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Xiao-Long Shi, Jing-De Wu, Ping Liu, Zhao-Peng Liu
To target the multi-facets of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a series of novel GSK-3β inhibitors containing the 2,3-diaminopyridine moiety were designed and synthesized. The amide derivatives 5a-f showed moderate potency against GSK-3β with weak Cu2+ , Zn2+ and Al3+ chelating ability. The imine derivatives 9a, 9b and 9e were potent GSK-3β inhibitors and selective Cu2+ and Al3+ chelators. The 1,2-diamine derivatives 10a-e were strong metal-chelators, but decreased or lost their GSK-3β inhibitory potency. In vitro, compounds 9a, 9b and 9e, especially 9b, exhibited good Cu2+ -induced Aβ aggregation inhibition, Cu2+ -Aβ complex disaggregation, ROS formation inhibition, and antioxidant activities...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jennifer Todd, Jane E Aspell, David Barron, Viren Swami
Previous research has identified a relationship between interoception and body image, where lower interoceptive awareness (IA) is associated with negative body image. However, relationships between facets of interoception and positive body image remain unexplored, and men and older adults remain underrepresented. To overcome these limitations, we assessed relationships between multiple dimensions of interoceptive awareness (IA) and multiple facets of body image in community adults. An online sample of 646 British adults (447 women) aged 18-76 years completed the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), the Body Appreciation Scale-2, the Functionality Appreciation Scale, the Authentic Pride subscale from the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale, and the Appearance Orientation and Overweight Preoccupation subscales from the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire...
February 13, 2019: Body Image
Chris C Nice, Matthew L Forister, Joshua G Harrison, Zachariah Gompert, James A Fordyce, James H Thorne, David P Waetjen, Arthur M Shapiro
Certain general facets of biotic response to climate change, such as shifts in phenology and geographic distribution, are well characterized, however, it is not clear whether the observed similarity of responses across taxa will extend to variation in other population-level processes. We examined population response to climatic variation using long-term incidence data (collected over 42 years) encompassing 149 butterfly species and considerable habitat diversity (10 sites along an elevational gradient from sea level to over 2,700 meters in California)...
February 15, 2019: Global Change Biology
Patricia Houston, Edwin Powell, Javed Khan, Shirin Sultana, John Kwagyan, Michael Kharfen, Sohail Rana
Stigma has negatively influenced the lives of people living with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic. It affects every facet of their lives and can cause mental health problems, loss of human rights, and barriers to care. Studies in developing countries have shown a high prevalence of HIV stigma among health care workers. Few studies have been conducted in the United States. We used a validated instrument to survey 330 health care workers in Washington, DC, a high HIV prevalence area. The goal was to obtain data to assess the severity of the problem...
February 13, 2019: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
F Lopez, G Charbonnier, Y Kermezli, M Belhocine, Q Ferré, N Zweig, M Aribi, A Gonzalez, S Spicuglia, D Puthier
MOTIVATION: While Python has become very popular in bioinformatics, a limited number of libraries exist for fast manipulation of gene coordinates in Ensembl GTF format. RESULTS: We have developed the GTF toolkit Python package (pygtftk), which aims at providing easy and powerful manipulation of gene coordinates in GTF format. For optimal performances, the core engine of pygtftk is a C dynamic library (libgtftk) while the Python API provides usability and readability for developing scripts...
February 15, 2019: Bioinformatics
Jingyu Tan, Ruowei Yu, Limin Xiao
We present a novel and efficient approach to generating Bessel-like beams through fabricating self-growing polymer microtips at the facet of single-mode fibers. To produce these beams, the length and shape of microtips were precisely optimized. Specifically, the convex droplet height and its photopolymerization parameters feature prominently in Bessel-like beams via microtips. A wide conversion bandwidth of the microtips and self-healing properties of the produced Bessel-like beam were also investigated in detail...
February 15, 2019: Optics Letters
Tianhao Xian, Li Zhan, Lirun Gao, Wenyan Zhang, Wenchao Zhang
We propose and demonstrate a passively Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on pure water as the saturable absorber (SA). The SA is made of two optical ferrules matched with a cannula, and the gap between the end-facets is filled with pure water. The nonlinear response of this SA has been characterized, and stable Q-switching operation at 1558.03 nm has been achieved. The maximum output power is 21.1 mW with 65.0 kHz repetition rate. The duration is 1.44 μs, and the pulse energy reaches 324.8 nJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the passively Q-switched laser with pure water as the SA...
