia Yin
Seasonal allergic asthma prevalence has been increasing over the last decades and is one of global health concerns now. Pollen is one of the main reasons to cause seasonal allergic asthma and influenced by multiple risk factors. Thunderstorm-related asthma is a typical type of seasonal allergic asthma that thunderstorms occurring can induce severe asthma attacks during pollen season. The diagnosis of seasonal allergic asthma relies on precise medical history, skin prick tests (SPT) and specific IgE detection...
2019: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Zhen Zhang, Zelang Cai, Yibo Hou, Jiayun Hu, Yongshen He, Jiajie Chen, Kunmei Ji
The detection of allergen‑specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E is an important method for the diagnosis of IgE‑mediated allergic diseases. The sensitivity of the indirect IgE‑ELISA method against allergen extracts is limited by interference from high IgG titers and low quantities of effectual allergen components in extracts. To overcome these limitations, a novel capture IgE‑ELISA based on a recombinant Der f 1/Der f 2 fusion protein (rDer f 1/2) was developed to enhance the sensitivity to IgEs that bind allergens from the house dust mite (HDM) species Dermatophagoides farina...
March 18, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
Tahereh Derakhshan, Rudra Bhowmick, James H Meinkoth, Jerry Ritchey, Heather Gappa-Fahlenkamp
Mast cells (MCs) play critical roles in the pathogenesis of IgE- and non-IgE-mediated immune responses, as well as host defense against parasites, bacteria, and viruses. Due to the effect of the extracellular matrix components on the tissue morphogenesis and cell behavior, utilizing a tissue model that mimics MC microenvironmental conditions <i>in vivo</i> has greater relevance for <i>in vitro</i> studies. For this work, MCs were developed within a connective tissue-equivalent model and cell function was examined in response to an allergen...
March 21, 2019: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Lydia Wong, Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Bee Wah Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Shellfish is an important cause of food allergy worldwide, and a major cause of food-triggered anaphylaxis. Despite the wide variety of shellfish, there is considerable serological and clinical cross-reactivity of major shellfish allergens, and accurate diagnosis remains a challenge in the management of shellfish allergy. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel minor allergens have been discovered and characterized, and advances in component resolved diagnostics have provided insights into the prevalence of sensitization and their clinical importance in shellfish allergy...
March 18, 2019: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Philip E Johnson, Melanie Downs
MS offers a flexible and precise alternative to traditional methods for allergen detection and quantitation. However, this flexibility also engenders many ways of acquiring information and translating it to simple, clear data useful to end-users. Currently, methods for performing data analysis for allergen detection by MS are unstandardized, and it is therefore difficult to compare different analytical methods. We identify three key components of data analysis: detection of positive signals, calibration, and signal integration...
March 19, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Alisha Prasad, Tiffany Tran, Manas Ranjan Gartia
Food safety and access to systematic approaches for ensuring detection of food hazards is an important issue in most developing countries. With the arrival of paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) as a promising, rapid, easy-to-use, and low-cost analytical tool, we demonstrated a simple microfluidic-based titration study for the analysis of packaged fruit juices. Similar, to the titration experiments using traditional glassware in chemistry laboratories, in this study the titration experiments were developed using paper microfluidics for the analysis of several analytes such as pH, vitamin C, sugars, and preservatives present in the packaged fruit juices...
March 14, 2019: Sensors
Indu Choudhary, Du Hyeon Hwang, Hyunkyoung Lee, Won Duk Yoon, Jinho Chae, Chang Hoon Han, Seungshic Yum, Changkeun Kang, Euikyung Kim
Nowadays, proliferation of jellyfish has become a severe matter in many coastal areas around the world. Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai is one of the most perilous organisms and leads to significant deleterious outcomes such as harm to the fishery, damage the coastal equipment, and moreover, its envenomation can be hazardous to the victims. Till now, the components of Nemopilema nomurai venom (NnV) are unknown owing to scant transcriptomics and genomic data. In the current research, we have explored a proteomic approach to identify NnV components and their interrelation with pathological effects caused by the jellyfish sting...
