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soils and rocks

Wazir Muhammad, Matiulluh, Asad Ullah, Sajjad Tahir, Fawad Ullah, Matiulluh Khan
In our environment, various naturally occurring radionuclides are present (both underground and overground) in several places, which results in lifelong human exposure. The radiation dose received by human beings from the radiation emitted by these naturally occurring radionuclides is approximately 87%. Exposure to radiation poses radiological health hazards. To assess the human health hazards from radiation, the concentration of these naturally occurring radionuclides are measured in soil (used for cultivation), building materials (soil, bricks, sand, marble, etc...
February 12, 2019: Reviews on Environmental Health
Yang Zhang, Yaolin Liu, Manqi Jin, Ying Jing, Yi Liu, Yanfang Liu, Wei Sun, Junqing Wei, Yiyun Chen
Wuhan city is the biggest city in central China and has suffered subsidence problems in recent years because of its rapid urban construction. However, longtime and wide range monitoring of land subsidence is lacking. The causes of subsidence also require further study, such as natural conditions and human activities. We use small baseline subset (SBAS) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) method and high-resolution RADARSAT-2 images acquired between 2015 and 2018 to derive subsidence. The SBAS-InSAR results are validated by 56 leveling benchmarks where two readings of elevation were recorded...
February 12, 2019: Sensors
H Alonso, J G Rubiano, J G Guerra, M A Arnedo, A Tejera, P Martel
The Basic Safety Standard (BSS) Directive 2013/59/EURATOM of the European Union (EU) has stated the need for member states to establish national action plans to mitigate their general population's long-term risks of exposure to radon gas. Maps of radon-prone areas provide a useful tool for the development of such plans. This paper presents the maps of radon-prone areas in the Eastern Canary Islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) obtained from assessment of Geogenic Radon Potential (GRP) distribution in the territory...
January 31, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jesús Rodrigo-Comino, Manuel Seeger, Thomas Iserloh, José María Senciales González, José Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, Johannes B Ries
In the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), understanding landscape evolution is essential to design long-term management plans. In agricultural fields, such as the vineyards on steep slopes, the terraces offer one of the most important morphological changes. However, it is not clear if the poorly managed agricultural terraces are optimal to reduce soil erosion and overland flow, although the trafficability is improved. Therefore, the main aim of this research is to compare the differences between initial soil erosion processes on poorly managed terraced vineyards and sloping vineyards at the pedon scale, considering the key role of the SSC (Soil Surface Components)...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Zhaoqiong Chen, Xin Liu, Yingwei Ai, Jiao Chen, Xiaoming Luo, Jingyao Chen, Shihong Zhong
Artificial soil on railway rock-cut slopes may be considerably contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), which may migrate to nearby croplands and pose substantial risks to human and animal health. We investigate the influence of three types of revegetation modes - herbs (HS); herbs and shrubs (HSS); and herbs, shrubs, and trees (HSTS) - on the transportation of these heavy metals in soils. Six representative rock-cut slopes were chosen, and the vegetation, pollutant concentration, phytostabilization, and simulated rainfall were investigated...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mary J Thomas, Emma Collinge, Matthias Witt, Diana Catalina Palacio Lozano, Christopher H Vane, Vicky Moss-Hayes, Mark P Barrow
Staten Island is located in one of the most densely populated regions of the US: the New York/New Jersey Estuary. Marine and industrial oil spills are commonplace in the area, causing the waterways and adjacent marshes to become polluted with a range of petroleum-related contaminants. Using Rock-Eval pyrolysis, the hydrocarbon impact on a salt marsh was assessed at regular intervals down to 90 cm, with several key sampling depths of interest identified for further analysis. Ultrahigh resolution data are obtained by direct infusion (DI) atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) on a 12 T solariX Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR MS) allowing trends in the compositional profile with depth to be observed, such as changes in the relative hydrocarbon intensity and the relative contributions from oxygen- and sulfur-containing groups...
January 22, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Isaac Kwadwo Mpanga, Peteh Mehdi Nkebiwe, Mira Kuhlmann, Vincenza Cozzolino, Alessandro Piccolo, Jörg Geistlinger, Nils Berger, Uwe Ludewig, Günter Neumann
Phosphate-(P)-solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) are important drivers of P cycling in natural and agro-ecosystems. Their use as plant inoculants to improve P acquisition of crops has been investigated for decades. However, limited reproducibility of the expected effects, particularly under field conditions, remains a major challenge. This study demonstrates that the form of nitrogen fertilization has a significant impact on the performance of various fungal and bacterial PSM inoculants in maize grown on neutral to alkaline soils with limited P availability...