February 15, 2019: Optics Letters
Bincy John, Christine Naczki, Chirayu Patel, Alia Ghoneum, Shadi Qasem, Ziyan Salih, Neveen Said
Ovarian cancer (OvCa) exhibits a specific predilection for metastasis to the omentum. Our earlier studies highlighted the tumour-suppressor effect of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) in OvCa through multi-faceted roles inhibiting cancer cell interactions within the peritoneal milieu. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of SPARC in OvCa interactions with omental adipocytes and its role in OvCa colonization in the omentum. We employed multi-pronged approach using primary omental adipocytes from Sparc knockout mice, genetically engineered human omental adipocytes in 3D co-cultures with OvCa cells, as well as treatment with recombinant SPARC protein...
February 14, 2019: Oncogene
Fu Li, Mohammad Mehdi Ramin Moayed, Eugen Klein, Rostyslav Lesyuk, Christian Klinke
The colloidal synthesis of large and thin two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets is fascinating but challenging, since the growth along the lateral dimension and vertical dimensions need to be controlled independently. In-plane anisotropy in 2D nanosheets is attracting more attention as well. We present a new improved synthesis for large colloidal single-crystalline SnS nanosheets with the thicknesses down to 7 nm and lateral sizes up to 8 µm. The synthesis uses trioctylphosphine-S as sulfur source and oleic acid as ligands...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Tanja Hentschel, Madeline E Heilman, Claudia V Peus
We used a multi-dimensional framework to assess current stereotypes of men and women. Specifically, we sought to determine (1) how men and women are characterized by male and female raters, (2) how men and women characterize themselves, and (3) the degree of convergence between self-characterizations and charcterizations of one's gender group. In an experimental study, 628 U.S. male and female raters described men, women, or themselves on scales representing multiple dimensions of the two defining features of gender stereotypes, agency and communality: assertiveness, independence, instrumental competence, leadership competence (agency dimensions), and concern for others, sociability and emotional sensitivity (communality dimensions)...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Susan P Krumdieck, Raphaël Boichot, Rukmini Gorthy, Johann G Land, Sabine Lay, Aleksandra J Gardecka, Matthew I J Polson, Alibe Wasa, Jack E Aitken, Jack A Heinemann, Gilles Renou, Grégory Berthomé, Frédéric Charlot, Thierry Encinas, Muriel Braccini, Catherine M Bishop
TiO2 photocatalyst is of interest for antimicrobial coatings on hospital touch-surfaces. Recent research has focused on visible spectrum enhancement of photocatalytic activity. Here, we report TiO2 with a high degree of nanostructure, deposited on stainless steel as a solid layer more than 10 μm thick by pulsed-pressure-MOCVD. The TiO2 coating exhibits a rarely-reported microstructure comprising anatase and rutile in a composite with amorphous carbon. Columnar anatase single crystals are segmented into 15-20 nm thick plates, resulting in a mille-feuilles nanostructure...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Christopher M Goodwin, Joshua Munger
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that causes disease in immunosuppressed populations. HCMV has a complex relationship with innate immune signaling pathways. Specifically, HCMV has been found to block some aspects of inflammatory signaling while benefiting from others. Through analysis of knockout cell lines targeting the NFκB regulatory kinases IKKα and IKKβ, we find that the IKK kinases are host restriction factors that contribute to cytokine-mediated resistance to viral infection, limit the initiation of HCMV infection, and attenuate viral cell-to-cell spread...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Virology
Allen S Chen, Vincent F Miccio, Clark C Smith, George C Christolias, Adam R Blanchard
Objective: To determine if skin wheals reduce procedural pain associated with lumbar medial branch blocks (MBBs) performed with 25-gauge needles. Design: Prospective comparative observational study. Setting: Outpatient Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and interventional pain practice within an academic tertiary care center. Subjects: Ninety-nine consecutive patients who underwent lumbar MBBs for facet pain were included...