March 8, 2019: Toxins
Sandra Louise Brandi, Lars K Poulsen, Lene Heise Garvey
BACKGROUND: In pollen-allergic patients, cross-reacting allergens including cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) and profilins may result in positive natural rubber latex (NRL)-specific IgE (sIgE) antibody tests but the relationship between this sensitization and clinical NRL type 1 allergy is poorly described. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine the frequency and clinical relevance of NRL sIgE in grass pollen-sensitized individuals and to investigate which NRL allergen components these individuals were sensitized to...
March 8, 2019: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Hidde Elferink, Emiel Rossing, Chiung-Hui Huang, Bee Wah Lee, Linqiu Cao, Dianne J Delsing, Andre Groeneveld, Thomas J Boltje
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are widely used in the food industry as prebiotics and in very rare cases, can lead to an allergic reaction. Due to the microheterogeneity of GOS it is very difficult to extract pure and well defined oligosaccharides to establish which component is responsible for the observed allergenicity. Herein, we report the chemical synthesis of a suspected allergen 4PX and three closely related oligosaccharides based on a modular approach. The fact that synthesized 4PX and a regioisomer did not cause basophil activation in subjects with confirmed GOS-allergy excludes both tetrasaccharides as key-epitopes in GOS-allergenicity in Singapore...
March 7, 2019: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Uta Jappe, Christian Schwager, Andra B Schromm, Nestor González Roldán, Karina Stein, Holger Heine, Katarzyna A Duda
Molecular allergology research has provided valuable information on the structure and function of single allergenic molecules. There are several allergens in food and inhalant allergen sources that are able to interact with lipid ligands via different structural features: hydrophobic pockets, hydrophobic cavities, or specialized domains. For only a few of these allergens information on their associated ligands is already available. Several of the allergens are clinically relevant, so that it is highly probable that the individual structural features with which they interact with lipids have a direct effect on their allergenic potential, and thus on allergy development...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Buzzulini Francesca, Da Re Mirella, Scala Enrico, Martelli Paola, Conte Mariaelisabetta, Brusca Ignazio, Villalta Danilo
BACKGROUND: Molecular allergy has significantly improved the quality of allergy diagnosis; however, the positioning of singleplex and multiplex assays in the diagnostic algorithm is still a matter of debate. METHODS: Aim of the study was to test the analytical performance of the recently commercialized Allergy Explorer-ALEX® in a selected population (105 allergic patients and 15 negative controls), comparing it with the reference ImmunoCAP® method and with skin prick test (SPT)...
February 26, 2019: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Yeqi Li, Yuanwei Zhang, Ling Lu
The opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, which is one of the primary airborne ascomycete pathogens and allergens worldwide, causes invasive fungal infections, which have high morbidity and mortality rates among immunosuppressed patients. The abuse of azole antifungals results in serious drug resistance in clinical therapy. Thus, a thorough understanding of the azole drug resistance mechanism and screening of antifungal agents with a novel mode of action and new drug targets are required to fight against drug resistance...
April 1, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Barbara Sozańska
Living on a farm and having contact with rural exposures have been proposed as one of the most promising ways to be protected against allergy and asthma development. There is a significant body of epidemiological evidence that consumption of raw milk in childhood and adulthood in farm but also nonfarm populations can be one of the most effective protective factors. The observation is even more intriguing when considering the fact that milk is one of the most common food allergens in childhood. The exact mechanisms underlying this association are still not well understood, but the role of raw milk ingredients such as proteins, fat and fatty acids, and bacterial components has been recently studied and its influence on the immune function has been documented...
February 22, 2019: Nutrients
Harald Lux, Klaus Lenz, Lygia Therese Budnik, Xaver Baur
OBJECTIVES: To determine the test performance parameters for the retrievable range of high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) occupational allergens and to evaluate the impact of allergenic components and the implementation of measures for test validation. METHODS: A protocol with predefined objectives and inclusion criteria was the basis of an electronic literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (time period 1967-2016). The specific inhalation challenge and serial peak flow measurements were the reference standards for the specific IgE (sIgE) test parameters...
