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temporal specification

Ankush Mittal, Motaz Elmahdy Hassan, Joht Singh Chandan, Brian H Willis, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar, Kesvapilla Subramonian
PURPOSE: Urolithiasis is a common condition that poses significant morbidity to patients. There are similarities in the development of certain cancers and urinary tract calculi (UTC), however, little is known about their temporal relationship. This study aims to identify if cancer is a risk factor for the development of UTC. METHODS: A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted for the period 1st January 1990 to 1st May 2016. 124,901 exposed patients identified using clinical codes with newly diagnosed cancer were matched to 476,203 unexposed controls by age, gender, BMI, and general practice...
March 16, 2019: Urolithiasis
Joseph Haymaker, Manan Sharma, Salina Parveen, Fawzy Hashem, Eric B May, Eric T Handy, Chanelle White, Cheryl East, Rhodel Bradshaw, Shirley A Micallef, Mary Theresa Callahan, Sarah Allard, Brienna Anderson, Shani Craighead, Samantha Gartley, Adam Vanore, Kalmia E Kniel, Sultana Solaiman, Anthony Bui, Rianna Murray, Hillary A Craddock, Prachi Kulkarni, Derek Foust, Rico Duncan, Maryam Taabodi, Amy R Sapkota
The microbial quality of irrigation water has increasingly become a concern as a source of contamination for fruits and vegetables. Non-traditional sources of water are being used by more and more growers in smaller, highly diversified farms in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) have been responsible for several outbreaks of infections associated with the consumption of leafy greens. Our study evaluated the prevalence of the "big seven" STEC serogroups and the associated enterohemorrhagic E...
February 13, 2019: Environmental Research
Benedikt Figel, Leonie Brinkmann, Christine Buff, Carina Y Heitmann, David Hofmann, Maximilian Bruchmann, Michael P I Becker, Martin J Herrmann, Thomas Straube
Anticipation of potentially threatening social situations is a key process in social anxiety disorder (SAD). In other anxiety disorders, recent research of neural correlates of anticipation of temporally unpredictable threat suggests a temporally dissociable involvement of amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) with phasic amygdala responses and sustained BNST activation. However, the temporal profile of amygdala and BNST responses during temporal unpredictability of threat has not been investigated in patients suffering from SAD...
February 22, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Zejun Wang, Wenhan Liu, Chunhai Fan, Nan Chen
mRNAs play essential role in gene expression and regulation. Direct visualization of specific intracellular mRNAs can provide key information about mRNA distribution and dynamics that accelerating study of their functionality. This highlights the necessity of characterizing mRNA in mammalian cells with good spatial and temporal resolution. Live cell imaging and tracking of mRNA remains a challenge due to their relatively short half-life and lack of versatile imaging probes. This review provides an overview of current methods of live-cell mRNA imaging, including exogenous hybridization probes and genetically encoded strategies...
March 13, 2019: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Rishi Rajalingham, James J DiCarlo
Extensive research suggests that the inferior temporal (IT) population supports visual object recognition behavior. However, causal evidence for this hypothesis has been equivocal, particularly beyond the specific case of face-selective subregions of IT. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by pharmacologically inactivating individual, millimeter-scale subregions of IT while monkeys performed several core object recognition subtasks, interleaved trial-by trial. First, we observed that IT inactivation resulted in reliable contralateral-biased subtask-selective behavioral deficits...
March 11, 2019: Neuron
Catherine Lebel, Alina Benischek, Bryce Geeraert, John Holahan, Sally Shaywitz, Kirran Bakhshi, Bennett Shaywitz
Left temporal-parietal white matter structure is consistently associated with reading abilities in children. A small number of longitudinal studies show that development of this area over time is altered in children with impaired reading. However, it remains unclear how brain developmental patterns relate to specific reading skills such as fluency, which is a critical part of reading comprehension. Here, we examined white matter development trajectories in children with dysfluent reading (20 dysfluent and inaccurate readers, 36 dysfluent and accurate readers) compared to non-impaired readers (n = 14) over 18 months...
