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Zhuangzhuang Liu, Xiaonan Huang, Aimin Sha, Hao Wang, Jiaqi Chen, Cheng Li
The adhesion bonding between asphalt and aggregate significantly influences field performance and durability of asphalt pavement. Adhesion promoters are typically used to improve asphalt-aggregate bonding and minimize moisture-related pavement damage, such as cracking and raveling. This study evaluated the effectiveness of plant ash byproduct as adhesion promoter to improve asphalt-aggregate adhesion performance. Three commonly used aggregate types (granite, basic rock, and limestone) and two asphalt binder types were used in laboratory testing...
February 18, 2019: Materials
Kathryn A Johnson, Lisa J Mauer
Water plays a significant role in the gelatinization and retrogradation (crystallization) of starch. Amylopectin crystalline regions can adopt several hydrated polymorphic forms; however, reports differ on the migration of water during retrogradation. The objectives of this study were to determine the moisture sorption patterns of gelatinized starch lyophiles during retrogradation in controlled relative humidity (RH) environments and document the amylopectin polymorph(s) formed. Starches from different botanical sources containing A-type and B-type amylopectin polymorphs were studied...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Food Science
Qingtao Zhou, Aaron Fellows, Gerald N Flerchinger, Alejandro N Flores
Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is an essential climate indicator of the direction and magnitude of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) transfer between land surfaces and the atmosphere. Improved estimates of NEE can serve to better constrain spatiotemporal characteristics of terrestrial carbon fluxes, improve verification of land models, and advance monitoring of Earth's terrestrial ecosystems. Spatiotemporal NEE information developed by combining ground-based flux tower observations and spatiotemporal remote sensing datasets are of potential value in benchmarking land models...
February 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Abdus Salam, Sabry M Shaheen, Saqib Bashir, Imran Khan, Jianxu Wang, Jörg Rinklebe, Fazal Ur Rehman, Hongqing Hu
Management of toxic elements contaminated upland and wetland soils using biochar is of great concern from both agricultural and environmental points of view. The impact of rice straw- and rapeseed residue-derived biochars produced under 300 °C and 550 °C (added to the soil at 2% and 5%; w/w) on the geochemical fractions, phytoavailability, and uptake of Cu and Pb in a contaminated mining soil under different moisture contents (80%, 60%, and 40% of soil field capacity) was investigated in a greenhouse pot experiment using maize...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Feiyu Wang, Keqin Duan, Shuyi Fu, Fen Gou, Wei Liang, Jianwu Yan, Weibin Zhang
Reliable attribution of changes in streamflow is fundamental to our understanding of the hydrological cycle and is needed to enable decision makers to manage water resources in a sustainable way. Here, we used a new attribution method based on the Budyko framework (complementary method) to quantify the contributions of climate change and human activities to the changes in annual streamflow in 22 catchments on China's Loess Plateau during the past three decades. Our results showed that after the Grain-for-Green (GFG) project, the annual streamflow decreased by 36% on average (3-72%), with reductions being more intense in northern catchments...
January 30, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Deepti Singh, Sonali P McDermid, Benjamin I Cook, Michael J Puma, Larissa Nazarenko, Maxwell Kelley
Anthropogenic land use and land cover change is primarily represented in climate model simulations through prescribed transitions from natural vegetation to cropland or pasture. However, recent studies have demonstrated that land management practices, especially irrigation, have distinct climate impacts. Here we disentangle the seasonal climate impacts of land cover change and irrigation across areas of high agricultural intensity using climate simulations with three different land surface scenarios: (1) natural vegetation cover/no irrigation, (2) year 2000 crop cover/no irrigation, and (3) year 2000 crop cover and irrigation rates...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
B Audic, M D Wodrich, N Cramer
A practical complexation method for chiral cyclopentadienyl (Cpx ) iridium and rhodium complexes is described. The procedure uses the free Cpx H with stable and commercially available rhodium(i) and iridium(i) salts without base or additive. The conditions are mild and do not require the exclusion of air and moisture. A salient feature is the suitability for in situ complexations enhancing the user-friendliness of Cpx ligands in asymmetric catalysis. DFT-calculations confirm an intramolecular proton abstraction pathway by either the bound acetate or methoxide...