February 25, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Kyoko Tonomura, Rai Fujimoto, Yosuke Okuda, Norihito Iba, Sachiko Sakamoto, Emi Kosugi, Hiroko Kishida, Hiroaki Matsuo, Yoko Kataoka
A 16-year-old male high-school student experienced generalized itchy wheal and dyspnea during physical exercise after lunch. Each food material of his lunch was examined using a prick-prick test, allergen-specific IgE test (ImmunoCAP® ), and provocation test. The prick-prick test was positive for black tiger shrimp (raw and heated) and white leg shrimp (heated). Allergen-specific IgE test (ImmunoCAP® ) showed absolutely negativity for all suspected foods. The food-exercise provocation test using heated black tiger shrimp with additional aspirin intake finally induced anaphylaxis...
2019: Arerugī, [Allergy]
S Kespohl, Monika Raulf
Asthmatic patients are suspected of having a higher risk of mold sensitization. Thus, precise diagnosis of fungal sensitization is important. Mold allergen extracts are difficult to standardize, but component-resolved allergy diagnosis may be an alternative to replace extract-based tests. In this research, asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects were studied for their sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus (Asp f), Cladosporium herbarum (Cla h), Penicillium chrysogenum (Pen ch), Alternaria alternata (Alt a), and Aspergillus versicolor (Asp v)...
February 20, 2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Enrico Heffler, Francesca Puggioni, Desideria Descalzi, Francesca Racca, Giorgio Walter Canonica, Giovanni Melioli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The impact of new technologies, especially multiplexed molecular allergy diagnostics based on allergen arrays, on the management of complex patients with respiratory allergies has been important. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, the detailed characteristics of the IgE profile of the patient, such as sensitization to genuine or cross-reacting components or the sensitization to potentially harmful allergens, allow an allergist to tailor treatment in the context of precision medicine rules...
February 15, 2019: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Cheng Peng, Andres Cardenas, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Marie-France Hivert, Diane R Gold, Thomas A Platts-Mills, Xihong Lin, Emily Oken, Lydiana Avila, Juan C Celedón, Scott T Weiss, Andrea A Baccarelli, Augusto A Litonjua, Dawn L DeMeo
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic clocks have been suggested to capture one feature of the complexity between aging and the epigenome. However, little is known about the epigenetic clock in childhood allergy and asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine associations of DNA methylation age (DNAmAge) and epigenetic age acceleration with childhood allergy and asthma. METHODS: We calculated DNAmAge and age acceleration at birth, early childhood, and midchildhood based on the IlluminaHumanMethylation450BeadChip in Project Viva...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Marion Dickson, Cesar Ramirez-Molina, Sidsel Falkencrone, Per S Skov, Edward Hooper-Greenhill, Mike Barker
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria presents as a heterogeneous syndrome characterised by wheals, angioedema or both for greater than six weeks. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) mediates allergen-induced mast cell degranulation via the IgE signalling pathway, a central component of wheal formation and inflammation. In this study, we demonstrate that perfused or topically administered GSK2646264 dose dependently attenuates IgE-mediated histamine release from mast cells in an ex vivo human skin model...
February 8, 2019: British Journal of Pharmacology
Mihaela Zidarn, Maša Robič, Anja Krivec, Mira Šilar, Yvonne Resch-Marat, Susanne Vrtala, Peter Kopač, Nissera Bajrović, Rudolf Valenta, Peter Korošec
BACKGROUND: Confirmation of the clinical relevance of sensitisation is important for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of an in vitro basophil activation test and component-resolved diagnosis in distinguishing between symptomatic allergic rhinitis patients and asymptomatic sensitization to house dust mites (HDMs). METHODS: Thirty-six subjects with a positive skin prick test (SPT) for HDM were divided into a symptomatic (n=17) and an asymptomatic (n=19) group on the basis of their clinical history and a nasal provocation test...
February 7, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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