January 29, 2019: Microorganisms
Ernst Leitgeb, Subhadip Ghosh, Marcus Dobbs, Michael Englisch, Kerstin Michel
Information on chemical fertility status and on trace element concentrations for Singapore soils is sparse. In this study, concentration and distribution of nutrients and trace elements in forest soils of Singapore, and the effect of geology on the current conditions of soils, were evaluated. Litter and mineral soil samples (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-50 cm) were divided into three groups according to geology (sedimentary rocks, Neogene-Quaternary sediments and igneous rocks). Basic soil properties, exchangeable cations including cation exchange capacity (CEC), and pseudototal concentrations of 17 elements including nutrients and potentially toxic elements (PTE; As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined...
January 21, 2019: Chemosphere
Jun Xiao, Jochen Vogl, Martin Rosner, Li Deng, Zhangdong Jin
Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth. Lack of valid methods for pretreatment and measurement of δ11 B in plant restrict applications of it in the biosphere. Dry ashing, one step cation exchange and micro-sublimation were combined to separate and purify boron (B) in plant tissues. The low procedure blank, high B recovery and the accurate δ11 B values of the plant reference materials demonstrate that this method is suitable and valid for B pretreatment and δ11 B measurement in plant samples by MC-ICP-MS...
May 1, 2019: Talanta
Francesca Giustini, Giancarlo Ciotoli, Alessio Rinaldini, Livio Ruggiero, Mario Voltaggio
A detailed geochemical study on radon related to local geology was carried out in the municipality of Celleno, a little settlement located in the eastern border of the Quaternary Vulsini volcanic district (central Italy). This study included soil-gas and terrestrial gamma dose rate survey, laboratory analyses of natural radionuclides (238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K) activity in rocks and soil samples, and indoor radon measurements carried out in selected private and public dwellings. Soil-gas radon and carbon dioxide concentrations range from 6 to 253 kBq/m3 and from 0...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Christine Strullu-Derrien, Paul Kenrick, Tomasz Goral, Andrew H Knoll
The Lower Devonian Rhynie chert is justly famous for the clear glimpse it offers of early terrestrial ecosystems [1]. Seven species of stem- and crown-group vascular plants have been described from Rhynie, many preserved in growth position [2], as well as 14 species of invertebrate animals, all arthropods [3] save for a single nematode population [4]. While these shed welcome light on early tracheophytes and land animals, modern terrestrial ecosystems additionally contain a diversity of microscopic organisms that are key to ecosystem function, including fungi, protists, and bacteria...
December 31, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Ibrahim Mohamed, Khaled E Eid, Mohamed H H Abbas, Ahmed A Salem, Nevin Ahmed, Maha Ali, Ghulam Mustafa Shah, Chen Fang
Extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides led to dangerous ecological effects and therefore the biological approaches have been widely recommended to prevent further deterioration for the environment. The current study was conducted to explore the potentiality of using single or combined inoculations by mycorrhizae, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescence for controlling the infection of common bean plants with Sclerotium rolfsii on one hand and as bio-fertilizers for improving plants nutritional status on the other hand...
January 11, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sho Ogasawara, Tetsuya Eguchi, Atsushi Nakao, Shigeto Fujimura, Yoshihiko Takahashi, Hisaya Matsunami, Hirofumi Tsukada, Junta Yanai, Takuro Shinano
Weathered micaceous minerals (micas) are able to release potassium ion (K+ ) and fix caesium-137 (137 Cs), both of which reduce soil-to-plant transfer of 137 Cs. Among micas, trioctahedral micas such as biotite is expected to have a stronger ability to supply nonexchangeable K+ and a higher amount of Cs fixation sites than dioctahedral micas such as illite. Although biotite is predominant in granitic soils (G soils), illite is mainly dominant in sedimentary rock soils (S soils). Therefore, we hypothesized that G soils have a lower 137 Cs transfer risk than S soils because of this difference in mineralogy...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
D Dettrick, J Costelloe, M Arora, S Yuen
Determining the rate at which Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) sulfide oxidation occurs in mining waste products is a central requirement for safe and sustainable long term design of storages, including tails storage facilities, ore stockpiles and waste rock dumps. Inappropriate design can result in AMD acidification, mobilisation of heavy metals and pollution of ground and surface waters. The use of soil gas (oxygen) transport modelling to model AMD based sulfide oxidation and potential acidity loads is widespread, but diffusion coefficients used for modelling are based on existing diffusion coefficient models derived for natural and agricultural soils...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Silvia Priscila Dias Monte Blanco, Aparecido Nivaldo Módenes, Fabiano Bisinella Scheufele, Pricila Marin, Karise Schneider, Fernando Rodolfo Espinoza-Quiñones, Paulo Roberto Paraíso, Rosângela Bergamasco
In this work, a physical-chemical, elemental and microbiological groundwater monitoring was performed on wells of the Serra Geral aquifer, located in the western region of the Brazilian state of Paraná, along with an evaluation of the elemental composition of soil sediments in the region of groundwater monitoring. The monitoring was carried out in 10 wells distributed throughout the rural area of the municipality of Toledo-PR. Elemental analyses were performed using the analytical technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry...