January 21, 2019: Chemical Science
Debajit Bhuyan, Ankur Das, Saurabh Kumar Laskar, Durlav Prasad Bora, Shantanu Tamuli, Mineswar Hazarika
Aim: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional, physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory attributes of pork sausages treated with conventional smoking (CS) and liquid smoke (LS). Materials and Methods: Pork sausages were prepared by employing CS (T1 ) and by addition of LS at 3% (T2A ), 5% (T2B ), and 7% (T2C ) while smoking was not done in control (C) sausages. The ready-to-eat pork sausages were evaluated in terms of proximate composition, emulsion stability (ES), cooking loss (CL), pH, water activity (aw ), texture profile analysis (TPA), and shear force on the day of preparation and the shelf life of the sausages was evaluated on the basis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) value, organoleptic qualities, total viable plate count, total psychrophilic count, and yeast and mold counts at 5-day interval up to 15 days under refrigerated storage (6±1°C)...
December 2018: Veterinary World
Byung-Wook Park, Sang Il Seok
Hybrid lead halide perovskite materials are used in solar cells and show efficiencies greater than 23%. Furthermore, they are applied in light-emitting diodes, X-ray detectors, thin-film transistors, thermoelectrics, and memory devices. Lead trihalide hybrid materials contain methylammonium (MA) or formamidinium (FA) (or a mixture), or long alkylammonium halides, as alternative organic cations. However, the intrinsic stability of hybrid lead halide perovskites is not very high, and they are chemically unstable when exposed to moisture, light, or heat because of their organic contents and low formation energies...
February 17, 2019: Advanced Materials
Luciano R Infiesta, Cassius R N Ferreira, Alam G Trovó, Valério L Borges, Solidônio R Carvalho
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) from the city of Boa Esperança, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was used to produce refuse-derived fuel (RDF). The MSW contains residues from human society, including product packaging, bottles, batteries, organic waste, fines, textiles, health textiles, plastics, glass, and metals, among others. The following protocol was performed during the conversion of MSW to RDF: (i) the raw MSW was placed in a silo and sent to a primary crusher using a metal conveyor belt, which reduced the particle size to 80 mm; (ii) the biomass was transferred to a selective waste collection platform by a rubber conveyor belt, and the recyclable waste, metals, and glasses were separated manually; (iii) residual metals were removed by a magnetic separator; (iv) the waste was transferred to a secondary crusher which reduced the particle size to 60 mm; (v) the waste passed through an airborne separator to remove materials with high density, such as glass, stones, and organic materials, using a metallic conveyor belt; (vi) the particle size was reduced to 40 mm by a tertiary crusher; (vii) the aluminium was separated from the non-metallic materials (plastic, paper, rubber, etc...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
James Tsz Fung Wong, Xunwen Chen, Wenjing Deng, Yemao Chai, Charles Wang Wai Ng, Ming Hung Wong
Recent studies revealed the benefits of applying biochar in landfill final cover soil, such as adsorbing odorous compounds and promoting microbial methane oxidation. Most of these processes are related to the soil bacterial communities. However, the effects of biochar application on the overall bacterial community in newly established landfill cover soil are not yet understood, especially in field condition. The objective of the present field study is to investigate the effects of biochar on the diversity of soil bacterial community 3 months after incubation (short-term)...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Songwen Tan, Koentadi Hadinoto, Amirali Ebrahimi, Timothy Langrish
In this work, casein has been acidified at a pH of 1.0, forming a shampoo/lotion-like gel. It has been further processed by spray drying and tableting for controlled-release applications. The engineered casein gel shows higher moisture contents and lower Tg /dehydration temperatures compared with the non-gelled casein, based on the DSC and FTIR analysis. Casein is sensitive to thermal exposure (DSC), and no significant change in the casein was observed during acidification (FTIR). The particle size of the spray-dried casein gel increased as the spray-drying temperature decreased...
February 11, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Iria Rujido-Santos, Lucía Naveiro-Seijo, Paloma Herbello-Hermelo, María Del Carmen Barciela-Alonso, Pilar Bermejo-Barrera, Antonio Moreda-Piñeiro
Advances on nanometrology require reliable sample pre-treatment methods for extracting/isolating nanomaterials from complex samples. The current development deals with a discontinuous ultrasonication (60% amplitude, 15 cycles of ultrasound treatment for 59 s plus relaxing stage for 59 s, 20 mL of methanol) method for a fast and quantitative extraction of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) from moisturizing creams. Possibilities offered by modern inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) which allow 'single particle' assessment (sp-ICP-MS) have been used for Ag NPs assessment (Ag NPs concentration and Ag size distribution)...