March 7, 2019: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Chun-Hong Liu, Li-Rong Tang, Yue Gao, Guang-Zhong Zhang, Bin Li, Meng Li, Marie Woelfer, Walter Martin, Lihong Wang
BACKGROUND: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) can frequently develop new depressive episodes after remission. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the increased risk for depressive relapse remain unclear. Herein, we aimed to explore whether the specific changes to regional and inter-regional spontaneous brain activities within DMN are associated with the course of episodes in pooled MDD patients. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on patients with single-episode MDD (SEMDD, n = 30) and multiple-episode MDD (MEMDD, n = 54), and 71 age-, gender-, and educational level-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Kylea L Liese, Mulubrhan Mogos, Sarah Abboud, Karen Decocker, Abigail R Koch, Stacie E Geller
Severe maternal morbidity (SMM) is 50 to 100 times more common than maternal death, and has increased disproportionately among ethnic/racial minority women in the United States. However, specific knowledge about how the types and timing of severe maternal morbidities deferentially affect ethnic/racial minority women is poorly understood. This study examines racial/ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidity during antepartum (AP), intrapartum (IP), and postpartum (PP) hospital admissions in the United States (US) for 2002-2014...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Aleksandra Wypych, Zbigniew Serafin, Maria Marzec, Stanisław Osiński, Łukasz Sielski, Henryk Kaźmierczak, Katarzyna Pawlak-Osińska
PURPOSE: A combination of the caloric test with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for a comprehensive diagnostics of pathologies of the vestibular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential pattern of grey matter local activation in fMRI using cold and hot caloric stimulation in patients presenting unilateral peripheral vestibular injury. METHODS: Forty right-handed participants aged 27 to 56 with the diagnosis of right-sided peripheral vestibular hypofunction were included...
March 16, 2019: Neuroradiology
Jean-Dominique Gallezot, Nabeel B Nabulsi, Shannan Henry, Richard Pracitto, Beata Planeta, Jim Ropchan, Shu-Fei Lin, David Labaree, Michael Kapinos, Anupama Shirali, Teresa Lara-Jaime, Hong Gao, David Matuskey, Mark Walzer, Gerard Marek, Susan Bellaire, Nancy Yuan, Richard E Carson, Yiyun Huang
The 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) enzyme converts cortisone to cortisol, and participates in the regulation of glucocorticoid levels in tissues. 11β-HSD1 is expressed in the liver, kidney, adipose, placenta and brain. 11β-HSD1 is a target for treatment of depression, anxiety, PTSD and also against age-related cognitive function and memory loss. In this study, we evaluated the radiotracer 11 C-AS2471907 (3-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-(methyl-11 C )-5-[2-[2,4,6-trifluorophenoxy]propan-2-yl]-4 H -1,2,4-triazole) to image 11β-HSD1 availability in the human brain with PET...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Maayan Pratt, Maor Zeev-Wolf, Abraham Goldstein, Ruth Feldman
Maternal depression increases child vulnerability to psychopathology, loneliness, and social maladjustment; yet, its long-term effects on the social brain are unknown. In this prospective longitudinal study we examined the impact of early and persistent maternal depression on the neural basis of attachment in preadolescence. A community cohort was followed in two groups; children exposed to maternal depression from birth to 6 years and healthy controls. At 9 months and 6 years, mother-child interactions were coded for maternal sensitivity and affect synchrony and salivary oxytocin levels were assessed at 6 years...
March 12, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Sol Fittipaldi, Agustín Ibáñez, Sandra Báez, Facundo Manes, Lucas Sedeño, Adolfo M García
Although primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is clinically typified by linguistic impairments, emerging evidence highlights the presence of early deficits in social cognition. This review systematically describes the latter patterns, specifying their relation to the characteristic linguistic dysfunctions and atrophy patterns of non-fluent, semantic, and logopenic variants of the disease (nfvPPA, svPPA, and lvPPA, respectively), relative to closely related dementia types. Whereas the evidence on lvPPA proves scant, studies on nfvPPA and svPPA patients show consistent deficits in emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathy...