February 12, 2019: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Miguel Vasconcelos Almeida, António Miguel de Jesus Domingues, René F Ketting
Endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) and Argonaute proteins are ubiquitous regulators of gene expression in germline and somatic tissues. sRNA-Argonaute complexes are often expressed in gametes and are consequently inherited by the next generation upon fertilization. In Caenorhabditis elegans, 26G-RNAs are primary endogenous sRNAs that trigger the expression of downstream secondary sRNAs. Two subpopulations of 26G-RNAs exist, each of which displaying strongly compartmentalized expression: one is expressed in the spermatogenic gonad and associates with the Argonautes ALG-3/4; plus another expressed in oocytes and in embryos, which associates with the Argonaute ERGO-1...
February 13, 2019: PLoS Genetics
GuoSong Shang, Tao Fan, Zhe Hou, Cong Liang, YinQian Wang, XinGang Zhao, Wayne Fan
Various techniques have been used for management of congenital atlantoaxial dislocation. Recently, the reduction of atlantoaxial dislocation through a single posterior approach has attracted more and more attention. Here, we present a modified technique including direct interfacet release and distraction between C1 and C2 by a specially designed distractor, posterior internal fixation and bone graft fusion. The illustrated technique was performed in 15 consecutive patients, and the outcomes were recorded and analyzed...
February 13, 2019: Neurosurgical Review
Carola Salvi, Edward Bowden
People can solve problems in two main styles: through a methodical analysis, or by a sudden insight (also known as 'Aha!' or 'Eureka!' experience). Analytical solutions are achieved primarily with conscious deliberation in a trial-and-error fashion. 'Aha!' moments, instead, happen suddenly, often without conscious deliberation and are considered a critical facet of creative cognition. Previous research has indicated an association between creativity and risk taking (a personality trait); however, few studies have investigated how a short-term situational state of risk modulates these two different problem-solving styles...
February 12, 2019: Psychological Research
Xueting Zhai, Zhuoyao Li, Zichen Lu, Guilin Wang, Ping Li, Yongqian Gao, Xiao Huang, Wei Huang, Hiroshi Uji-I, Gang Lu
Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4 ) microcrystals enclosed with up to 42 low and high index facets were synthesized through truncation of BiVO4 octahedral crystals via a simple and highly reproducible hydrothermal method. The size and shape of the truncated BiVO4 crystals could be tuned by varying the acid concentration, reaction temperature and reaction period. Compared to the BiVO4 octahedral crystals without truncation, the 42-faceted ones showed an enhanced photocatalytic activity in the degradation of rhodamine B molecules due to the enhanced charge separation on the exposed low and high index facets...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Kunal Karan
Ion-containing perfluorinated polymers possess unique viscoelastic properties, excellent proton conductivity, and nano-phase-segregated structure all arising from the clustering of hydrophilic sulphonic acid groups within a matrix of hydrophobic fluorocarbons. When these ionomers are confined to nanothin films, a broad swathe of structural organization imparting a rich variety of surface, interfacial and bulk characteristics can be expected. However, our understanding of perfluorinated ionomer thin film behavior is still in a rudimentary stage with much of the focus on the hydration-related structure/properties pertinent to electrochemical applications...
February 12, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Li Yan, Haoze Chen, Chuanyong Jing
Facet engineering highlights the fundamental understanding of kinetic growth of facets with capping agents. Here, we provided a roadmap for modulating TiO2 facets using dopamine as a capping agent inspired by density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Our calculations revealed that the surface diffusion of dopamine and their facet-specific affinity direct the kinetic growth of TiO2 {100} and {101} facets into a non-equilibrium crystal shape. Our TiO2 synthesis agreed well with the theoretical predictions, suggesting that the concentration-dependent diffusion is central in accurately tuning a desirable ratio of mixed facets...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Karuppasamy Lakshmanan, Chin-Yi Chen, Sambandam Anandan, Jerry J Wu
This work suggests a modest hydrothermal method applied for the synthesis of oxygen-deficient WOx (x=2.75, 2.83, and 2.94) nanomaterial with various morphology, such as bundled nanorods (NR), nanobelts (NB), and nanosheets (NS), by changing the inorganic additives, such as HCl, NaHSO4, and HNO3. In addition, the WOx supported high and low index faceted Pd nanoparticles (Pd-WO2.75 NB, Pd-WO2.83 NR, and Pd-WO2.94 NS) have been successfully synthesized by the facile sonochemical method to function as the high-electrocatalytic activity of electrocatalysts for alcohol electrooxidation, including ethanol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol...
February 12, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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