May 15, 2019: Talanta
Pieczykolan Ewelina, Kurek Marcin Andrzej
The aim of this study was to use micro-encapsulation technology to create microcapsules containing anthocyanins from chokeberry with guar gum, gum arabic, pectin, β-glucan and inulin as wall material. Aqueous extracts from chokeberry fruit were enclosed and spray dried using maltodextrin as a coating material with the addition of guar gum, gum arabic, pectin, beta-glucan, and inulin respectively. Physical properties of microcapsules were tested. The preparations also determined the total content of anthocyanins and vitamin C on the day of preparation and after 7 days of storage...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chang Zhao, Jian Long, Hongkai Liao, Chunli Zheng, Juan Li, Lingfei Liu, Mingjiang Zhang
The interaction between soil property and soil microbial community in karst area still remains an open question. The characteristics of soil physicochemical properties and microbial community structure and their relationship under five vegetation succession stages (grassland, shrub land, secondary forest, plantation forest, and natural forest) at two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm) were explored in a karst mountain ecosystem. We found that soil moisture content (SMC) and pH increased with soil depth across vegetation succession...
February 15, 2019: Scientific Reports
Soham Shah, Sara Alayli, Yiming Peng
Equilibration time of an autoclave is defined as the period of time that elapses between the attainment of sterilization temperature at the reference measurement point of the autoclave chamber and the attainment of sterilization temperature at all measurement probes within the dry goods load placed within the autoclave during a sterilization cycle. Equilibration time is an indicator of the ability of the autoclave to remove air from and subsequently sterilize the dry goods load placed within the autoclave chamber...
February 15, 2019: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Peng Li, Guoce Xu, Kexin Lu, Xiaoming Zhang, Peng Shi, Lulu Bai, Zongping Ren, Guowei Pang, Lie Xiao, Haidong Gao, Minghang Pan
The sediment-reducing effect of check dams and the safety issues following dam breaks are long-standing concerns. This study analyzed the runoff change and sediment source during rainstorms in a small watershed using a multivariate mixed model and a comparative analysis of watersheds. The problem of sediment loss from dammed farmland following check dam break during rainstorms was evaluated. The results showed that the flood peak lag time (PLT) was significantly influenced by pre-soil moisture in cases of small amounts of rainfall but not during rainstorms...
January 30, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Muhammad Amir Bakhtavar, Irfan Afzal, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed Basra
Seed moisture content (SMC) is an important attribute to seed quality. Maintaining seed dryness throughout supply chain (The Dry Chain) prevents seed germination and quality losses. Ambient relative humidity (RH) and temperature affect seed moisture and thereof seed moisture isotherm. Present study was conducted to compare the moisture adsorption isotherms of wheat, maize, cotton and quinoa seeds packed in hermetic Super Bag and traditional packaging materials including paper, polypropylene (PP), jute and cloth bags...
2019: PloS One
Lei Liu, Yujie Chen, Hezhou Liu, Hafeez Ur Rehman, Chi Chen, Hongmei Kang, Hua Li
Noise pollution has been recognized as one of the leading environmental problems worldwide and has a negative impact on the physiological and psychological health of humans. Various porous polymeric materials have been found to be inefficient for sound absorption, especially in low-frequency interval; in addition, these materials have other disadvantages such as hygroscopicity and flammability. Herein, an efficient and economical semi-open cellular structure consisting of tiny self-assembled graphene oxide (GO) sheets interrupted by functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT) was demonstrated as an acoustic composite foam...
February 15, 2019: Soft Matter
Lauren M Hafford, Barbara J Ward, Alan W Weimer, Karl Linden
In many low-income cities, a high proportion of fecal sludge, the excreta and blackwater collected from onsite sanitation systems such as pit latrines, is not safely managed. This constitutes a major danger to environmental and human health. The water, sanitation, and hygiene sector has recognized that valorization of treated fecal sludge could offset the upfront cost of treatment by using it as a fuel source. The few quantitative studies on fecal sludge fuel published to date have focused on heating value, moisture, ash fraction, and heavy metals...
December 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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