March 12, 2019: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Chang Sub Park, Ali Alaraj, Xinjian Du, Fady T Charbel, Andreas A Linninger
A computationally inexpensive mathematical solution approach using orthogonal collocations for space discretization with temporal Fourier series is proposed to compute subject-specific blood flow in distensible vessels of large cerebral arterial networks. Several models of wall biomechanics were considered to assess their impact on hemodynamic predictions. Simulations were validated against in vivo blood flow measurements in six human subjects. The average root-mean-square relative differences were found to be less than 4...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Catherine A Ziats, Luke P Grosvenor, Sara M Sarasua, Audrey E Thurm, Susan E Swedo, Ahmed Mahfouz, Owen M Rennert, Mark N Ziats
Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by varying degrees of intellectual disability, severely delayed language development and specific facial features, and is caused by a deletion within chromosome 22q13.3. SHANK3, which is located at the terminal end of this region, has been repeatedly implicated in other neurodevelopmental disorders and deletion of this gene specifically is thought to cause much of the neurologic symptoms characteristic of PMS. However, it is still unclear to what extent SHANK3 deletions contribute to the PMS phenotype, and what other genes nearby are causal to the neurologic disease...
2019: PloS One
Lyna Z Schieber, Gery P Guy, Puja Seth, Randall Young, Christine L Mattson, Christina A Mikosz, Richard A Schieber
Importance: Risk of opioid use disorder, overdose, and death from prescription opioids increases as dosage, duration, and use of extended-release and long-acting formulations increase. States are well suited to respond to the opioid crisis through legislation, regulations, enforcement, surveillance, and other interventions. Objective: To estimate temporal trends and geographic variations in 6 key opioid prescribing measures in 50 US states and the District of Columbia...
March 1, 2019: JAMA Network Open
Kerry M M Walker, Ray Gonzalez, Joe Zhengyu Kang, Josh H McDermott, Andrew J King
Pitch perception is critical for recognizing speech, music and animal vocalizations, but its neurobiological basis remains unsettled, in part because of divergent results across species. We investigated whether species-specific differences exist in the cues used to perceive pitch and whether these can be accounted for by differences in the auditory periphery. Ferrets accurately generalized pitch discriminations to untrained stimuli whenever temporal envelope cues were robust in the probe sounds, but not when resolved harmonics were the main available cue...
March 15, 2019: ELife
Kristen L Seligman, Daniel Q Sun, Patrick P Ten Eyck, Nathan M Schularick, Marlan R Hansen
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Carcinomas of the temporal bone are rare, and appropriate treatment, staging, and survival data are limited. This study evaluates clinical characteristics and survival rates for patients with temporal bone carcinoma treated with resection at a single tertiary-care institution, with a focus on the outcomes of patients with locally advanced disease including skull base and/or dural invasion. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: Demographic, tumor-specific, and survival data were collected for patients with primary carcinomas of the external auditory canal with involvement of the temporal bone from 2003 to 2015...
March 15, 2019: Laryngoscope
Joachim Mogdans
Fishes are able to detect and perceive the hydrodynamic and physical environment they inhabit and process this sensory information to guide the resultant behaviour through their mechanosensory lateral line system. This sensory system consists of up to several thousand neuromasts distributed across the entire body of the animal. Using the lateral-line system, fishes perceive water movements of both biotic and abiotic origin. The anatomy of the lateral-line system varies greatly between and within species. It is still a matter of debate as to how different lateral-line anatomies reflect adaptations to the hydrodynamic conditions to which fishes are exposed...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Fish Biology
Alberto Scotti, Ulrike Tappeiner, Roberta Bottarin
Background: Aquatic macroinvertebrates are widely used as bioindicators for water quality assessments involving different kinds of disruptive factors, such as hydrological regime variations or pollutant spills. Recently, they demonstrated to be effective in monitoring effects of climate change in alpine stream and rivers. Indeed, since the distribution of macroinvertebrates in glacier-fed streams has been succesfully investigated and described by several authors, the discrepancy in presence/absence and quantity of specific taxa from the established models may represent an early warning of the effects of climatic changes occurring in alpine riverine ecosystems...
2019: Biodiversity Data Journal
Xin Zhang, Zhihong Qiao, Nannan Liu, Lili Gao, Liangpeng Wei, Aili Liu, Zengguang Ma, Feifei Wang, Shaowei Hou, Jisheng Li, Hui Shen
Epilepsy is a multi-etiological brain dysfunction syndrome. Hippocampal neuronal damage induced by seizures may be one of the causes leading to cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanism remains to be further elucidated. The kainic acid (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy is widely used in understanding of the epileptogenesis. Fiber photometry is a signal detection technology suitable for recording calcium activity of neurons in the deep brain of freely moving animal. Here, we used the optical fiber-based method to monitor the real-time neuronal population activities of freely moving mice after subcutaneous injection of KA...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
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