December 30, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Madlen Bachran, Sindy Kluge, Margarita Lopez-Fernandez, Andrea Cherkouk
The Arava Valley in is a rock desert within the Great African Rift valley. Soil from this area is covered with a salt crust. Here, we report microbial diversity from arid, naturally saline samples collected near Ein Yahav from the Arava Valley by culture-independent as well as culture-dependent analysis. High-throughput sequencing of the hypervariable region V4 of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the microbial community consists of halophiles from the domain Bacteria as well as Archaea. Bacterial diversity was mainly represented by the genus Salinimicrobium of the order Flavobacteriales within the phylum Bacteroidetes, from the gammaproteobacterial orders Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales as well as representatives from the order Bacillales of the phylum Firmicutes...
December 28, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Nick Vallespir Lowery, Tristan Ursell
The dynamics and stability of ecological communities are intimately linked with the specific interactions-like cooperation or predation-between constituent species. In microbial communities, like those found in soils or the mammalian gut, physical anisotropies produced by fluid flow and chemical gradients impact community structure and ecological dynamics, even in structurally isotropic environments. Although natural communities existing in physically unstructured environments are rare, the role of environmental structure in determining community dynamics and stability remains poorly studied...
December 28, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Giovanni Vinci, Vincenza Cozzolino, Pierluigi Mazzei, Hiarhi Monda, Riccardo Spaccini, Alessandro Piccolo
The ability of Trichoderma harzianum (strain OMG-08) as plant growth promoting fungus (PGPF), was tested on Zea mays plants grown in soil pots added with different inorganic (triple superphosphate and rock phosphate) and organic (cow and horse manure composts) P fertilizers. The effect of treatments was evaluated by following the variations of plants dry biomass and nutrient content, as well as the metabolic changes in plant leaves by both GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. A synergic effect was observed in treatments with both composts and fungus inoculation, in which not only plant growth and P uptake were enhanced, but also the expression of different metabolites related to an improved photosynthetic activity...
2018: PloS One
Maja M Poznanović Spahić, Sanja M Sakan, Bojan M Glavaš-Trbić, Pavle I Tančić, Sandra B Škrivanj, Jovan R Kovačević, Dragan D Manojlović
This study reports the contents and sources of chromium, nickel and cobalt, as well as Al, Ca, Mg, K, Fe and Mn in Vojvodina regions Srem and Central Banat area soil samples. Different methods were applied to identify the sources of the studied elements and to classify the latter as geogenic and/or anthropogenic: modified Tessier sequential extraction, calculation ratio of E/Al, XRPD, correlations and cluster analysis. The sampling methodology was according to the GEMAS project. The results show that increasing content of chromium, cobalt and nickel detected in studied soils can be explained by a distribution pattern and the presence of ultramafic and mafic parent rocks, as well as by significant anthropogenic pollution, mainly originating from the industry at some localities...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Anbazhagan Panjamani, Arun Kumar Katukuri, Reddy G R, Sayed S R Moustafa, Nassir S N Al-Arifi
This study attempts to develop empirical correlations between average penetration resistance ([Formula: see text]), averaged velocities over depth up to bedrock depth ([Formula: see text]) and 30 m ([Formula: see text]) for shallow depth sites (having bedrock at a depth less than 25 m). A total of 63 shallow sites were assessed for penetration resistance values up to the bedrock from Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) and dynamic soil property analysis, i.e., Shear Wave Velocity (VS) from Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves...
2018: PloS One
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